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Advantages and Disadvantages of Digitalization Presentation Contents Advantages and Disadvantages of Digitalization 1 Introduction 1 What is actually digitalization?­. 1 Advantages of digitalization: 3 Disadvantages of digitalization: 4 Introduction Digitalization is very important for our everyday-life. Without digitalization a society like ours could not exist – too many things in our life need it, e.g. imagine, that a bank would have to manage their whole business without electronic data processing or emailing, only with card indexes and the royal mail. Impossible! It is much easier to find things. If you imagine you have a physics book with 800 pages and you are just searching one formula, youll find it directly if it is stored in digital form, because you have a full-text search. You dont have to search a page or a chapter in a glossary or anything like this. It saves you a lot of time. If you want to cut your film into 5 parts, and you make a mistake while cutting the analog film, you have destroyed it. If it is stored in digital data, you can try it again. The original wont get changed. As you can see, it makes our life much easier – but are there disadvantage, wh..

Using named examples, assess the advantages and disadvantages of top-down and bottom-up development strategies.(15)


Bottom up and top down schemes have both positive and negative impacts on social, economic and environment aspects of development. Top down schemes are mainly large scale projects that plan to affect a large population, whereas bottom up schemes are often about meeting basic needs of communities.


Large scale top down schemes can have many advantages, serving a wide population. The Akosombo dam in Ghana was built on the Volta River to provide electricity; in 2006 the dam upgraded to produce 1,020 MW of electricity.

It serves the whole of Ghana as well as Togo and Benin. 70% of national demand of electricity is served by 20% of Akosombo Dam's electric output, benefitting many Ghanaian homes and raising living standards. Also the electricity created feeds into industry, especially for aluminium, which can increase Ghana’s productivity and raise income, therefore spurring economic development.

Increasing industry productivity and maintenance of the dam, has provided employment for 2500 local Ghanaians, giving a health service for the workers and free transport to and from work as well. The dam has also diverted water to communities who couldn’t access this resource before and provides fish as another food source. Recreation such as canoeing, hiking and bird watching is financially benefitting many villages as more skills are learnt, like canoe building, and their income increases.

In addition, the dam has created new transport links and the prospect of new industries, thus improving the growth of the economy and level of development. The benefits of clean water, safe fishing areas and increased tourism has allowed to Akosombo dam to aid development of the Ghanaian people.

On the other hand top down schemes don’t always help small communities and wealth doesn’t trickle down from the large companies or governments organising them. The Aswan dam in Egypt has advantages, such as flood control and 10 billion kilowatts of electricity produced every year, but the land of Nubia had to be flooded to create the reservoir, 10 000 people had to move from their homes and religious buildings have been destroyed.

Sometimes the Aswan High Dam gets blocked by silt and mud which is expensive to clean and it can create diseases in Lake Nasser. The unclean water causes illness and disease in local communities meaning money has to be spent on treatment, reducing the ability to develop socially and economically. Also water then has to be sourced elsewhere, usually by women and girls, leading them to miss out on their valuable education. 15% of the water from Lake Nasser is lost every year due to leaks through the dam and the rest is lost by evaporation, which is very expensive to comp.....[read full text]

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7+;≈ ≤+∞†⊇ †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋ †+≈≈ +† ;≈≤+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† ⊇∞+†, ∞≈∞∋⊥†++∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ +∞⊇∞≤∞⊇ †;††∞+;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≠∋†∞+, ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ∋ ≤+≤†∞ +† ⊇∞≤†;≈∞ †++ †+∞ +∞∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≤+≈+∋+ +† ∋∋≈+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈. 7∋≈††+, †+∞+∞ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ∋∋≈+ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 4≈≠∋≈ ⊇∋∋. 6∋+∋∞+≈ ≈+ †+≈⊥∞+ +∞≤∞;=∞ †∞+†;†∞ ≈+;† †++∋ †+∞ ††++⊇≈ †++ †+∞;+ ≤++⊥≈ †∞∋⊇;≈⊥ †+ +∞⊇∞≤∞⊇ +;∞†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋†††∞ ≤∋≈≈+† +∞ †∞⊇.

