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Alternative sources of Energy

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FH Burgenland Pinkafeld

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2011, Prof.(FH) DI Dr. Arne Ragossnig

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Alternative Sources of Energy


Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.

I’d like to tell you something about the topic alternative sources of energy.

Definition: First I want to give you a short definition about alternative sources of energy. Alternative energy is energy that is neither based on fossil fuels nor on the splitting of atoms. It is usually a renewable source of energy that could be used should fossil fuels run out.


I want now like to turn to the question: Why do we need alternatives.

To answer that question, we need to start by discussing fossil fuels-what they are and the advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels. Within this context, the pressing need for alternatives becomes quite clear.

Most fossil fuels are formed from the remains of long-dead creatures and plants. Buried over the course of hundreds of millions of years, these carbon-based deposits have been converted by heat and pressure over time into such combustible substances as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil etc.


I would now like to say a few words about the advantages of fossil fuels.

·         A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location. 

·         Fossil fuels are very easy to find. 

·         When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective.

·         Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task. 

·         Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in almost any location.


Let’s now turn to disadvantages and so to the question Why do we need alternatives.

·         Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels. This is because they give off carbon dioxide when burned thereby causing a greenhouse effect. This is also the main contributory factor to the global warming experienced by the earth today. 

·         Another point is that at current rates, the world uses fossils fuels 100,000 times faster than they can form.

·         Drilling for oil, transporting volatile liquids and explosive gases etc, all these can determine tragic accidents for example the oil catastrop.....[read full text]

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4+≠ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ †∞+≈ †+ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ ≈+∞+≤∞≈ +† ∞≈∞+⊥+.

6;+≈††+ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ ≠;≈⊇ ∞≈∞+⊥+.

1† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞ ∋≈≤;∞≈† †;∋∞≈ ;≈;†;∋††+ ≠;†+ †+∞ 9⊥+⊥†;∋≈≈ ≠++ ∞†;†;=∞⊇ †+∞ ≠;≈⊇ †+ ≈∋;† ≈+;⊥≈ +≈ †+∞ 4;†∞ 5;=∞+ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 5,000 +∞∋+≈ ∋⊥+. 0∞+⊥†∞ †∋†∞+ +≈ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ ≠;≈⊇∋;††≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞+ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥+;≈⊇ ≠+∞∋† ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ⊥+∋;≈≈. 4≈ †;∋∞ ⊥∋≈≈∞⊇, ≠;≈⊇∋;††≈ +∞≤∋∋∞ ∋++∞ ;∋⊥++=∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ∞≈∞ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;≈⊥ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+.

7+∞ ≈≤;∞≈≤∞ +∞+;≈⊇ ≠;≈⊇ ;≈ ≈;∋⊥†∞ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇. 4† ⊇∋+†;∋∞, ∋;+ ∋++=∞ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ +∞∋†≈ ∞⊥ †∋≈†∞+ †+∋≈ ∋;+ +=∞+ ≠∋†∞+. 7+∞ ≠∋+∋ ∋;+ ∋++=∞ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈ ∞⊥ ≠+;†∞ †+∞ +∞∋=;∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤++†∞+ ∋;+ †∋∂∞≈ ;†≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ †+≠∞+ †∞=∞† †+∞+∞++ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ≠;≈⊇≈.

3;≈⊇ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ ≈+≠ ∋∋;≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈.

4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈:

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 1† ;≈ ∋≈ ;⊇∞∋† ∞≈∞+⊥+ ≈+∞+≤∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† ;†≈ +∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ †++∋. 3+ †+≈⊥ ∋≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈ ≈+;≈∞≈, †+∞ ∞∋+†+ ≠;†† ≈∞=∞+ +∞≈ +∞† +† ≠;≈⊇.

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ ≤†∞∋≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ∋ ≠;≈⊇∋;†† ∞∋;†≈ ≈+†+;≈⊥ +∋+∋†∞†.

