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Universität Duisburg-Essen - UDE, Essen

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2,0 2018

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Behaviourism vs.

Innatism

The crushing of behaviourism through innatism

Module C, term paper



Table of contents



1. Introduction 3

2. Second Language Learning Theories 4

2.1 Behaviourism 4

2.2 Innatism 5

2.3 Monitor Model 6

3. Criticism towards Behaviourism 7

3.1 Overgeneralization 7

3.2Transfer 8

4. Innatism in the classroom: The Monitor Model 10

4.1 Criticism on the monitor model 12

5. Conclusion 13

Bibliography 15

Eidesstaatliche Erklärung 16



1. Introduction



Second language acquisition is a diverse field and contributions to that come from many disciplines including linguistics, applied linguistics, psychology and education.

Although there are multiple theories of second language acquisition, no single theory exists to incorporate all the research. (Pica 2005:2) Second language refers to any language learned in addition to one’s native language, so it describes the process of learning a second language (L2) by any human being. (Gass 2013:4) Important theoretical frameworks that have influenced the Second Language Acquisition approaches will be listed in the following.

More specifically, the focus of this term paper is on the confrontation of behaviourism with innatism. Further it will explain how learners can be successful in their classroom goals with the help of innatist ideas and how Second Language Acquisition can be passed on effectively. The first part of this term paper will function as a summary and introduction of the second language acquisition theories mentioned above.

In the beginning the very first known theory called behaviourism will be explained, followed by the newer innatist approach and innatism in general. Also there will be a brief introduction of Krashen’s monitor model. Behaviourism is a theory that is limited in explaining some important language phenomena and shows also many disadvantages when it comes to think about the field of second language acquisition.

So a critical view on this theory will be taken. In order to show some negative aspects, overgeneralization and transfer errors will be presented in chapter three and it will be shown how innatism explains these problems. The following chapter will then deal with the innatist theory in the classroom. Whereas the first part of the chapter will deal with Krashen’s monitor model and how its’ different hypotheses can be implemented by a teacher in a learning situation, the second part of this chapter will focus on the criticism of the monitor model.

Additionally the interplay of Krashen’s monitor model and Swain’s output hypothesis will be taken into account, in order to show a possible solution to counteract the problems critics had mentioned. Finally the term paper ends with a critical evaluation to the ideas and problems sta.....[read full text]

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2. 3∞≤+≈⊇ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ 7∞∋+≈;≈⊥ 7+∞++;∞≈



2.1 3∞+∋=;+∞+;≈∋



0≈∞ +† †+∞ ∞∋+†;∞≈† ∞≠⊥†∋≈∋†;+≈≈ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ≠∋≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ++ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈† ≈≤;∞≈†;≈†≈, ≠++ ∋≈≈∞∋∞⊇ †+∋† “†∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠∋≈ =;∞≠∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ∂;≈⊇ +† =∞++∋† +∞+∋=;++, ∋≈⊇ ;† ≠∋≈ ⊥++⊥+≈∞⊇ †+∋† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †∞∋+≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+++∞⊥+ ;∋;†∋†;+≈, +∞;≈†++≤∞∋∞≈†, ∋≈∋†+⊥+ ∋≈⊇ ≈;∋;†∋+ ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈.” (6+∋∋∂;≈, 5+⊇∋∋≈, 8+∋∋≈, 2007:314). 7+∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈† †+∞+++, ∋ ⊇+∋;≈∋≈† ≈≤+++† +† ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥+ †++∋ †+∞ 1920≈ †+ 1960≈, ⊥†∋+≈ ∋†≈+ ∋ ≤+∞≤;∋† ++†∞ ;≈ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞∋+†+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ ∋††∋≤+∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ++†∞ +† †;+≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈.

