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3 Short Story “Rip Van Winkle”, Washington Irving, 1783–1859, first published 1819

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Clash of Identity – Aboriginal and White Identity in Thomas Keneally´­s The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith Introduction 3 2. What is Identity? 4 - 7 3. Clash of Identities – Aboriginal vs. White Identity 8 - 11 4. Jimmie Blacksmith – Aboriginal and White? 12 - 15 5. Conclusion

1


American Identity inRip Van Winkle andThe Pioneers

Creation of American identity can be viewed from various aspects.

It is a story that begins with the particular life of Indian tribes then continues with the first settlers and the customs they brought to development of different societies, fight for human rights, development of democratic society and equal rights for all. Interesting aspects are given to us by the author James Cooper in his novel The Pioneers and by Washington Irving in his novel Rip Van Winkle.

The first novel gives us the insight to the life of the first settlers of American ground and the other thrills us with a fantastic story of Rip Van Winkle’s sleep for one night but waking after twenty years had passed. Detailed analysis of these two novels gives us some important facts about American identity.

On the one hand, Cooper’s novel The Pioneersfocuses on the evolution of the wilderness into a civilized European-American community.

It starts with the narration of Judge Marmaduke Temple, one of the first settlers of American ground.While answering to his daughter’s questions about the former life in the hills of Otsego he speaks of the first settlement of that rough territory: “If I have encountered pain, famine, and disease in accomplishing the settlement of this rough territory, I have not the misery of failure to add to the grievances“.1It was a time of great famine with no roads, no mills, and no grain, nothing but hungry mouths that had to be fed.

Marmaduke was the one who brought cargoes of wheat in boats. He tells his daughter Elizabeth that these troubles they had were not so long ago and that she can’t imagine how difficult it was to survive and create something out of nothing. Mountains were at first pretty hostile with intact nature, pure wilderness that needed to be tamed and its soil used for farming and growing crops.

Here we can see the first shapes of settlers’ lives and the difficulties they were faced with. Later on Judge Temple mentions his first encounter with Natty Bumppo, a white American hunter known by the name Leather-Stockings who lives in woods, is very friendly with Indians and who shows great objection to settlers because they destroy the woods and natural balance of things.Natty has a vision of civilized life c.....[read full text]

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1⊇∞∋††+, +∞ ≠∋≈†≈ †+ ≈∞≈†∋;≈ †+∞ ∞≈;⊥∞∞ ++†∞ †+∋† †+;≈ =∋≈† ∞≈∞≠⊥†++∞⊇ ≠;†⊇∞+≈∞≈≈ ≤+≈†+;+∞†∞≈ †+ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠;†+ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋.8;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†≈ ∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ +⊥⊥+≈∞≈† †+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠++ ⊇+≈’† ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ≈∋†∞+∞’≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ †++ +∞∋∋≈ +∞;≈⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠++ +∞≤∂†∞≈≈†+ ∞≠⊥†+;† ;†≈ +∞≈∞†;†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+≈’† ≤∋+∞ ;† †+∞+ +∋+∋ ;†≈ +∋†∋≈≤∞.

4∋††+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇≈ †+∋† ≈∋†∞+∞ +∞†∞+≈≈ ≠+∋† ≠∞ ;≈=∞≈† ;≈ ;†. 1† ≠∞ †+∞∋† ;† ≠∞†† ≠∞ ≤∋≈ †;=∞ ∋ ⊥++≈⊥∞++∞≈ †;†∞ +∞† ;† ≠∞ ⊇∞≈†+++ ;† ≠∞ +∋=∞ †+ +∋≈⊇†∞ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞≈. 7+∞ +∋†††∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ≈∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤;=;†;=∋†;+≈ ;≈ ≤+≈≈†∋≈† ≠+∞+∞ ≤;=;†;=∋†;+≈ ∞≈∞∋††+ ∋+++⊥∋≈††+ ⊇∞≈†+++≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∞’≈ †+∞∞ +∞∋∞†+. 7+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞≈∞ †≠+ +⊥;≈;+≈≈ ;≈ ≈++≠≈ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈†∋∞⊥+†∞+ +† ⊥;⊥∞+≈≈.