  • 1≈ †∋≤†, ≠;≈⊇ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ⊥+∞††+ ≤+∞∋⊥: ;†’≈ +≈†+ 3-4.5 ≤∞≈†≈/∂;†+≠∋††-++∞+ (∂3+). 307, †+∋†’≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;†’≈ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ ;†’≈ ∋+≈∞+ +∋≤∂ +=∞+ †;∋∞—†+∋†’≈ †+∞ ++≈∞≈ +† +∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ ∞≈∞+⊥+

8;≈∋⊇.....

  • 3;≈⊇ ⊥+≠∞+ +∋≈ ∋++∞† 20% ≤+≈=∞+≈;+≈ ∞††;≤;∞≈≤+—+≈†+ ∋++∞† +∋†† ∋≈ ∋∞≤+ ∋≈ ≤+∋† ⊥+≠∞+

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≠;≈⊇ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† +†+≠ ≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈††+

  • 3;≈⊇ †∋+∋≈ †∋∂∞ ∞⊥ ∋ †+† +† ≈⊥∋≤∞
  • 7+∞+ ≤∋≈ ⊇+∋;≈∋†∞ ∋ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ †+∋† ∋;⊥+† +†+∞+≠;≈∞ +∋=∞ ∋∞≈†+∞†;≤ =∋†∞∞
  • 3;≈⊇ †∋+∋≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ;†’≈ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †+ +∞;†⊇ ≠;≈⊇ †∋+∋≈ ;≈ ∋ +∋⊥;⊇†+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†++ ≠;†++∞† ∋∞≤+ ∋+≈∞+ ( †;∂∞ 0+;≈∋ ++ 1≈⊇;∋)


3∞≤+≈⊇†+ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ †∞+≈ †+ ∋≈+†+∞+ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† ∞≈∞+⊥+ ≈+†∋+ 0+≠∞+.

3+†∋+ 0+≠∞+ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈=∞+≈;+≈ +† ≈∞≈†;⊥+† ;≈†+ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+, ∞;†+∞+ ⊇;+∞≤††+ ∞≈;≈⊥ ⊥++†+=+††∋;≤ ++ ;≈⊇;+∞≤††+ ∞≈;≈⊥ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†∞⊇ ≈+†∋+ ⊥+≠∞+. 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †++∞∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †+⊥∞≈ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈.

6;+≈† 1’⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∋∞≈†;+≈ ≈+†∋+ ≤∞††≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ≤+≈=∞+† †;⊥+† ;≈†+ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ∞†∞≤†+;≤∋† +∞†⊥∞† -∋;††;≠∋††≈ +∞†⊥∞†.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ≈∞∞⊇ ∋ +∋≈∂/∋++∋+ +† ≤∞††≈ †++ ∞≈∞†∞† +∞†⊥∞†.

         cost of cells is high but reducing.

         efficiency of cells is up to 23%/ but that is improving

Then there are solar panels

         are situated on roof of building.

         absorb heat in the form of radiation from sun.

         basically system is like a domestic central heating radiator painted black/insulated.

         provides “topping up” of domestic hot water.

Last, but not least, there are solar power generation

         located in desert/high intensity/long sunlight hours

         parabolic mirrors reflect/focus sun’s rays onto metal water pipe located alo.....

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&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8;⊥+ †∞∋⊥∞+∋†∞+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ - ≈†∞∋∋ - ∞†∞≤†+;≤∋† ⊥+≠∞+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†∞⊇

4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈

3+†∋+ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ +∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ +∞≈+∞+≤∞. 2∞++ †;†††∞ ∋∋;≈†∞≈∋≈≤∞ ;≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †+ ∂∞∞⊥ ≈+†∋+ ≤∞††≈ +∞≈≈;≈⊥.

8;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈

3∞≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ≈+;≈∞ ≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈††+. 7+∞ ≈+†∋+ ≤∞††≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+†∋+ ⊥∋≈∞†≈ ∋+∞ =∞++ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞.


7+;+⊇†+ 1’⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ 8+⊇++⊥+≠∞+.

8+⊇++⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ ⊥+≠∞+ †+∋† ;≈ ⊇∞+;=∞⊇ †++∋ †+∞ ∞≈∞+⊥+ +† ∋+=;≈⊥ ≠∋†∞+.

