Using named examples, assess the advantages and disadvantages of top-down and bottom-up development strategies.(15) Bottom up and top down schemes have both positive and negative impacts on social, economic and environment aspects of development. Top down schemes are mainly large scale projects that plan to affect a large population, whereas bottom up schemes are often about meeting basic needs of communities. Large scale top down schemes can have many advantages, serving a wide population. The Akosombo dam in Ghana was built on the Volta River to provide electricity; in 2006 the dam upgraded to produce 1,020 MW of electricity. It serves the whole of Ghana as well as Togo and Benin. 70% of national demand of electricity is served by 20% of Akosombo Dams electric output, benefitting many Ghanaian homes and raising living standards. Also the electricity created feeds into industry, especially for aluminium, which can increase Ghana’s productivity and raise income, therefore spurring economic development. Increasing industry productivity and maintenance of the dam, has provided employment for 2500 local Ghanaians, giving a health service for the workers and free transport to and from work as well. The dam has also diverted water to communities who couldn’t access this resource before and provides fish as another food source. Recreation such as canoeing, hiking and bird watching is financially benefitting
Advantages and Disadvantages of Digitalization Presentation
Advantages and Disadvantages of Digitalization1
What is actually digitalization?. 1
Advantages of digitalization:3
Disadvantages of digitalization:4
Digitalization is very important for our everyday-life. Without digitalization a society like ours could not exist – too many things in our life need it, e.g. imagine, that a bank would have to manage their whole business without electronic data processing or emailing, only with card indexes and the royal mail. Impossible!
It is much easier to find things. If you imagine you have a physics book with 800 pages and you are just searching one formula, you'll find it directly if it is stored in digital form, because you have a full-text search. You don't have to search a page or a chapter in a glossary or anything like this. It saves you a lot of time.
If you want to cut your film into 5 parts, and you make a mistake while cutting the analog film, you have destroyed it. If it is stored in digital data, you can try it again. The original won't get changed.
As you can see, it makes our life much easier – but are there disadvantage, which we maybe not yet see?
What is actually digitalization?
Digitalization is the conversion of an analogue signal to a digital signal by an ADC (analogue to digital converter).
This is an analogue signal. It is continuously changing and because of that it has many possible values.
Then, if you use the ADC, the analogue input signal gets sampled.
The bigger the resolution(that means, how often the input signal is sampled) is, the more precise is the conversion. The quantization tells you, how many bits are going to be used to save your sampling.
As an example, a music-CD has a resolution of 44khz and a quantization of 16bit. That means, that every second the analogue input gets sampled 44000 times and it is converted to a digital 16bit number.
Digital data has only 2 values [ 1/0 or On/Off ] and is always .....[read full text]
If you see the research and development in the computer industry in the last 10 years, you can imagine how difficult it will be to unify the digital world. Nowadays it seems to be that every computer company has its own standards.
And if there is something new developed, everybody changes to this. That causes the fact, that in the end you can't read what you've written 4 years ago, or you cannot run programs, which you bought last year! A very good example is the digitalization of whole libraries. As they just finished to digitize all the books, they realised that they now have their books in an old digital standard.