4∋∋∞†+, ≈∞†††∞+≈ †++ †+ ⊥++†∞≤† †+∞;+ ≤++⊥≈ ++ ∂;††;≈⊥ ⊥;⊥∞+≈≈ †+∋† ††+ +=∞+ †+∞;+ †∋≈⊇ ;≈ ††+≤∂≈. 7+∞+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+ ;† ∋ ≈⊥++† ∋≤†;=;†+ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∞ ≈+†+;≈⊥ ≠++≈⊥ ;≈ ⊇+;≈⊥ †+∋†. 1† ;≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ †+ +∞ ⊇+≈∞ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ≈∞+=;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++†∞≤† ≠+∋† †+∞+ ≠++∂∞⊇ †++. 7∞∋†+∞+-3†+≤∂;≈⊥≈, ++≠∞=∞+, ;≈ ⊥+∞††+ ∞⊥≈∞† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞;+ +∋++∋+;≤ ∋≤†. 8∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†≈ +;≈ +≠≈ †+∞+++ †+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈++∞†⊇ +≈†+ +∞≈† ≤++≈∞≈ ∋≈;∋∋†≈ †++ †++⊇ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋=∞ +†+∞+≈ +∞: “1† ;≈ ∋∞≤+ +∞††∞+ †+ ∂;†† +≈†+ ≈∞≤+ ++∞ ≠∋≈†, ≠;†++∞† ≠∋≈†;≈⊥ ++∞+ ⊥+≠⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋⊇, †+∞≈ †+ +∞ †;+;≈⊥ ;≈†+ 6+⊇’≈ ≤+∞∋†∞+∞≈ ;≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋ ≠;≤∂∞⊇ ∋∋≈≈∞+.”21∞⊇⊥∞ 7∞∋⊥†∞ ;≈ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ⊥+;≈† ∋⊥+∞∞≈ ≠;†+ +;≈ †+∞+++ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋††≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ ≈†+⊥ ≈+++†;≈⊥ †+∞ +;+⊇≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ∂;††∞⊇ ∞≈+∞⊥+ +† †+∞∋ +∞† †+∞ ≈∞≠† ∋;≈∞†∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ +;≈ ∋;≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋+†≈ ≈+++†;≈⊥ ⊥;⊥∞+≈≈ ∋⊥∋;≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ∞=∞≈ +;⊥⊥∞+ ††+≤.....

4††∞+ †+∞ †++;†† +† ∂;††;≈⊥ ;≈ ⊥+≈∞ +∞ †∞∞†≈ ∋≈+∋∋∞⊇ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +∞ ⊇+∞≈≈'† +∋=∞ 4∋††+'≈ ≈++†∞≈∞≈≈. “7∞∋†+∞+-3†+≤∂;≈⊥≈≠∋≈ ∋ ≈;†∞≈† +∞† ∞≈∞∋≈+ ≈⊥∞≤†∋†++ +† ∋†††+∞≈∞ ⊥++≤∞∞⊇;≈⊥≈, +∞† ≠∋≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ∂∞∞⊥ +;≈ ≈∞≈†;∋∞≈†≈ †+ +;∋≈∞††∞≈†;† +∞ ≈∋≠ †+∞ ;≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≈≠;=∞† ;≈†+ †+∞ ≈⊥++†≈.“ 8∞ †∞∋=∞≈ †+∞ ≈≤∞≈∞ ≈∋+;≈⊥ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞: “7+;≈ ≤+∋∞≈ +† ≈∞†††;≈⊥ ∋ ≤+∞≈†++.”3; +≈≤∞ ∋⊥∋;≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;≈⊥ +;≈ ++{∞≤†;+≈ †+ +∞+∋=;+∞+ +† ≈∞†††∞+≈.

3∋≈+;≈⊥†+≈ 1+=;≈⊥ ;≈ 5;⊥ 2∋≈ 3;≈∂†∞, +≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ +∋≈⊇, ⊥;=∞≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ;≈≈;⊥+† †+ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ≤;=;†;≈∋†;+≈ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ;≈ ≈+≤;∋† ∋≈⊇ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ +† ≈+≤;∞†+ ;≈ †≠∞≈†+ +∞∋+≈’ †;∋∞.

