GEC1H16 Governing China: Chinese Polities and Legal System Subject Group: 101 Short Essay (Q1) The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which was established in 1921 in Shanghai, is the ruling party in China. The CCP had a membership of 86.69 million until 2013, it was the largest political party in the world. Concerning how China is governed by the Chinese Communist Party, It has the 7 pillars of the central apparatus. With reference to The Chinese Central Government’s Official Website Portal (2013), The President of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is the Head of State. The main functions and powers of president are topromulgating laws, the issue of the order of special amnesty, the proclamation of martial law, a state of war and general mobilization. The State Council of the Peoples Republic of China is the highest executive organ of State power. The State Council exercises the power of administrative legislation, the power of economic management, the power of diplomatic administration and the power of social administration. The National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the PRC is the highest organ of state power. The functions and rights of NPC are to formulate and revise the Constitution and supervise its implementation. Also, it elects members which are the most important position of people such as the president of the PRC, premier of the State Council, members of the Standing Committee of the NPC and so on. The NPC
Boston Symphony Orchestra Auditions
What is it like to walk out onto the stage at Boston’s Symphony Hall and sit behind a screen to audition for this renowned orchestra, knowing that a committee is sitting on the other side of the screen, not far away, and evaluating every nuance of your playing? A behind-the-scenes tour for Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) supporters tried to answer that question.
Our tour guides were BSO Assistant Personnel Manager Andrew Tremblay and BSO violist Rebekah Edewards.
Andrew coordinates the audition process, and Rebekah won her position in the viola section on her third audition with the BSO. Andrew is a horn player; he studied with John David Smith at the University of Delaware and has been in his position at the BSO since 2015.
The audition process starts with the announcement of an opening with the musicians’ union, the American Federation of Musicians, both nationally in the International Musician and locally (in Prelude, the Boston affiliate’s newsletter).
Although all orchestra members are members of the union, musicians can audition without being a union member.
The announcement appears about five months before the audition. The deadline for résumés is typically two months after the announcement and thus three months before the live audition. A three-person committee reviews the résumés: the principal of the section with the opening, another orchestra member (appointed by the player committee although not necessarily a member of the committee), and the orchestra Personnel Manager, currently Lynn Larsen, also a horn player, who has been with the BSO for 30 years.
Typically the committee receives 250-350 résumés for a string section position, for example.
Every audition at the BSO is a little different, depending on the position. Based on their experience, applicants are invited either to play in one of the live rounds or to submit a recording of their playing for further consideration.
Recognizing that some applicants may feel that their recording is not fully representative of their playing, the BSO has a limited appeal process. On a space available basis, candidates may be heard in the preliminary audition if they submit a personal letter requesting a live audition and two letters of recommendation in support of their appeal from professional musicians fami.....[read full text]
If approved, the job is offered immediately and is almost always immediately accepted. If no one meets the committee’s standards, then no one is hired and the position remains open for another audition.
Some critical positions require multiple auditions to fill.
Successful candidates sign a one-year contract upon acceptance. The probationary period starts on the first day of the job, usually the beginning of the next season. After the first year, usually at the end of the Tanglewood summer season, the committee votes on tenure.
If the music director heard the audition, he also votes on tenure. Thereafter, contracts are renewed each year automatically. Members stay in the orchestra until they resign or retire. Successful international candidates are responsible for doing the paperwork for work visas and so on, with the support of the BSO staff.