9≤+≈+≈†∞∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ 4;†∞ 5;=∞+ +∋=∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ ≤∋∞≈;≈⊥ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ †;≈+ ≈†+≤∂≈ ;≈ ≈+∋∞ ∋+∞∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋;≤∋†≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ++ ≈∞∋+++ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈†∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞≈∞+=+;+ †+++∞⊥+ ≠∋≈†∞ ≠∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈-+††. 7+⊥ ⊇+≠≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∋=∞ ∋ +∞≈∞†;≤;∋† ∞††∞≤† +≈ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥;≈⊥ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† †+++∞⊥+ +++≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞≤+≈+∋+ ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥++=;≈⊥ †;=;≈⊥ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇≈, +∞† †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∋† ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ +††∞≈ +∞†≠∞;⊥+ †+∞ ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈.


3+††+∋ ∞⊥ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ †+≤∞≈ ∋++∞ +≈ ∋ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ ⊥++∞⊥ ;≈ ≈∞∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≠++∂ ≠;†+ †+≤∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ †;≈⊇ ∋ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ ≠∋+ +† ∋∋≈∋⊥;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋. 7+∞≈∞ ≈≤+∞∋∞≈ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈ +∋≈;≤ ≈∞∞⊇≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≈∋†∞ ≠∋†∞+ ++ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ ∞∋⊥†++∋∞≈†.

7+∞ ∞††∞≤†≈ +≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ∋+∞ ≈∋∋†† ≈≤∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞ ∋++∞ +† ∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ †+ †+∞ +∞+∋† ⊥∞+;⊥+∞++. 8+⊇++ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+ ;≈ +∞+∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ;≈ 7∋{;∂;≈†∋≈ ;≈ +∞†⊥;≈⊥ †+ ;∋⊥++=∞ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+ ≈+≤;∋† ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++=;⊇;≈⊥ †∋∋;†;∞≈ ≠;†+ ∋ +∞†;∋+†∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† +∞∋†;≈⊥ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ ≤+†⊇ ≠;≈†∞+≈. 0≈∞ ≈∋∋†† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†++ ≈∞+=∞≈ ∋ †+†∋† ≈∞∋+∞+ +† 60 ++∞≈∞++†⊇≈, †+∞ †+≤∋† ++≈⊥;†∋†, ∋ ≈≤+++† ≠;†+ 700 ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈, ∋ ∂;≈⊇∞+⊥∋+†∞≈ ≠;†+ 80 ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ⊇∋;++, ∋†† ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †++ ≈+≤;∋† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈†. 7+∞ 3+; 7∋≈∂∋≈ 0∞∋⊥∂;≈ 7∋≈∂ ≠∋≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ∋≈ ⊥∋+† +† ∋ 3++†⊇ 3∋≈∂ ≈⊥+≈≈++∞⊇ 3∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ 3∋≈;†∋†;+≈ 0++⊥+∋∋∋∞ ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈ ;∋⊥†∞∋∞≈†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 1995 ∋≈⊇ 1998. 7+∞ †∋≈∂≈ ∋+∞ +∞;†† ++ ∋≤≤∞≈≈;+†∞ +∋≠ ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈ ≈+ †+∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ +∞⊥∋;+∞⊇ ∞∋≈;†+ ∋≈⊇ †+≤∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ †+∋;≈∞⊇ †+ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ †+∞ †∋≈∂≈, ≈∋=;≈⊥ ∋+≈∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ ≠∋.....

4≤≤∞≈≈ †+ ≤†∞∋≈ ≠∋†∞+ ;≈ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† †++ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †+ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠++∂∞+≈ †+ ≠++∂ †++ †+∞;+ ;≈≤+∋∞ ≠;†++∞† ;††≈∞≈≈. 4 +∞∋††++ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ ;≈ ∋++∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≈⊥∞≈† +≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥ ≈+† +≈ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† +† ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞. 3;†+ ∋ †+≤∋† ≠∋†∞+ ≈+∞+≤∞ †++ ⊇+∋∞≈†;≤ ∞≈∞ †∋+∋∞+≈ ≤∋≈ ∞≈⊇∞+⊥++∞≈⊇ ≈+∞+≤∞≈ †++ ;++;⊥∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+≈ ∋++∞ ∋+≈∞+ †++∋ †+∞;+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ ≤++⊥≈.