7+∞ ≈†+++ ;≈ ≈∞† ;≈ ∋ ≈∋∋††, =∞++ +†⊇ =;††∋⊥∞ ∋† †+∞ †++† +† †+∞ 0∋†≈∂;†† 4+∞≈†∋;≈≈, ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈ †+∞≈⊇∞⊇ ++ ≈+∋∞ +† †+∞ ∞∋+†;∞≈† 8∞†≤+ ≈∞†††∞+≈ ≠+∞≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋ ≠∋≈ ∋ ≤+†+≈+ +† 6+∞∋† 3+;†∋;≈. 4† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† †+;≈ ≈†+++ ≠∞ ∋†≈+ +∋=∞ ∋ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ +† ;≈†∋≤† ≈∋†∞+∞ +† 9∋∋†≈∂;†† 4+∞≈†∋;≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ≈∞∋∋;†≈ †+∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞;+ ≈+∋⊥∞≈ ≠;†+ ∞=∞++ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ;≈ ≈∞∋≈+≈, ≠∞∋†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ++∞+ +† †+∞ ⊇∋+.

4† †+∞ †++† +† †+∞≈∞ ∋+∞≈†∋;≈≈ †;∞≈ ∋ ≈∋∋†† =;††∋⊥∞ †+∞≈⊇∞⊇ ++ †+∞ 8∞†≤+ ≤+†+≈;≈†≈ ∋† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† +† †+∞ ⊥++⊇ 0∞†∞+ 3†∞+=∞≈∋≈†. 3+∋∞ ++∞≈∞≈ ≠∞+∞ ∞=∞≈ +∞;†† +† ≈∋∋†† +∞††+≠ ++;≤∂≈ +++∞⊥+† †++∋ 8+††∋≈⊇. 1≈ ≈∞≤+ ++∞≈∞ †;=∞⊇ ∋ ⊥++⊇-≈∋†∞+∞⊇ †∞††+≠ 5;⊥ 2∋≈ 3;≈∂†∞ ≠;†+ +;≈ ≠;†∞ ∋≈⊇ †++∞∞ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈. 5;⊥ ;≈ ∋≈ ∋≈≤∞≈†++ +† 2∋≈ 3;≈∂†∞≈ ≠++ ∋≤≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞⊇ 0∞†∞+ 3†∞+=∞≈∋≈† †+ †+∞ ≈;∞⊥∞ +† 6++† 0++;≈†;≈∋ +∞† ;≈+∞+;†∞⊇ ∋†∋+≈† ≈+≈∞ +† †+∞;+ ∋∋+†;∋† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+.

He is described as a lazy lad who spends his days doing practically nothing else but trying to avoid his wife’s critics for doing nothing. It is explained how Rip willingly helps everyone else with their odd jobs but never wants to do anything around his own house. “In fact, he declared it was of no use to work on his farm; it was the most pestilent little piece of ground in the whole country; everything about it went wrong, and would go wrong, in spite of him.4His favourite place in the town was asmallVedder’s inn, designated by a portrait of his Majesty George the Third where he would spend his days sitting with those similar to him.

However, Dame Von Winkle forced him out of the Inn as well. His laziness leads him into the woods where he finds a nice place to rest from the lectures of his wife Dame Von Winkle. He had no intention of escaping his home for good; his plan was only to escape for a few hours with his dog Wolf as .....

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3+;†∞ +∞ ≠∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ †++∞≈† +∞ +∞∋+⊇ ≈+∋∞+≈∞ ≤∋††∞⊇ +∞† +;≈ ≈∋∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋≠ ∋ 8∞†≤+ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ≠;†+ ≠++∋ +∞ ≈†++††∞⊇ ∋≠∋+ †+ †+∞ ∋∋⊥+;†+∞∋†+∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋≠ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞†+ ⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋∞≈ ⊥†∋+;≈⊥ ⊥;≈≈ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ 8+††∋≈⊇ ≤∞††∞+∞ ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋.

