Market Introduction and Planning in Developing Countries by PRSP Example Kenya 140566 SE T III - Markets, Government, and Institutions Studienprogramm­lei­tung Orientalistik, Afrikanistik, Indologie und Tibetologie Prof. Alejandro Cunat Claudia Maria Niedermayr, *** Internationale Entwicklung Universität Wien Inhalt Introduction. 3 1. Economic Development 3 1.1. Economic Efficiency through Missing transaction Cost 4 2. Planning a market in developing Countries. 6 2.1. Free Markets for developing countries. 6 2.2. How to introduce markets in developing countries. 8 2.3. bottom-up introduction. 9 2.4. Structural Adjustment Papers. 10 3. Markets in Reality – Africa. 11 3.1. Market in Kenya. 12 3.2. Poverty Reduction Strategy papers. 13 4. CONCLUSION - PRSP for Africa as big support?. 14 Introduction The development of new approaches in terms of poverty reduction in “Third-wo­rld­ Countries” are constantly renewed. Actually there is a vast amount of different ideas, how markets are working and how they can support Wealth for everyone Argument: PRSP and Market liberalization in Kenya didn´t improve the economic and social situation. The introduction of PRSP is an instrument for the west to achieve its interests in foreign countries. Actually there is a vast amount of different ideas, how markets are working and how they can support Wealth for everyone. In this chapter I briefly
“Climate change-One of the biggest threats to humanity & nature”-WWF Discuss the causes and environmental consequences of global climate change Global warming is gradually becoming more of an issue day by day. It is widely known as an increase in the earths average atmospheric temperature which results in corresponding changes in climate, that could cause the greenhouse effect. Our world is getting increasingly warmer due to people adding heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere, usually by burning fossil fuels. Changes around the world, such as melting glaciers and stronger storms cause warmer temperatures. These adaptations are occurring because the Earth’s air, water, and land are all connected to the climate. People have a strong impact on the global climate issue and are causing problems that modern society has never seen before. Throughout this essay the causes and environmental consequences of global climate change will be discussed. Primarily, global warming is a major issue because of too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which acts as a blanket, trapping warmth and heating up the planet. Carbon dioxide emissions are mainly produced through natural and human activities. The gases rapid increase in the air has resulted into the focus on industrial sources of CO2, which emissions have been released through burning fossil fuels. When considering carbon dioxide being released into
Speech: Climate Change The planet is changing, and it’s changing our life in the process. In the last two decades, the warming of the planet has become increasingly more evident, as summers get longer and winters get warmer. Droughts, rising sea levels because of the melting ice caps, and increasingly more destructive storms are just the beginning. Although we don’t one hundred percent know what the future has in store for us, we can predict the outcome of this climate change - and it’s looking rather grim. The warming rate of our planet is largely influenced by human activity. Ever since the Industrial Revolution our carbon emissions have been intensifying the greenhouse effect. Factories, vehicles, houses, power plants are all contributing to it; as we relentlessly burn fossil fuels, which, although cheap, have costly consequences in store for us. While it is true that carbon dioxide is basically food for plants, we don’t have nearly enough plants on this planet to clean up after our mess. Rapid urbanization and the destruction of forests to plant crops is slowly but surely stripping the world of green, eliminating one of our defenses against the accumulation of greenhouse g..
Climate Change: A Challenge for Cities in Developing Countries
, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Geneva, Switzerland
The Impacts of Climate Change on Cities in Developing Countries
Humanity stands at a turning point in history. The year 2007 will see, for the first time, the majority of human beings living in cities. And by 2030, three-quarters of the world’s population will be living in urban areas. This urban transformation, which represents a major challenge for attaining the Millennium Development Goals, is inseparable from the issue of climate change.
The latter part of the 20th century has seen the increase in the Earth’s average temperature of 0.6˚ C. Projections of further increase in the 21st Century vary considerably, between a minimum of 1.4 C and a maximum of 5.8˚ C, depending on the level of stabilization of carbon emissions, the pace of de-carbonization of the global economy, and the patterns of demographic and economic development.
Such increases represent a dramatic shift with regard to the natural variability of the planet’s mean temperature, which has remained within 0.5˚ C over the last 1,000 years. The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (“Fourth Assessment Report") establishes a direct correlation between the sustained use of fossil fuels – which has occurred primarily in the industrialized countries – the resulting accumulation of CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere, and global warming.
Climate Change is now recognized as one of the defining challenges of the 21st century. Global warming, the risk of rising of sea levels, ever frequent and stronger tropical cyclones, and inland flooding have become significant in the public debate and media coverage. Mitigation and adaptation are no options; they are a must if humankind wants to survive.
