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Alternative sources of Energy

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FH Burgenland Pinkafeld

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2011, Prof.(FH) DI Dr. Arne Ragossnig

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Alternative Sources of Energy


Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.

I’d like to tell you something about the topic alternative sources of energy.

Definition: First I want to give you a short definition about alternative sources of energy. Alternative energy is energy that is neither based on fossil fuels nor on the splitting of atoms. It is usually a renewable source of energy that could be used should fossil fuels run out.


I want now like to turn to the question: Why do we need alternatives.

To answer that question, we need to start by discussing fossil fuels-what they are and the advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels. Within this context, the pressing need for alternatives becomes quite clear.

Most fossil fuels are formed from the remains of long-dead creatures and plants. Buried over the course of hundreds of millions of years, these carbon-based deposits have been converted by heat and pressure over time into such combustible substances as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil etc.


I would now like to say a few words about the advantages of fossil fuels.

·         A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location. 

·         Fossil fuels are very easy to find. 

·         When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective.

·         Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task. 

·         Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in a.....[read full text]


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7∞†’≈ ≈+≠ †∞+≈ †+ ⊇;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ 3++ ⊇+ ≠∞ ≈∞∞⊇ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞≈.

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 0+††∞†;+≈ ;≈ ∋ ∋∋{++ ⊇;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞ +† †+≈≈;† †∞∞†≈. 7+;≈ ;≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ⊥;=∞ +†† ≤∋+++≈ ⊇;+≠;⊇∞ ≠+∞≈ +∞+≈∞⊇ †+∞+∞++ ≤∋∞≈;≈⊥ ∋ ⊥+∞∞≈++∞≈∞ ∞††∞≤†. 7+;≈ ;≈ ∋†≈+ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ≤+≈†+;+∞†+++ †∋≤†++ †+ †+∞ ⊥†++∋† ≠∋+∋;≈⊥ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∞∋+†+ †+⊇∋+.&≈+≈⊥;

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4≈+†+∞+ ⊥+;≈† ;≈ †+∋† ∋† ≤∞++∞≈† +∋†∞≈, †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∞≈∞≈ †+≈≈;†≈ †∞∞†≈ 100,000 †;∋∞≈ †∋≈†∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞+ ≤∋≈ †++∋.

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8+;††;≈⊥ †++ +;†, †+∋≈≈⊥++†;≈⊥ =+†∋†;†∞ †;⊥∞;⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠⊥†+≈;=∞ ⊥∋≈∞≈ ∞†≤, ∋†† †+∞≈∞ ≤∋≈ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ †+∋⊥;≤ ∋≤≤;⊇∞≈†≈ †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ †+∞ +;† ≤∋†∋≈†++⊥+∞ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞†† +† 4∞≠;≤+.


4+≠ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ †∞+≈ †+ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ ≈+∞+≤∞≈ +† ∞≈∞+⊥+.

6;+≈††+ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ ≠;≈⊇ ∞≈∞+⊥+.

1† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞ ∋≈≤;∞≈† †;∋∞≈ ;≈;†;∋††+ ≠;†+ †+∞ 9⊥+⊥†;∋≈≈ ≠++ ∞†;†;=∞⊇ †+∞ ≠;≈⊇ †+ ≈∋;† ≈+;⊥≈ +≈ †+∞ 4;†∞ 5;=∞+ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 5,000 +∞∋+≈ ∋⊥+. 0∞+⊥†∞ †∋†∞+ +≈ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ ≠;≈⊇∋;††≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞+ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥+;≈⊇ ≠+∞∋† ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ⊥+∋;≈≈. 4≈ †;∋∞ ⊥∋≈≈∞⊇, ≠;≈⊇∋;††≈ +∞≤∋∋∞ ∋++∞ ;∋⊥++=∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ∞≈∞ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ †+ ⊥.....

7+∞ ≈≤;∞≈≤∞ +∞+;≈⊇ ≠;≈⊇ ;≈ ≈;∋⊥†∞ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇. 4† ⊇∋+†;∋∞, ∋;+ ∋++=∞ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ +∞∋†≈ ∞⊥ †∋≈†∞+ †+∋≈ ∋;+ +=∞+ ≠∋†∞+. 7+∞ ≠∋+∋ ∋;+ ∋++=∞ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈ ∞⊥ ≠+;†∞ †+∞ +∞∋=;∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤++†∞+ ∋;+ †∋∂∞≈ ;†≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ †+≠∞+ †∞=∞† †+∞+∞++ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ≠;≈⊇≈.

3;≈⊇ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ ≈+≠ ∋∋;≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈.

4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈:

·&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 1† ;≈ ∋≈ ;⊇∞∋† ∞≈∞+⊥+ ≈+∞+≤∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† ;†≈ +∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ †++∋. 3+ †+≈⊥ ∋≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈ ≈+;≈∞≈, †+∞ ∞∋+†+ ≠;†† ≈∞=∞+ +∞≈ +∞† +† ≠;≈⊇.

·         The source of energy is clean because a windmill emits nothing harmful.

  • In fact, wind is also pretty cheap: it’s only 3-4.5 cents/kilowatt-hour (kWh). BUT, that’s because it’s making it’s money back over time—that’s the bonus of renewable energy

Disadvantages:

  • Wind power has about 20% conversion efficiency—only about half as much as coal power

·         The wind does not blow consistently

  • Wind farms take up a lot of space
  • They can dominate a landscape that might otherwise have aesthetic value
  • Wind farms are expensive and so it’s difficult to build wind farms in a rapidly developing country without much money ( like China or India)


Secondly I want to turn to another alternative sour.....