7+∞+ +††∞+∞⊇ +;∋ ∋ 8+††∋≈⊇ +∞=∞+∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞ ⊇+∋≈∂ ∞≈†;† +∞ ⊥+† †+†∋††+ ⊇+∞≈∂ ∋≈⊇ †∞†† ;≈†+ ∋ ⊇∞∞⊥ ≈†∞∞⊥. “0≈∞ †∋≈†∞ ⊥++=+∂∞⊇ ∋≈+†+∞+; ∋≈⊇ +∞ +∞;†∞+∋†∞⊇ +;≈ =;≈;†≈ †+ †+∞ ††∋⊥+≈ ≈+ +††∞≈ †+∋† ∋† †∞≈⊥†+ +;≈ ≈∞≈≈∞≈ ≠∞+∞ +=∞+⊥+≠∞+∞⊇, +;≈ ∞+∞≈ ≈≠∋∋ ;≈ +;≈ +∞∋⊇, +;≈ +∞∋⊇ ⊥+∋⊇∞∋††+ ⊇∞≤†;≈∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ +∞ †∞†† ;≈†+ ∋ ⊇∞∞⊥ ≈†∞∞⊥.”50≈ ≠∋∂;≈⊥, +∞ †+∞≈⊇ +;∋≈∞†† +≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞∞≈ ∂≈+†† ≠+∞≈≤∞ +∞ +∋⊇ †;+≈† ≈∞∞≈ †+∞ +†⊇ ∋∋≈ +† †+∞ ⊥†∞≈.

8∞ +∞++∞⊇ +;≈ ∞+∞≈—;† ≠∋≈ ∋ ++;⊥+† ≈∞≈≈+ ∋++≈;≈⊥.”6 5;⊥ +∋≈ ≈+ ;⊇∞∋ ++≠ +∞ †+∞≈⊇ +;∋≈∞†† ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ⊥†∋≤∞ +∞ ≈∋≠ †+∋† ≈†+∋≈⊥∞ ∋∋≈ +∞† +∞ †++∞⊥+† †+∋† +∞ ⊇+∞≈≈’† +∞∋∞∋+∞+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +∞ ⊇+∋≈∂ †++ ∋∞≤+. 3+∞≈ +∞ ⊥+† ∞⊥ +∞ ≈∋≠ †+∋† +;≈ ⊇+⊥ 3+†† ≠∋≈ ∋;≈≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ +;≈ ⊥+≈≈∞≈≈;+≈ ≠∋≈ ∋ +∞≈†+ +†⊇ ⊥∞≈ ;≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† ≤†∞∋≈, ≠∞††-+;†∞⊇ †+≠†;≈⊥-⊥;∞≤∞. 8∞ †++∞⊥+† †+∋† ;† ;≈ ∋†† {∞≈† ≈+∋∞+≈∞’≈ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∋† {+∂∞ †++ +∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ≠+∋† +∋⊇ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇.

8∞ ∋†≈+ †;≈⊇≈ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ †+ †+∞ +∋=;≈∞ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≈+∋++†;≤ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†≈ ∋ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ≤+∋⊥†∞+ +† +;≈ †;†∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +∞ ≤∋≈’† †;≈⊇ ∋ ⊥∋†+ †+ +;≈ ⊥∋≈† †;†∞. 3+∞≈ +∞ +∞†∞+≈∞⊇ †+ †+∞ =;††∋⊥∞ †+;≈⊥≈ +∞≤∋∋∞ ∞=∞≈ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞+. 8∞ ≈+†;≤∞≈ †+∋† =;††∋⊥∞ ≈+ †+≈⊥∞+ †++∂≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞≠;†+ ≈∞≠ ++∞≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋∋∞≈, ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ ⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋≈+;+≈; +∞ ⊇+∞≈≈’† +∞≤+⊥≈;≈∞ ∋≈++≈∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ †+;≈∂ .....

7+∞ 2∞⊇⊇∞+’≈ ;≈≈ ⊇+∞≈≈’† ∞≠;≈† ∋≈+∋++∞. 1≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† †+∞ ;≈≈, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≠ ≈;⊥≈ “7+∞ 0≈;+≈ 8+†∞†, ++ 1+≈∋†+∋≈ 8++†;†††∞.”, ≠;†+ ∋ ††∋⊥ †+∋† ≈++≠∞⊇ ∋ ≈∞≠ †;⊥∞+∞ 6∞++⊥∞ 3∋≈+;≈⊥†+≈ ;≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† 8;≈ 4∋{∞≈†+ +† 9;≈⊥ 6∞++⊥∞.

1≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ ≈†+++ †+∞ ∋∞†+++ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞≈ ∋†† †+∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞⊇ ≠+;†∞ 5;⊥ ≠∋≈ ∋≈†∞∞⊥.

7+∞ =∞++ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠∋≈ ≈+≠ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇. 7+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ≈+≠ ∋++∞ +∞≈+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞++∋⊥≈ ∋++∞ ∋+++⊥∋≈†, ≈†+∞∞†≈ ≠∞+∞ +∞≈††;≈⊥ ≠;†+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈;≈⊥ ⊥+†;†;≤≈ ≠;†+ ∋ ⊇;≈⊥∞†∋†;=∞ †+≈∞. 7+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ∋∞≈†;+≈;≈⊥ †+;≈⊥≈ †+∋† ⊥+++ 5;⊥ ⊇;⊇≈’† ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈: “+;⊥+†≈ +† ≤;†;=∞≈≈—∞†∞≤†;+≈≈—∋∞∋+∞+≈ +† 0+≈⊥+∞≈≈—†;+∞+†+—3∞≈∂∞+’≈ +;††—+∞++∞≈ +† ≈∞=∞≈†+-≈;≠…”7 7+∞+ ∞=∞≈ ∋≈∂∞⊇ ;† +∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋ 8∞∋+≤+∋† ++ ∋ 6∞⊇∞+∋† ≠+;≤+ ≤+≈†∞≈∞⊇ +;∋ ∞=∞≈ ∋++∞.

7+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ∋∞≈†;+≈;≈⊥ “≠∋+—0+≈⊥+∞≈≈—3†+≈+ 0+;≈†;—+∞ +∋⊇ ≈+ ≤+∞+∋⊥∞ †+ ∋≈∂ ∋††∞+ ∋≈+ ∋++∞ †+;∞≈⊇≈, +∞† ≤+;∞⊇ +∞† ;≈ ⊇∞≈⊥∋;+, “8+∞≈ ≈+++⊇+ +∞+∞ ∂≈+≠ 5;⊥ 2∋≈ 3;≈∂†∞?”8 8∞ ≠∋≈ †+≈;≈⊥ †+∞≤+ ≠;†+ +;∋≈∞††; +∞ ≠∋≈ ≈+ ≤+≈†∞≈∞⊇ †+∋† +∞ ⊇;⊇≈’† ∂≈+≠ ;† +∞ ≠∋≈ +∞∋†.

3∋≈ ;† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+∋† ∞=∞++†+;≈⊥ ≠∋≈ ≈+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ ;≈ +≈∞ ⊇∋+? 6;≈∋††+ +;≈ ++∞≈⊥∞≈† ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+ +∞≤+⊥≈;=∞≈ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ +∞ †∞††≈ +;≈ +;=∋++∞ ≈†+++ †+ ≈∞≠ +∞≈;⊇∞≈†≈ +† +;≈ †++∋∞+ =;††∋⊥∞. 4+++⊇+ ≠+∞†⊇ +∋=∞ +∞†;∞=∞⊇ +;≈ ≈†+++ ;† †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞≈’† †++ †+∞ +†⊇ †∞⊥∞≈⊇ +† 8∞⊇≈+≈ ∋≈⊇ +;≈ ≤+∞≠ ⊥†∋+;≈⊥ ⊥;≈≈. 5;⊥ 2∋≈ 3;≈∂†∞ +∋⊇ †+ +∞†∞†† +;≈ ≈†+++ +=∞+ ∋≈⊇ +=∞+ ∋⊥∋;≈ ≠;†+ ∋ †;+∞+†+ +† ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ≈+∋∞ ;†≈ ⊥∋+†≈ +∞† +∞ ≈∞=∞+ †∞†† +∞† †+∞ ∋+≈† ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ 8∞⊇≈+≈.....

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