7+∞ +∞≈†-∂≈+≠≈ ≤+≈†++=∞+≈+ ∋++∞† †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ ++≠ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ †∞∋+≈∞⊇ ;≈ ⊥++⊥+≈∞⊇ ++ 3.6. 3∂;≈≈∞+ (7;⊥+†++≠≈, 3⊥∋⊇∋ 2006:10) 8;≈ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;+≈ ≠∋≈ †+∋† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †∞∋+≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ ++ ;∋;†∋†;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ †+∞;+ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†.

9≈≤+∞+∋⊥∞⊇ ++ †+∞;+ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† †+ ∞≈∞ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ ∋++∞≈⊇ †+∞∋, ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ≠+∞†⊇ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ †+ ;∋;†∋†∞ ≈+∞≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞ ≈+∞≈⊇ ⊥∋††∞+≈≈ ∞≈†;† †+∞+ ∞≈∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≤+++∞≤††+. 4††∞+ ;† ∋††∞≤†∞⊇ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ +≈ †;+≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈, +∞+∋=;++;≈† †+∞+++ ∋†≈+ +∞⊥∋≈ †+ +∞ ;≈††∞∞≈†;∋† ;≈ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† ≈∞≤+≈⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈.

1† ≠∋≈ †+∞ †;+≈† †+∞+++, ≠+;≤+ †+;∞⊇ †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†++⊇≈ +† ∋≤⊥∞;+;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞. (7;†††∞≠++⊇ 1894:17)

7+∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈†;≤ =;∞≠ +≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ ≤†∋;∋≈ †+∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞†† +† ∋ ≈∞† +† +∋+;†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ∋≈ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† +† ;≈†∞+∋≤†;+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† †+++∞⊥+ ≈†;∋∞†∞≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈;≈⊥. (3∋=;††∞-7++;∂∞ 2009:35) 3∂;≈≈∞+ ++⊥+†+∞≈;=∞⊇ †+∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ †∞∋+≈∞⊇ ++ ∞≈;≈⊥ ∞;†+∞+ +∞;≈†++≤∞∋∞≈† ++ ⊥∞≈;≈+∋∞≈† †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ++ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞ †+∞ †;∂∞†;+++⊇ +† +∞.....

7∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ≤∋≈ +≤≤∞+ ≠+∞≈ +≈†+ ∋⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊥;=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋∞†+∋∋†;≤. 7+;≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈≈ †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ +† †+∞ †∞∋+≈∞+ ;≈ +∞≠∋+⊇∞⊇ ++ ⊥∞≈;≈+∞⊇. 4≈ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈ ;≈ †++∋∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ †+;≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞≈ +† †+∋† +∞+∋=;+∞+. 1† ;≈ ∋+⊥∞∞⊇ †+∋† ;† ;≈ †+∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+ †+∋† †+††+≠≈ ∋ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ ≠+;≤+ +∞;≈†++≤∞≈ ;† ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ +∞†⊥≈ †+ ≈†+∞≈⊥†+∞≈ †+∞ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈.

7+∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ +† ∋ +∋+;† †+∞≈ ≤∋≈ +≤≤∞+ †+++∞⊥+ ;∋;†∋†;+≈. (7;⊥+†++≠≈ ,3⊥∋⊇∋ 2006: 10).

7+∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈†;≤ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ +++∞⊥+† ∋≈ ;≈;†;∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ ;≈ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈.

7∞∋≤+∞+≈ ≈†∋+†∞⊇ †+ ∞≈∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈†;≤ ≈†+∋†∞⊥;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†++⊇≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋† ≈∞††;≈⊥ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+;≈ †+∞+++ (3∋=;††∞-7++;∂∞ 2009:13). 5++∞+† 7∋⊇+ ∋≈⊇ 4∞†≈+≈ 3+++∂≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥++⊥+≈∞≈†≈ +† †+;≈ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ ≠++ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ †+∞ ∋∞⊇;+-†;≈⊥∞∋† †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ ∋∞†++⊇. 7+∞ ∋∞⊇;+-†;≈⊥∞∋† ∋∞†++⊇ ≠∋≈ ∋ ≈†+†∞ +† †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈ +∞;†† +≈ ≈†∋†;≤ ⊇+;††≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ +∋=∞ †;†††∞ ++ ≈+ ≤+≈†++† +≈ †+∞;+ +≠≈ +∞†⊥∞†.

