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Psychology

University, School

Coleg Sir Gar, Wales, UK

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Biological Approach

Assumptions


Evolutionary Influences

  • The theory of evolution suggests that the human mind and behaviour have changed over millions of years and have adapted to suit the demands of our individual environments.

  • Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness (EEA) - species adapts to their environment due to selective pressures of the time.

    Not all behaviours are adaptive - just those that ensure survival.

    • Explains why humans have such large brain in comparison to body size

    • Developed in response to complex social organisation


Localisation Of Brain Functions

  • Different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions

  • Cerebral cortex → higher order cognitive functions (divided into 4 lobes)

    • Frontal → creativity, personality and thinking

    • Occipital → Vision

    • Parietal → sensory information (temp., touch, pain)

    • Temporal → memory and auditory processing

  • Paul Broca - studied eight patients w/ language problems.

    All had specific damage to area in left hemisphere, known as Broca’s area and is now associated w/ language production.

    • If damaged - ability to speak will be lost


Neurotransmitters

  • Neurotransmitter = chemical substance

  • Released between neurons in brain

    • Neurons = electrically excitable cells forming base of nervous system

    • Neurotransmitters released over synapses as chemical messenger

  • According to biological approach these control physiological and psychological behaviour

  • Serotonin - can affect mood, sleep and appetite.

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  • 7++ +;⊥+ †∞=∞† = ∋≈≠;+∞≈ / ≈†+∞≈≈∞⊇

  • 7++ †+≠ †∞=∞† = ⊇∞⊥+∞≈≈∞⊇

  • 8+⊥∋∋;≈∞ - ∋≈≈+≤;∋†∞⊇ ≠/ ≈≤+;=+⊥++∞≈;∋

    • 8+∞⊥≈ †+∋† +†+≤∂ ⊇+⊥∋∋;≈∞ +∞⊇∞≤∞ ≈≤+;=+⊥++∞≈;≤ ≈+∋⊥†+∋≈


    5∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ 6++∋∋†;+≈


    • 4⊥⊥†+ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈ +† ∞=+†∞†;+≈ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +∞∋∋≈ +∞+∋=;+∞+ + †++∋∋†;+≈ +† ++∋∋≈†;≤ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈

    • 4∋†∞≈ + †∞∋∋†∞≈ ≈∞∞∂ ≈∞∞∂ +∞∋††++ +††≈⊥+;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞≈∞≈ †+ ≈∞+=;=∞

      • 3∞≠∞∋† ⊥∋+†≈∞+≈ ∋+∞ †++≈∞ ≠++ ≤∋≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++=;⊇∞ †++ +∞∋††++ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈

    • 6∞∋∋†∞≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ †∞≠ ∞⊥⊥≈, 9 ∋+≈†+≈ +† ⊥+∞⊥≈∋≈≤+, ≤+;†⊇+;+†+ ∞†≤.

      4∋†∞ ≤+≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ;≈ ∋;≈++ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈.

      • 4∋†∞≈ ≤∋≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ≈∞∞∋;≈⊥†+ ∞≈†;∋;†∞⊇ ≈+. +† +††≈⊥+;≈⊥

      • 3;+†+⊥;≤∋† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋∋†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋∋†∞≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≈∞†∞≤†;+≈ ≈†+∋†∞⊥;∞≈ †++ ∋ ⊥∋+†≈∞+

    • 6∞∋∋†∞≈ → †++∂ †++ ⊥†∞≈†;†∞† ⊥∋+†≈∞+≈

    • 4∋†∞≈ → ∋∋≠;∋;≈∞ ≤+∋≈≤∞≈ +† ⊥++⊇∞≤;≈⊥ +††≈⊥+;≈⊥ ++ ∋∋†;≈⊥ †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ∋≈⊇ ‘≈+≠;≈⊥ ≈∞∞⊇’ ≠/ ∋≈ ∋∋≈+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋≈ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞

    • 3∞≈≈ (1989)

      • 4∋†∞≈ =∋†∞∞⊇ ⊥++≈;≤∋† ∋††+∋≤†;=∞≈∞≈≈ ∋++∞

      • 6∞∋∋†∞≈ =∋†∞∞≈ ∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† ∋≈⊇ +≤≤∞⊥∋†;+≈∋† ≈†∋†∞≈ ∋++∞

    • 4∋†∞≈ +∞†;∞=∞ ∋††+∋≤†;=∞≈∞≈≈ ≤+∞†⊇ +∞ ;≈⊇;≤∋†++ +† †∞+†;†;†+ +∞† ∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† ;≈⊇;≤∋†∞≈ ∋+;†;†+ †+ ⊥++=.....








  • 7+∞+∋⊥+

    8+∞⊥ 7+∞+∋⊥+


    • 4;∋ - ∋††∞+ ≈∞∞++≤+∞∋;≤∋† ++ +++∋+≈∋† †∞≈≤†;+≈;≈⊥ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋††∞=;∋†∞ †+∞ ≈+∋⊥†+∋≈ +† †+∞ ;††≈∞≈≈

      • 8+∞⊥ †+∞+∋⊥+ - ≠++∂≈ ++ ;∋;†∋†;≈⊥ ∋≤†;+≈≈ ++ +†+≤∂;≈⊥ ††+≠ +† ≈∞∞++†+∋≈≈∋;††∞+≈


    3≤+;=+⊥++∞≈;∋

    • 0+≈;†;=∞ ≈+∋⊥†+∋≈

      • 8;≈++⊥∋≈;≈∞⊇ †+;≈∂;≈⊥

      • 8∋††∞≤;≈∋†;+≈≈

      • 8∞†∞≈;+≈≈

    • 4∞⊥∋†;=∞ ≈+∋⊥†+∋≈

      • 7∋≤∂ +† ∞≈∞+⊥+

      • 5∞⊇∞≤†;+≈ ;≈ ∋+;†;†+ †+ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈ ∞∋+†;+≈≈

      • 8∞≤+∞∋≈∞ ;≈ ∋+;†;†+ †+ ≈∞∞∂ ∞≈{++∋∞≈†

  • Impaired social relationships

  • Complex psychotic disorder involving disturbance of thought, emotion, behaviour

  • Onset = 20-30yrs

  • Lifetime prevalence - 1%

    • Depression - 5%

  • Symptoms

    • Auditory hallucinations

      • Hears noises, usually in mind, talking to each other / directly to the person

    • Delusions

      • False beliefs e......

