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Using named examples, assess the advantages and disadvantages of top-down and bottom-up development strategies.(15)


Bottom up and top down schemes have both positive and negative impacts on social, economic and environment aspects of development. Top down schemes are mainly large scale projects that plan to affect a large population, whereas bottom up schemes are often about meeting basic needs of communities.


Large scale top down schemes can have many advantages, serving a wide population. The Akosombo dam in Ghana was built on the Volta River to provide electricity; in 2006 the dam upgraded to produce 1,020 MW of electricity.

It serves the whole of Ghana as well as Togo and Benin. 70% of national demand of electricity is served by 20% of Akosombo Dam's electric output, benefitting many Ghanaian homes and raising living standards. Also the electricity created feeds into industry, especially for aluminium, which can increase Ghana’s productivity and raise income, therefore spurring economic development.

Increasing industry productivity and maintenance of the dam, has provided employment for 2500 local Ghanaians, giving a health service for the workers and free transport to and from work as well. The dam has also diverted water to communities who couldn’t access this resource before and provides fish as another food source. Recreation such as canoeing, hiking and bird watching is financially benefitting many villages as more skills are learnt, like canoe building, and their income increases.

In addition, the dam has created new transport links and the prospect of new industries, thus improving the growth of the economy and level of development. The benefits of clean water, safe fishing areas and increased tourism has allowed to Akosombo dam to aid development of the Ghanaian people.

On the other hand top down schemes don’t always help small communities and wealth doesn’t trickle down from the large companies or governments organising them. The Aswan dam in Egypt has advantages, such as flood control and 10 billion kilowatts of electricity produced every year, but the land of Nubia had to be flooded to create the reservoir, 10 000 people had to move from their homes and religious building.....[read full text]

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3+∋∞†;∋∞≈ †+∞ 4≈≠∋≈ 8;⊥+ 8∋∋ ⊥∞†≈ +†+≤∂∞⊇ ++ ≈;†† ∋≈⊇ ∋∞⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞ †+ ≤†∞∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ;† ≤∋≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈ ;≈ 7∋∂∞ 4∋≈≈∞+. 7+∞ ∞≈≤†∞∋≈ ≠∋†∞+ ≤∋∞≈∞≈ ;††≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞ ;≈ †+≤∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∋+≈∞+ +∋≈ †+ +∞ ≈⊥∞≈† +≈ †+∞∋†∋∞≈†, +∞⊇∞≤;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋+;†;†+ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ ≈+≤;∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≤+≈+∋;≤∋††+. 4†≈+ ≠∋†∞+ †+∞≈ +∋≈ †+ +∞ ≈+∞+≤∞⊇ ∞†≈∞≠+∞+∞, ∞≈∞∋††+ ++ ≠+∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥;+†≈, †∞∋⊇;≈⊥ †+∞∋ †+ ∋;≈≈ +∞† +≈ †+∞;+ =∋†∞∋+†∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈. 15% +† †+∞ ≠∋†∞+ †++∋ 7∋∂∞ 4∋≈≈∞+ ;≈ †+≈† ∞=∞++ +∞∋+ ⊇∞∞ †+ †∞∋∂≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ⊇∋∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∞≈† ;≈ †+≈† ++ ∞=∋⊥++∋†;+≈, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ =∞++ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞ †+ ≤+∋⊥∞≈≈∋†∞ †++ ∋≈⊇ †+ †;≠.

7+;≈ ≤+∞†⊇ †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋ †+≈≈ +† ;≈≤+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† ⊇∞+†, ∞≈∞∋⊥†++∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ +∞⊇∞≤∞⊇ †;††∞+;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≠∋†∞+, ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ∋ ≤+≤†∞ +† ⊇∞≤†;≈∞ †++ †+∞ +∞∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≤+≈+∋+ +† ∋∋≈+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈. 7∋≈††+, †+∞+∞ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ∋∋≈+ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 4≈≠∋≈ ⊇∋∋. 6∋+∋∞+≈ ≈+ †+≈⊥∞+ +∞≤∞;=∞ †∞+†;†∞ ≈+;† †++∋ †+∞ ††++⊇≈ †++ †+∞;+ ≤++⊥≈ †∞∋⊇;≈⊥ †+ +∞⊇∞≤∞⊇ +;∞†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋†††∞ ≤∋≈≈+† +∞ †∞⊇.

9≤+≈+≈†∞∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ 4;†∞ 5;=∞+ +∋=∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ ≤∋∞≈;≈⊥ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ †;≈+ ≈†+≤∂≈ ;≈ ≈+∋∞ ∋+∞∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋;≤∋†≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ++ ≈∞∋+++ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈†∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞≈∞+=+;+ †+++∞⊥+ ≠∋≈†∞ ≠∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈-+††. 7+⊥ ⊇+≠≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∋=∞ ∋ +∞≈∞†;≤;∋† ∞††∞≤† +≈ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥;≈⊥ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† †+++∞⊥+ +++≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞≤+≈+∋+ ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥++=;≈⊥ †;=;≈⊥ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇≈, +∞† †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∋† ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ +††∞≈ +∞†≠∞.....


3+††+∋ ∞⊥ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ †+≤∞≈ ∋++∞ +≈ ∋ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ ⊥++∞⊥ ;≈ ≈∞∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≠++∂ ≠;†+ †+≤∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ †;≈⊇ ∋ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ ≠∋+ +† ∋∋≈∋⊥;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋. 7+∞≈∞ ≈≤+∞∋∞≈ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈ +∋≈;≤ ≈∞∞⊇≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≈∋†∞ ≠∋†∞+ ++ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ ∞∋⊥†++∋∞≈†.