The method’s insistence on repetition and memorization of standard phrases ignored the role of context and knowledge in language learning. (Lightbown,Spada 2006:34) Regarding the audio-lingual method it is remarkable that behaviourism is often connected to a hypothesis which explains the errors made in the target language. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis creates the connection between behaviourism and the audio-lingual teaching methodology. Habits formed in the first language interfere with the habits of the target language.

The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis is used to predict possible language difficulties of acquiring a second language and is a systematic comparison of the first and second language. The transfer is called positive transfer, when similarities are present in L1 and L2. Therefore, the target language can be learned quickly with ease.

But whenever linguistic differences between L1 and L2 occur one can talk about negative transfer and the learning process can be challenging. (Decke-Cornill, Küster 2014:23).



2.2 .....



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7+∞ ;≈≈∋†;≈† =;∞≠ ≠∋≈ ∋ ⊇;+∞≤† ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞ †+ †+∞ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈† †+∞+++ +† †+∞ †;∋∞ ≈;≈≤∞ ;† ⊥++⊥+≈∞⊇ ∋ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† =;∞≠ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈.

7+∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈†≈ 0++∋≈∂+ ∋≈⊇ 7∞≈≈∞+∞+⊥ ≈∞+=∞ +∞+∞ ∋≈ ∋ †+∋∋∞≠++∂ †++ †+∞ ;≈≈∋†;≈† ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞. 0++∋≈∂+ ⊥+;≈†≈ +∞† †+∋† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∂≈+≠ ∋++∞ ∋++∞† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∋≈ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+ ∂≈+≠ +≈†+ †++∋ ;∋;†∋†;+≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞;+ ∋+;†;†+ †+ †++∋ ≈∞≠ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞≈ ++ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈. 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ +;∋ ∞=∞≈ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ≠;†+ =∞++ †;∋;†∞⊇ ≤+⊥≈;†;=∞ ∋+;†;†+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ ⊥∞;†∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈+≈†∞∋≈ ;† †+∞+ ∋+∞ +++∞⊥+† ∞⊥ ;≈ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈†∞+∋≤† ≠;†+ †+∞∋.

1† ;≈ +††∞≈ +;⊥+†;⊥+†∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈’≈ ≈+=∞† ∞††∞+∋≈≤∞≈ ≤∋≈≈+† +≈†+ +∞ †+∞ +∞⊥∞†;†;+≈≈ +† ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞≈ †+∞+ +∋=∞ +∞∋+⊇ ;≈ †+∞;+ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†. 7+;≈ ≠+∞†⊇ †∞∋⊇ †+ †+∞ †+⊥;≤∋† ⊥+++†∞∋ ;≈ 3∂;≈≈∞+'≈ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈† †+∞+++, ≈;≈≤∞ ;∋;†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞ ∋†+≈∞ ∋+∞ ∞≈∋+†∞ †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≠ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞≈ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ ++ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈. 1≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤† †+ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠;†+ +† +∞∋∋≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈† 0++∋≈∂+ +∋≈ ∋+⊥∞∞⊇ †+∋† ;† ≠+∞†⊇ ≈+† +∞ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞ ;† ∞≈†;+∞†+ +≈†+ †+++∞⊥+ ;∋;†∋†;+≈. (7;⊥+†++≠≈, 3⊥∋⊇∋ 2006:15) 8∞ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋∞≈† +∞ ∋≈ ;≈≈∋†∞ ⊥+∞⊇;≈⊥+≈;†;+≈ †++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∋†;+≈≈ ∋++∞† †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +∞†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋††∞+≈≈.