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  • 8;≈++⊇∞+∞⊇ †+;≈∂;≈⊥

    • 7+;≈∂≈ †++∞⊥+†≈ ≠∞+∞ ;≈≈∞+†∞⊇/≠;†+⊇+∋≠≈ †++∋ †+∞;+ ∋;≈⊇

  • 0+≈†++†

    • 7∋≤∂ +† ≈∞††-≤+≈†++†

  • 0≈+≤++≈;≈

    • 7+≈≈ +† ≤+≈†∋≤† ≠/ +∞∋†;†+

  • 4∞≈† ≈∞††∞+ ⊥≈+≤++≈;≈ †+ +∞ ⊇;∋⊥≈+≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≈≤+;=+⊥++∞≈;∋


    4≈†;⊥≈+≤++†;≤ 8+∞⊥≈

    • 7+⊥;≤∋† ⊇+∞⊥ †+∞∋†∋∞≈†

      • 0†⊇∞≈† †++∋

      • 0+≈†≈ †∞∋≈† (£9 ⊥∞+ ⊥∋†;∞≈† ⊥∞+ +∞∋+)

      • 4+≈† †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ∞≈∞

        • 0+†++⊥++∋∋=;≈∞

      • 3†+≤∂ †+∋≈≈∋;≈≈;+≈ +† ⊇+⊥∋∋;≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ ++∋;≈, +;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+, +∞† ≈+† ≈†;∋∞†∋†;≈⊥, ⊇+⊥∋∋;≈∞ +∞≤∞⊥†++≈

      • 0≈†+ †++ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ≈+∋⊥†+∋≈ +† ≈≤+;=+⊥++∞≈;∋


    • 4†+⊥;≤∋† ⊇+∞⊥ †+∞∋†∋∞≈†

      • 4∞≠∞≈† †++∋

      • 4+≈† ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞ (£2,000 ⊥∞+ ⊥∋†;∞≈† ⊥∞+ +∞∋+)

        • 0†+=∋⊥;≈∞

      • 7∞∋⊥++∋+;†+ +†+≤∂ ⊇+⊥∋∋;≈∞ +∞≤∞⊥†++≈, †+∞≈ ++∞∋∂ ∋⊥∋+†, ∋††+≠;≈⊥ ≈++∋∋† ⊇+⊥∋∋;≈∞ †+∋≈≈∋;≈≈;+≈

      • 0+≈;†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ≈+∋⊥†+∋≈ +† ≈≤+;=+⊥++∞≈;∋


    • 7∞≈≈ †+⊥;≤∋† ⊇+∞⊥ †+∞∋†∋∞≈†

      • .....

  • 0+≈†≈ †∞≈≈ †+∋≈ ∋†+⊥;≤∋†



    4≈†;-∋≈≠;∞†+ 8+∞⊥≈

    • 4+≈† ≤+∋∋+≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ †+∞∋† ∋≈≠;∞†+ &∋∋⊥; ≈†+∞≈≈ = 3∞≈=+⊇;∋=∞⊥;≈∞≈ (35≈)

    • 3†+≠≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≤∞≈†+∋† ≈∞+=+∞≈ ≈+≈†∞∋ ∋≤†;=;†+

      • 9≈+∋≈≤∞≈ 6434 - +;+≤+∞∋;≤∋† - ≈∋†∞+∋† †++∋ +† ∋≈≠;∞†+ +∞†;∞†

      • 3∞†∋-+†+≤∂∞+≈ +∞⊇∞≤∞ ∋≤†;=;†+ +† ∋⊇+∞≈∋†;≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈++∋⊇+∞≈∋†;≈∞


    4≈†;⊇∞⊥+∞≈≈∋≈† 8+∞⊥≈

    • 4∋∂∞≈ ≈∞++†+≈;≈ ∋++∞ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞


    1. 4+≈+∋∋;≈∞ 0≠;⊇∋≈∞ 1≈+;+;†++≈ (4401≈)

      • 7++∋∋;≈∞ ;≈ ⊇;∞† &∋∋⊥; 4401≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ †∋†∋† ⊥+;≈+≈ (≠;≈∞, ≤+∞∞≈∞, ≤++≤+†∋†∞

    2. 7+;≤+≤†;≤ 4≈†;⊇∞⊥+∞≈≈∋≈†≈

    3. 3∞†∞≤†;=∞ 3∞++†+≈;≈ 5∞∞⊥†∋∂∞ 1≈+;+;†++≈ (3351≈)

      • 4∞≠∞≈† &∋∋⊥; ≠;†+ †∞∋≈† ≈;⊇∞ ∞††∞≤†≈.

        • 3;⊇∞ ∞††∞≤†≈ ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇ +≈ ⊥∋†;∞≈†


    4≈≈∞∋⊥†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ 7+∞+∋⊥+

    • 4∞⊇;≤∋† ∋+⊇∞† - ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ †+∞∋†∞⊇ †++ †+∞;+ ∋∞≈†∋† ;††≈∞≈≈ †+++∞⊥+ ⊇;+∞≤† ∋∋≈;⊥∞†∋.....

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