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3+†∋+ 0+≠∞+ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈=∞+≈;+≈ +† ≈∞≈†;⊥+† ;≈†+ ∞†∞≤†+;≤;†+, ∞;†+∞+ ⊇;+∞≤††+ ∞≈;≈⊥ ⊥++†+=+††∋;≤ ++ ;≈⊇;+∞≤††+ ∞≈;≈⊥ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†∞⊇ ≈+†∋+ ⊥+≠∞+. 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †++∞∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †+⊥∞≈ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈.

6;+≈† 1’⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∋∞≈†;+≈ ≈+†∋+ ≤∞††≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ≤+≈=∞+† †;⊥+† ;≈†+ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ∞†∞≤†+;≤∋† +∞†⊥∞† -∋;††;≠∋††≈ +∞†⊥∞†.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ≈∞∞⊇ ∋ +∋≈∂/∋++∋+ +† ≤∞††≈ †++ ∞≈∞†∞† +∞†⊥∞†.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ≤+≈† +† ≤∞††≈ ;≈ +;⊥+ +∞† +∞⊇∞≤;≈⊥.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ∞††;≤;∞≈≤+ +† ≤∞††≈ ;≈ ∞⊥ †+ 23%/ +∞† †+∋† ;≈ ;∋⊥++=;≈⊥

7+∞≈ †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ≈+†∋+ ⊥∋≈∞†≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ∋+∞ ≈;†∞∋†∞⊇ +≈ +++† +† +∞;†⊇;≈⊥.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ∋+≈+++ +∞∋† ;≈ †+∞ †++∋ +† +∋⊇;∋†;+≈ †++∋ ≈∞≈.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; +∋≈;≤∋††+ ≈+≈†∞∋ ;≈ †;∂∞ ∋ ⊇+∋∞≈†;≤ ≤∞≈†+∋† +∞∋†;≈⊥ +∋⊇;∋†++ ⊥∋;≈†∞⊇ +†∋≤∂/;≈≈∞†∋†∞⊇.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ⊥++=;⊇∞≈ “†+⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∞⊥” +† ⊇+∋∞≈†;≤ ++† ≠∋†∞+.

7∋≈†, +∞† ≈+† †∞∋≈†, †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ≈+†∋+ ⊥+≠∞+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; †+≤∋†∞⊇ ;≈ ⊇∞≈∞+†/+;⊥+ ;≈†∞≈≈;†+/†+≈⊥ ≈∞≈†;⊥+† ++∞+≈

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ⊥∋+∋++†;≤ ∋;++++≈ +∞††∞≤†/†+≤∞≈ ≈∞≈’≈ +∋+≈ +≈†+ ∋∞†∋† ≠∋†∞+ ⊥;⊥∞ †+≤∋†∞⊇ ∋†+.....

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8;⊥+ †∞∋⊥∞+∋†∞+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ - ≈†∞∋∋ - ∞†∞≤†+;≤∋† ⊥+≠∞+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†∞⊇

4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈

3+†∋+ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ +∞≈∞≠∋+†∞ +∞≈+∞+≤∞. 2∞++ †;†††∞ ∋∋;≈†∞≈∋≈≤∞ ;≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †+ ∂∞∞⊥ ≈+†∋+ ≤∞††≈ +∞≈≈;≈⊥.

8;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈

3∞≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ≈+;≈∞ ≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈††+. 7+∞ ≈+†∋+ ≤∞††≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+†∋+ ⊥∋≈∞†≈ ∋+∞ =∞++ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞.


7+;+⊇†+ 1’⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ 8+⊇++⊥+≠∞+.

8+⊇++⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ ⊥+≠∞+ †+∋† ;≈ ⊇∞+;=∞⊇ †++∋ †+∞ ∞≈∞+⊥+ +† ∋+=;≈⊥ ≠∋†∞+.

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †≠+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;≈⊥ ∋∞†++⊇≈. 0+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ⊇∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞∋⊥∞⊇ – ≈†++∋⊥∞. 7+∞ ∋∞†++⊇ ≈†++∞≈ ∞≈∞+⊥+ ;≈ †+∞ †++∋ +† ≠∋†∞+, ⊥∞∋⊥∞⊇ †++∋ ∋ †+≠∞+ ∞†∞=∋†;+≈ +∞≈∞+=+;+ †+ ∋ +;⊥+∞+ ∞†∞=∋†;+≈. 7+≠-≤+≈† +††-⊥∞∋∂ ∞†∞≤†+;≤ ⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ +∞≈ †+∞ ⊥∞∋⊥≈. 8∞+;≈⊥ ⊥∞+;+⊇≈ +† +;⊥+ ∞†∞≤†+;≤∋† ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇, †+∞ ≈†++∞⊇ ≠∋†∞+ ;≈ +∞†∞∋≈∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ †∞++;≈∞≈.

3∞† ++≠ ⊇+∞≈ ∋ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ⊇∋∋ ≠++∂.

&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 6;+≈† ;† ;≈ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ †+ +∞;†⊇ ∋ ⊇∋∋ +≈ †∋+⊥∞ +;=∞+ †+∋† +∋≈ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ⊇++⊥ ;≈ ∞†∞.....

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