4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ +;≈ †+∞+++ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋+∞ +++≈ ≠;†+ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ;≈≈∋†∞ ∋+;†;†+“[…] †+∋† †+∞ +∞∋∋≈ ≈⊥∞≤;∞≈ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤∋††+ ∞≈⊇+≠∞⊇ ≠;†+.” (3∋=;††∞-7++;∂∞ 2009:47) †+ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+ †++ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ †+∞ ∞≈⊇∞+†+;≈⊥ +∞†∞≈ +† ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈+≈†∞∋. 6++ +;∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ ;≈ ≈;∋;†∋+ †+ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ++≠ †+ ≠∋†∂ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† +∋≈ +≈†+ ∋ +∋≈;≤ ≤+≈†+;+∞†;+≈. 7+;≈ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ∞≈≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈†+ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†+∋∋†;≤∋††+ ∋†† †+∞ †;∋∞ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ .....

7+∞+∞†++∞, 0++∋≈∂+ ≈∞⊥⊥++†≈ †+∞ ++⊥+†+∞≈;≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ;≈≈∋†∞ ≤++∞ †++ +∞∋∋≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈, ≤∋††∞⊇ †+∞ 0≈;=∞+≈∋† 6+∋∋∋∋+. 7+;≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ ≤†∋;∋≈ †+∋† ∋†† +∞∋∋≈ +∞;≈⊥≈ ;≈+∞+;† ∋ ∞≈;=∞+≈∋† ≈∞† +† ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋+∋∋∞†∞+≈ †+∋† ≤+≈†++† †+∞ ≈+∋⊥∞ +∞∋∋≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ≤∋≈ †∋∂∞. (4;†≤+∞††, 4+†∞≈ &∋∋⊥;4∋+≈⊇∞≈ 2013: 62) 1† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊥+∞-∞⊥∞;⊥⊥∞⊇ ≠;†+ 0≈;=∞+≈∋† 6+∋∋∋∋+, †+∞≈ ≠+∋† †+∞+ +∋=∞ †+ †∞∋+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋+≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∋≤⊥∞;+;≈⊥ ∋∋∂∞≈ ∞≈∞ +† †+∞≈∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈.

7+;≈ +;+†+⊥;≤∋† ∋+;†;†+ ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ ⊇∞=;≤∞ (748). 7+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;+≈ ;≈ †+∋† ∋ ≤+;†⊇ ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†≈ ⊥+∋∋∋∋+ †+++∞⊥+ ∋ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† ++⊥+†+∞≈;≈ †∞≈†;≈⊥. (3∋=;††∞- 7++;∂∞ 2009:47). 7+∞ ⊥∋≈† †∞≈≈∞ +† =∞++≈, †++ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞, ;≈ †++∋∞⊇ ++ ∋⊇⊇;≈⊥ '-∞⊇' ∋††∞+ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ =∞++≈, ≈+ †+∞ ≤+;†⊇ ≈∋+≈ ≠++≈⊥†+ „⊥+∞⊇&⊥∞+†;. 9=∞≈†∞∋††+, †+∞ ≤+;†⊇ +∞=;≈∞≈ +;≈ ++⊥+†+∞≈;≈ †+ ∋≤≤+∋∋+⊇∋†∞ ∞≠≤∞⊥†;+≈ +† †+∞ ⊥∋≈† †∞≈≈∞ +† ;++∞⊥∞†∋+ =∞++≈.