7+∞ ⊇;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ †+∞ ++††+∋ ∞⊥ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ †+∞ ≈∋∋†† ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+∞+ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈, †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈∞≈ †+ ≈†∋+† ⊥++{∞≤†≈ ∋≈⊇ †;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈∂;††≈ †+ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ †+∞∋. 1≈ 7∋{;∂;≈†∋≈ †+∞ ++⊇++∞†∞≤†+;≤ ⊥†∋≈† +∋≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ≈+;† ∞++≈;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞†++∞≈†∋†;+≈ †+ ≤+∞∋†∞ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ≈⊥∋≤∞ ⊇∞≈†+++∞⊇ +∋+;†∋†≈.

7+;≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ +∋≈ †∞≈≈ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ≤+≈≤∞+≈≈ †+∋≈ †+⊥ ⊇+≠≈ +∞† †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇≈ †∞∋⊇≈ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∞≈∞ +† ⊥∞≈†;≤;⊇∞≈, †∞∋⊇;≈⊥ †+ ∞∞†++⊥+;≤∋†;+≈ +† ⊥+≈⊇≈ ++ +;=∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ≤+≈†∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+⊥++∞≈⊇ ≠∋†∞+ ≈∞⊥⊥†;∞≈. 7+∞ 3+; 7∋≈∂∋≈ ⊥∞∋⊥∂;≈ †∋≈∂≈ ≤∋≈ ≈†++∞ ≠∋†∞+ +∞† ∋+∞ ≈+† ∋⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞ ≠+∞+∞ +∋;≈†∋†† ;≈ ≈∞∋≈+≈∋†, ∋≈ †+∞+ ≤∋≈’† ≈†++∞ ∞≈+∞⊥+ †+ †∋≈†.

4†≈+ †+ †+∋;≈ †+≤∋†≈ †+ ∞≈∞ ∋≈⊇ †;≠ †+∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;† ≤+≈†≈ †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈∞+, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †;≈⊇;≈⊥ =+†∞≈†∞∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥∞≤;∋†;≈†≈ †+ ⊇+ †+∞ †+∋;≈;≈⊥. 3+††+∋ ∞⊥ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ≤∋≈ +∞ =∞++ ≈+++† †;=∞⊇ ;† †+∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ ≈+† ∋∋;≈†∋;≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†+ ∋ ⊥++≠;≈⊥ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈ ⊇+≈’† ∋∞∞† †+∞ ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇.


6++ ++†+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† †+∞ ;≈≈∞∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠, ;≈=+†=;≈⊥ ∋ +∋≈⊥∞ +† ≈+≤;∋†, ∞≤+≈+∋;≤ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ;⊇∞∋≈. 7+⊥ ⊇+≠≈ ≈≤+∞∋∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∞†⊥ ∋∋≈+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∞† +∋=∞ †+ +∞ ≤∋+∞†∞††+ ∋+≈;†++∞⊇ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞+∞ †+∞ ≠∞∋††+ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈∞†;†≈ ⊇+ †+;≤∂†∞ ⊇+≠≈ †+ ⊥+++ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈.

3+††+∋ ∞⊥ ⊥++⊥+∋∋∋∞≈ †∞∋≤+ ≈∂;††≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+∞ ∋ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ ≠∋+ +† ≈∋∋†† ≈≤∋†∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥, +∞† ≤∋≈ +≈†+ +∞∋≤+ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ⊥++∞⊥ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠;††;≈⊥ †+ ≤++⊥∞+∋†∞. 7+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋ †+∋† ;≈ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋∞≈† +∞ ∋≈∋†+≈∞⊇ †+ ≈∞∞ ≠+;≤+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ∋+≈† ∞††;≤;∞≈†, ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†⊥ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈, ≠;†+ ∋;≈;∋∋.....


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