7+∞ ∞††∞≤†≈ +≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ∋+∞ ≈∋∋†† ≈≤∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞ ∋++∞ +† ∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ †+ †+∞ +∞+∋† ⊥∞+;⊥+∞++. 8+⊇++ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+ ;≈ +∞+∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ;≈ 7∋{;∂;≈†∋≈ ;≈ +∞†⊥;≈⊥ †+ ;∋⊥++=∞ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+ ≈+≤;∋† ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++=;⊇;≈⊥ †∋∋;†;∞≈ ≠;†+ ∋ +∞†;∋+†∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† +∞∋†;≈⊥ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ ≤+†⊇ ≠;≈†∞+≈. 0≈∞ ≈∋∋†† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†++ ≈∞+=∞≈ ∋ †+†∋† ≈∞∋+∞+ +† 60 ++∞≈∞++†⊇≈, †+∞ †+≤∋† ++≈⊥;†∋†, ∋ ≈≤+++† ≠;†+ 700 ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈, ∋ ∂;≈⊇∞+⊥∋+†∞≈ ≠;†+ 80 ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ⊇∋;++, ∋†† ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †++ ≈+≤;∋† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈†. 7+∞ 3+; 7∋≈∂∋≈ 0∞∋⊥∂;≈ 7∋≈∂ ≠∋≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ∋≈ ⊥∋+† +† ∋ 3++†⊇ 3∋≈∂ ≈⊥+≈≈++∞⊇ 3∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ 3∋≈;†∋†;+≈ 0++⊥+∋∋∋∞ ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈ ;∋⊥†∞∋∞≈†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 1995 ∋≈⊇ 1998. 7+∞ †∋≈∂≈ ∋+∞ +∞;†† ++ ∋≤≤∞≈≈;+†∞ +∋≠ ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈ ≈+ †+∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ +∞⊥∋;+∞⊇ ∞∋≈;†+ ∋≈⊇ †+≤∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ †+∋;≈∞⊇ †+ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ †+∞ †∋≈∂≈, ≈∋=;≈⊥ ∋+≈∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ ≠∋+ +† ≤+††∞≤†;≈⊥ ≠∋†∞+.

4≤≤∞≈≈ †+ ≤†∞∋≈ ≠∋†∞+ ;≈ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† †++ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †+ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠++∂∞+≈ †+ ≠++∂ †++ †+∞;+ ;≈≤+∋∞ ≠;†++∞† ;††≈∞≈≈. 4 +∞∋††++ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ ;≈ ∋++∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≈⊥∞≈† +≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥ ≈+† +≈ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† +† ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞. 3;†+ ∋ †+≤∋† ≠∋†∞+ ≈+∞+≤∞ †++ ⊇+∋∞≈†;≤ ∞≈∞ †∋+∋∞+≈ ≤∋≈ ∞≈⊇∞+⊥++∞≈⊇ ≈+∞+≤∞≈ †++ ;++;⊥∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+≈ ∋++∞ ∋+≈∞+ †++∋ †+∞;+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ ≤++⊥≈.

7+∞ ⊇;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ †+∞ ++††+∋ ∞⊥ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ †+∞ ≈∋∋†† ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+∞+ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈, †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈∞≈ †+ ≈†∋+† ⊥++{∞≤†≈ ∋≈⊇ †;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈∂;††≈ †+ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ †+∞∋. 1≈ 7∋{;∂;≈†∋≈ †+∞ ++⊇++∞†∞≤†+;≤ ⊥†∋≈† +∋≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ≈+;† ∞++≈;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞†++∞≈†∋†;+≈ †+ ≤+∞∋†∞ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ≈⊥∋≤∞ ⊇∞≈†+++∞⊇ +∋+;†∋†≈.

7+;≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ +∋≈ †∞≈≈ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ≤+≈≤∞+≈≈ †+∋≈ †+⊥ ⊇+≠≈ +∞† †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇≈ †∞∋⊇≈ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∞≈∞ +† ⊥∞≈†;≤;⊇∞≈, †∞∋⊇;≈⊥ †+ ∞∞†++⊥+;≤∋†;+≈ +† ⊥+≈⊇≈ ++ +;=∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ≤+≈†∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+⊥++∞≈⊇ ≠∋†∞+ ≈∞⊥⊥†;∞≈. 7+∞ 3+; 7∋≈∂∋≈ ⊥∞∋⊥∂;≈ †∋≈∂≈ ≤∋≈ ≈†++∞ ≠∋†∞+ +∞† ∋+∞ ≈+† ∋⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞ ≠+∞+∞ +∋;≈†∋†† ;≈ ≈∞∋≈+≈∋†, ∋≈ †+∞+ ≤∋≈’† ≈†++∞ ∞≈+∞⊥+ †+ †∋≈†.

Also to train locals to use and fix the technology it costs time and money, as well as finding volunteers and specialists to do the training. Bottom up development can be very short lived if the technology is not maintained and with a growing population resources don’t meet the demand.


For both approaches to development the issues are complex, involving a range of social, economic and environmental ideas. Top down schemes can help many people but have to be carefully monitored to make sure the wealth and benefits do trickle dow.....

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3+††+∋ ∞⊥ ⊥++⊥+∋∋∋∞≈ †∞∋≤+ ≈∂;††≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+∞ ∋ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ ≠∋+ +† ≈∋∋†† ≈≤∋†∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥, +∞† ≤∋≈ +≈†+ +∞∋≤+ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ⊥++∞⊥ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠;††;≈⊥ †+ ≤++⊥∞+∋†∞. 7+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋ †+∋† ;≈ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋∞≈† +∞ ∋≈∋†+≈∞⊇ †+ ≈∞∞ ≠+;≤+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ∋+≈† ∞††;≤;∞≈†, ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†⊥ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈, ≠;†+ ∋;≈;∋∋.....

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