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †≠+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;≈⊥ ∋∞†++⊇≈. 0+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ⊇∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞∋⊥∞⊇ – ≈†++∋⊥∞. 7+∞ ∋∞†++⊇ ≈†++∞≈ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ †+∞ †++∋ +† ≠∋†∞+, ⊥∞∋⊥∞⊇ †++∋ ∋ †+≠∞+ ∞†∞=∋†;+≈ +∞≈∞+=+;+ †+ ∋ +;⊥+∞+ ∞†∞=∋†;+≈. 7+≠-≤+≈† +††-⊥∞∋∂ ∞†∞≤†+;≤ ⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ +∞≈ †+∞ ⊥∞∋⊥≈. 8∞+;≈⊥ ⊥∞+;+⊇≈ +† +;⊥+ ∞†∞≤†+;≤∋† ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇, †+∞ ≈†++∞⊇ ≠∋†∞+ ;≈ +∞†∞∋≈∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ †∞++;≈∞≈.

3∞† ++≠ ⊇+∞≈ ∋ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ⊇∋∋ ≠++∂.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 6;+≈† ;† ;≈ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ †+ +∞;†⊇ ∋ ⊇∋∋ +≈ †∋+⊥∞ +;=∞+ †+∋† +∋≈ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ⊇++⊥ ;≈ ∞†∞.....

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ⊇∋∋ ≈++∞≈ †+†≈ +† ≠∋†∞+ +∞+;≈⊇ ;† ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞+=+;+

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4∞∋+ †+∞ ++††+∋ +† †+∞ ⊇∋∋ ≠∋†† †+∞+∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋†∞+ ;≈†∋∂∞

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 6+∋=;†+ ≤∋∞≈∞≈ ;† †+ †∋†† †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ⊥∞≈≈†+≤∂ ;≈≈;⊇∞ †+∞ ⊇∋∋

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4† †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† †+∞ ⊥∞≈≈†+≤∂ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ †∞++;≈∞ ⊥++⊥∞††∞+, ≠+;≤+ †∞+≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∋+=;≈⊥ ≠∋†∞+

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈+∋†† †++∋ †+∞ †∞++;≈∞ ⊥+∞≈ ∞⊥ ;≈†+ †+∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†++, ≠+;≤+ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞≈ †+∞ ⊥+≠∞+.

Now I want to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hydropower.

Advantages

         Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate.

         Expense of power production is very low. And here I have a statistic that shows that the average power production expense per KWh of hydroelectric are very low in vergleich with other sources of energy.

         If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high.

         Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years / decades

         When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce greenhouse gases. They do no.....

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8;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8∋∋≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠†+∞∋∞†+ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞ †+ +∞;†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞≈† +∞ +∞;†† †+ ∋ =∞++ +;⊥+ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞+ †∋∂∞ ∞⊥ ∋ †+† +† ≈⊥∋≤∞.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 1† †∋∂∞≈ ∋ †+† +† †;∋∞ †++ ⊥†∋≈≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†;+≈ ⊇∋∋≈.


4≈⊇ †;≈∋††+ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ ∋≈+†+∞+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ≈+∞+≤∞ +† ∞≈∞+⊥+ 3;+†∞∞†

7+∞ †∞+∋ ≤+=∞+≈ ≈+†;⊇ +;+∋∋≈≈, †;⊥∞;⊇ †∞∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ =∋+;+∞≈ +;+⊥∋≈∞≈.[27] 7;⊥∞;⊇ +;+†∞∞†≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ +;+ ∋†≤+++†≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +;+∞†+∋≈+†, ∋≈⊇ +;†≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +;+⊇;∞≈∞†.

3;+∞†+∋≈+† ;≈ ∋≈ ∋†≤+++† ∋∋⊇∞ ++ †∞+∋∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈∞⊥∋+ ≤+∋⊥+≈∞≈†≈ +† ⊥†∋≈† ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ;† ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋+≈††+ †++∋ ≈∞⊥∋+ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋+≤+ ≤++⊥≈. 3;†+ ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ +∞;≈⊥ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇, ≤∞††∞†+≈;≤ +;+∋∋≈≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋≈≈∞≈, ∋+∞ ∋†≈+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †∞∞⊇≈†+≤∂’≈ †++ ∞†+∋≈+† ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈. 9†+∋≈+† ≤∋≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ †∞∞† †++ =∞+;≤†∞≈ ;≈ ;†≈ ⊥∞+∞ †++∋, +∞† ;† ;≈ ∞≈∞∋††+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥∋≈+†;≈∞