7+∞+∞†++∞, ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞≈ ++ ∞≈;≈⊥ †+∞;+ +≠≈ +∞†∞≈ +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ ++ ∋∞+∞†+ +∞⊥∞∋†;≈⊥ ≠+∋† †+∞+ +∋=∞ +∞∋+⊇. 4≈ ⊥+∞=;+∞≈†+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ 9+;≤ 8∞;≈= 7∞≈≈∞+∞+⊥ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ ;≈≈∋†;≈† =;∞≠. 8∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ †+∞ 0+;†;≤∋† 0∞+;+⊇ 8+⊥+†+∞≈;≈. 7+;≈ ++⊥+†+∞≈;≈ ≈†∋†∞≈ †+∋† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ∋≤†;=∋†∞ †+∞;+ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ 8∞=;≤∞ ∋† †+∞ +;⊥+† †;∋∞ ;≈ †+∞;+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈†, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ ≤+;†;≤∋† ⊥∞+;+⊇ ≈†∞⊥≈ ;≈ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ≈+ †+≈⊥∞+ ∋+†∞ †+ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞ †+∞;+ †;+≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈∋†∞+∋††+. 7+∞ +⊥†;∋∋† ⊥∞+;+⊇ +† †;∋∞ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ;≈ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞† ∋⊥⊥++≠;∋∋†∞†+ †∋≈†≈ †++∋ ∞∋+†+ ≤+;†⊇+++⊇ †+ ⊥∞+∞+†+.

4††∞+ †+;≈ †;∋∞ ;† ⊥∞†≈ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †+ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞ ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞. (0+††;≈≈ 2008: 86).

2.3 4+≈;†++ 4+⊇∞†



4≈+†+∞+ ∋∋+;†;+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈††∞∞≈†;∋† †+∞+++ ;≈ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† ≈∞≤+≈⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ ;≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ †+∞ ∋+≈;†++ ∋+⊇∞† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ++ 3†∞⊥+∞≈ 9+∋≈+∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ 1970’≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+†+ 1980’≈.

7+∞ ∋+≈;†++ ∋+⊇∞† ;≈ †+∞ †;+≈† †+∞+++ †+∋† ;≈ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤∋††+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† ≈∞≤+≈⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ +∞† ;† ∋†≈+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≈†++≈⊥†+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞⊇ ++ 0++∋≈∂+’≈ ⊥∞+≤∞⊥†;+≈ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈. (7;⊥+†++≠≈, 3⊥∋⊇∋ 2006: 36) 9+∋≈+∞≈’≈ ∋+⊇∞† +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ ≤+≈≈;≈†≈ +† †;=∞ ∋∋;≈ ++⊥+†+∞≈∞≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ †;≈†∞⊇ ∋≈ †+††+≠≈; †+∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈-†∞∋+≈;≈⊥-, †+∞ ∋+≈;†++-, †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∋† ++⊇∞+-, †+∞ ;≈⊥∞†-, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ †;††∞+ ++⊥+†+∞≈;≈.

8∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ †+;≈ †+∞+++ ;≈ †+∞ ∞∋+†+ 1970’≈, ≠+;†∞ †+∞+∞ ≠∋≈ ⊥++≠;≈⊥ ≤+;†;≤;≈∋ †+≠∋+⊇≈ ∋∞†++⊇≈ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈∋ (7;⊥+†++≠≈, 3⊥∋⊇∋ 2006: 36).



3. 0+;†;≤;≈∋ †+≠∋+⊇≈ 3∞+∋=;+∞+;≈∋



1† ≤∋≈ +∞ ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋† +∞+∋=;+∞+;≈∋ ;≈ ∋≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋+≈††+ ;≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †∞≈≈+≈≈.

1† ⊥++⊥+≈∞≈ †+∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋ +∋+;† †++∋∋†;+≈ ≈;∋;†∋+ †+ +†+∞+ +∋+;†≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞⊇ ∋∞†+∋∋†;≤∋††+. 7+∞ ∋+≈† ≈∞+;+∞≈ †∋∞†† +† †+;≈ †+∞+++ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ +∞ †+∞ †∋≤† †+∋† ;† ≤∋≈≈+† ∋≤≤+∞≈† †++ ++≠ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊇∞††≈ ∋+∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ≈∞≠ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞≈. 1† ;≈ ∞=;⊇∞≈† †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋≈ ;≈†;≈;†∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞≈ ;≈ ∋≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ∋+∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ≤+∋⊥.....

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