The futures of hundreds of millions of people in urban areas across the world will be affected by the different impacts of climate change. Global warming will put cities at risk. With ongoing climate change, we are entering a new era of urban vulnerability. The rapid pace of urbanization with the concentration of an ever-increasing share of the population will also significantly increase the overall vulnerability of urban areas to natural and man-made dangers.
Global warming exacerbates existing environmental, social and economic problems, while bringing new challenges. The most affected today, and in future, will be the world’s urban poor – and chief among them, the .....[read full text]
• Sea-level rise: This is the most fundamental challenge of global warming that urban settlements face, and it will tend to increase because of the on-going influx of people and economic assets into the coastal zones. At risk are entire parts of coastal cities and their infrastructure, beaches subject to erosion, river floors in estuarine zones subject to sedimentation, and wetlands and tidal flats subject to flooding.
Groundwater is at risk of increasing salinization, and coastal aquifers at risk of decreasing, affecting fresh water supply and peri-urban agriculture.
• Tropical cyclones: Increasingly frequent and intense tropical and extra-tropical cyclones will likely cause severe wind damage and storm surges which, compounded with the sea-level rise, are expected to become a severe problem for low-lying coastal regions and cities, with particular risks for ports and other coastal infrastructure.
• Flooding and land-slides: the expected increase in the scale, intensity and frequency of the rainfall regimes in most developing countries will likely strain severely or overwhelm the storm-drainage systems of many urban centres. It will likely cause periodic flooding of low-lying areas as well as landslides and mud-slips of the geologically unstable slopes, often subject to informal settlements; cities built next to rivers or on reclaimed lands in river-bed planes will be prone to .....
There is no doubt that local authorities will be the front line actors in finding local answers to these global challenges. There are no one-size fit all solutions and each local authority will have to assess its own risks and vulnerability and plan accordingly, whether in coping with rising sea levels, cyclones, droughts, flooding, environmental refugees, in addition to already existing problems.
It is obvious that local authorities, especially secondary cities in developing countries that are growing the fastest, will be the most severely tested by these challenges. These cities, despite their rapid growth, contribute a minimal share to global greenhouse gas emissions. Yet they are the cities that are most at risk in terms of suffering the impacts of climate change.
Until now, few comprehensive examples of mitigation and adaptation at the local level exist. However, cities worldwide are alerted to take action. This is done either in sectoral fields, like for example, improved building standards, more compact settlement structures, improved energy efficiency, transport demand management, the use of cleaner energy sources as well as first examples of municipal climate change action plans that also foresee the hardening up of infrastructure or the long-term relocation of the most vulnera.....
Sustainable urbanization can only be achieved if the rate of formation of slums is stabilized, subsequently reduced and ultimately reversed. This will require, in addition to sustained economic growth, direct and focused efforts to making human settlements more productive and socially inclusive through good governance.
The Sustainable Urban Development Network (SUD-Net)
The MTSIP defines six key focus areas to give greater impact for UN-HABITAT’s activities. The proposed SUD-Net is dedicated to contribute to all key focus areas, but more precisely to key focus area 2 “Participatory urban planning, management and governance”.
The objective of this key focus area is to strengthen the performance of national governments, the power of decision-making of local authorities and other stakeholders to enable the development of liveable, productive and inclusive cities. This will be done through policy dialogue, tool development, capacity building, pilot initiatives, and country wide technical assistance.
SUD-Net relates directly to the goal as outlined in the Habitat Agenda, namely, “Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world”. More specifically the long term goal of SUD-Net is to enhance climate change mitigation and preparedness of cities .....
Climate change impacts on human settlements and the adaptive capabilities of local government as well as their responsiveness in the context of governance structures and participation of the civil society are the first testing ground for SUD-Net ( The network focuses on urban governance, decentralization, and environmental management.
Local governments are supported to achieve greater responsibility for comprehensive approaches including integrated planning and better management to achieve sustainable urban development. The initiative advises cities on how to mitigate and adapt to climate change through improved urban planning and management, and shares lessons of experiences and best practices from other networking partners.
Approaches that can be used to cope with the impacts of climate change include educational and training initiatives on the environment and sustainable urban development. While it is recognized that women carry specific burdens of climate change, it must also be recognized that women can make specific contributions to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Thus, the gender dimension of climate change is incorpora.....
·Energy (including alternative and CO2 neutral energy resources)
·Economy (including local economic development and the development of the private sector)
This broader approach is meant to contribute to the overall aim to achieve decentralized, proactive, liveable, productive and inclusive cities, towns and villages through an ecologically sound growth that is people centric and embraces social harmony, economic vitality and environmental sustainability.
Through SUD-Net, that has started in mid-2008, and that has initially been funded by the Government of Norway, it is expected that
Local Governments and their associations will actively collaborate in global, regional and national networks to pursue goals of sustainable urbanization, using cities and climate .....