3;+∞†+∋≈+† ;≈ ∋≈ ∋†≤+++† ∋∋⊇∞ ++ †∞+∋∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈∞⊥∋+ ≤+∋⊥+≈∞≈†≈ +† ⊥†∋≈† ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ;† ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋+≈††+ †++∋ ≈∞⊥∋+ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋+≤+ ≤++⊥≈. 3;†+ ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ +∞;≈⊥ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇, ≤∞††∞†+≈;≤ +;+∋∋≈≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋≈≈∞≈, ∋+∞ ∋†≈+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †∞∞⊇≈†+≤∂≈ †++ ∞†+∋≈+† ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈. 9†+∋≈+† ≤∋≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ †∞∞† †++ =∞+;≤†∞≈ ;≈ ;†≈ ⊥∞+∞ †++∋, +∞† ;† ;≈ ∞≈∞∋††+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥∋≈+†;≈∞.

4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 0+≈†: 0≈≤∞ †+∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ ≠;⊇∞†+ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞, +;+†∞∞†≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ †∞≈≈ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞ †+∋≈ +†+∞+ †+≈≈;† †∞∞†≈.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+≠∞+ 0∋+++≈ 9∋;≈≈;+≈≈: 3+∞≈ +;+†∞∞†≈ ∋+∞ +∞+≈∞⊇ †+∞+ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈††+ †∞≈≈ ≤∋+++≈ +∞†⊥∞†.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 5∞≈∞≠∋+;†;†+: 1† †∋∂∞≈ †++∞≈∋≈⊇≈ +† +∞∋+≈ †++ †+≈≈;† †∞∞†≈ †+ +∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇, +∞† +;+†∞∞†≈ ∋+∞ ∋∞≤+ ∋++∞ ∞∋≈;†+ ∋≈ ≈∞≠ ≤++⊥≈ ∋+∞ ⊥++≠≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠∋≈†∞ ∋∋†∞+;∋† ;≈ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇.

8;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈:

Energy Output: Biofuels have a lower energy output than traditional fuels and therefore require greater quantities to be consumed in order to produce the same energy level.

·         Food Prices: As demand for food crops such as corn grows for biofuel production, it could also raise prices for necessary staple food crops.

·         Water Use: Massive quantities of water are required for proper irrigation of biofuel crops as well as to manufacture the fuel, which could strain local and regional water resources. Availability: Biofuels are not widely available for consumer purchase and most vehicles are not equipped to run on biofuel products.

Limited availability reduces the desirability of biofuels as a.....


0+≈≤†∞≈;+≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 1†’≈ ≈+† ∞∋≈+ †+ ⊥∞∋≈†;†+ ∞≠∋≤††+ ≠+;≤+ +∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ +∞≈+∞+≤∞ ;≈ +∞††∞+—∞∋≤+ +∋≈ ;†≈ ⊥++≈ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ≤+≈≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 5∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ∋∋+ ≈+† +∞⊥†∋≤∞ †+≈≈;† †∞∞†≈ +=∞+≈;⊥+†, +∞† ∋ ⊥∞≈+ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞∋ ;≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ;† ≠∞ ≠∋≈† †+ ≈†+⊥ ⊥†++∋† ≠∋+∋;≈⊥

.


1’⊇ †;∂∞ †+ †;≈;≈+ ∋+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈ ++ †+∞ †++∞∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈;+≈ ⊥+;≈†≈


8;≈≤∞≈≈;+≈ 0+;≈†≈:

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 3+;≤+ †++∋ +† ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ⊇+ ++∞ †+;≈∂ ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈†?

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 3++∞†⊇ †+∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† ;≈=∞≈† ∋++∞ ∋+≈∞+ ;≈ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ †++∋≈ +† 9≈∞+⊥+?

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 1≈ 3;+⊇;∞≈∞† ∋ ⊥++⊇ ∋††∞+≈∋†.....


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