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Cloning: Definition, types and stemm cell research

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Biology

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Gymnasium Bielefeld

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2, Prof, 2012

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Text by Luciano Z. ©
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Cloning: Definition, types and stemm cell research

Table of contents:

  1. Definiton of clones

  2. 3 types of cloning

  3. Stem cell research , Definition of Stem cells, iPS cells

Vocab


What are clones?

-Clones are defined by having identical genetic material. That means their sequence of bases in their DNA is exactly the same. A DNA consists out of 4 bases.

Twins are an example for being clones, because they do have exactly the same DNA.

Another example is a Bacterium. It can clone/ replicate himself and is used in science.


The 3 types of cloning:

It is especially used for one of the 3 types of cloning – the Recombinant DNA Technology

ENTER

-To make use of this technique, scientists take a DNA fragment containing the gene, they want to clone.

-Then they connect the gene with a cloning vector (transport medium) in the lab.

-They both form a "recombinant DNA molecule."

-Now you introduce it into suitable host cells, in this case a bacterium. As we already heard a bacterium can replicate himself and the gene you want to clone is replicated with.

~The next topic is the Reproductive Cloning, as you already can see in the background Dolly the sheep is cloned .....[read full text]


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8+††+ †+∞ ≈+∞∞⊥:

8+††+ ≠∋≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ∋∋∋∋∋† †+ +∞ ≤†+≈∞⊇. 4 ⊥++∞⊥ +† ≈≤;∞≈†;≈† ∋† †+∞ 5+≈†;≈ 1≈≈†;†∞†∞ ;≈ 3≤+††∋≈⊇ ≤†+≈∞⊇ †+∞ ≈+∞∞⊥, ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈ +++≈ +≈ 5†+ 1∞†+ ;≈ 1996.


5∞⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ 0†+≈;≈⊥:

3+ ++≠ ⊇;⊇ †+∞+ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞ ;† †+ ≤†+≈∞ 8+††+?

-7+∞ 5∞⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ 0†+≈;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +∞⊥;≈≈ ++ +∞∋+=;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈∞≤†∞∞≈, ≠+;≤+ ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ †+∞ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ ∋∋†∞+;∋†, †++∋ †+∞ ∞⊥⊥ ≤∞††.

-7+∞≈ †+∞+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∞†∞≤†+;≤ ≈++≤∂≈ †+ †∞≈∞ ≠;†+ +≈∞ ∞⊥⊥ ≤∞††, ≠++≈∞ ≈∞≤†∞∞≈ ;≈ +∞∋+=∞⊇.

-4+≠ ++∞ +∋=∞ “6∞≈∞⊇ 9⊥⊥ 0∞††”, ≠+;≤+ †+∞+ ;≈≈∞+†∞⊇ ;≈†+ ∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≈+∞∞⊥ ∋††∞+ ≤∞†† ⊇;=;≈;+≈ +∋≈ ≈†∋+†∞⊇, †+∞ ++≈† ∋+†+∞+.

-7+∞ ++≈† ∋+†+∞+ ≤∋++;∞≈ +∞† †+∞ †∞†∞≈, ≠+;≤+ +∞≤∋∋∞ 8+††+.


7+∞ 3 †+⊥∞≈ +† ≤†+≈;≈⊥2:

7∞†’≈ ≈∞∋ ∞⊥ ≠+∋† ≠∞’=∞ †∞∋+≈∞⊇ +†+∞+ †+∞ †≠+ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈.

-5∞≤+∋+;≈∋≈† 844 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∞ †+∋≈≈†∞+ +† ∋ 844 †+∋⊥∋∞≈† +† ;≈†∞+∞≈† †++∋ +≈∞ ++⊥∋≈;≈∋ †+ ∋ ≈∞††-+∞⊥†;≤∋†;≈⊥ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ ∞†∞∋∞≈† ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋ +∋≤†∞+;∋† ⊥†∋≈∋;⊇.

-4≈⊇ †+∞ 5∞⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ 0†+≈;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ≈†∋+†≈ ++ †+∞ †+∋≈≈†∞+ +† ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ ∋∋†∞+;∋† †+ ∋≈ ∞⊥⊥ ≠;†+ ≈+ ≈∞≤†∞∞≈. 7+∞≈ †+∞ ∞⊥⊥ ⊥∞†≈ ≈†;∋∞†∋†∞⊇ ≠+;≤+ ≤∋∞≈∞≈ ≤∞†† ⊇;=;≈;+≈. 4††∞+ †+∋† †+∞ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ∞∋++++ ;≈ †+∋≈≈†∞++∞⊇ †+ ∋ †∞∋∋†∞ ++≈†, ≠+;.....

~7+∞ †∋≈† †+⊥∞ +† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ;≈ 7+∞+∋⊥∞∞†;≤ 0†+≈;≈⊥, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+. 7+∞+∞†++∞ ++∞ ∞≠†+∋≤† ≈†∞∋ 0∞††≈ †++∋ ∞∋++++≈, ≠+;≤+ ⊥∞† ⊇∞≈†+++∞⊇ ++ †+;≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈.

7+∞+∋⊥∞∞†;≤ 0†+≈;≈⊥:

-The idea behind this is to use the stem cells to grow genetically matched tissue or even whole organs to replace anything that has been damaged by disease or accident

-But in order to get the versatile stem cells, the embryos they are taken from get destroyed. That means you kill a potential human live. This ethical problem has been discussed all other the world and at the end of the lesson we can also debate on this topic.

~ Now, what are stem cells?


Stem cells:

Stem cells contain the genetic material from which we are built and they can turn themselves into any type of cell in the body. But the most versatile, the most useful stem cells, which are called ES cells, are in the embryo. This leads us to the ethical problem, which a Japanese scientist tried to solve.


.....

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1≈ 2007 3+;≈+∋ 5∋∋∋≈∋∂∋ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ ;03 ≤∞††≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ =∞++ ≤†+≈∞ †+ †+∞ ≈†∞∋ ≤∞††≈ †++∋ †+∞ ∞∋++++≈. 6++ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ;03 ≤∞††≈, ∞⊥⊥≈ ∋+∞ ≈+† ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ ≈+ ≈+ ∞∋++++ ⊥∞†≈ ⊇∞≈†+++∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †++ †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∋≈ ∞≈∞†∞† ∋≈ †+∞ ≈†∞∋ ≤∞††≈. 4≈+†+∞+ ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∋† †+∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ;≈⊇∞†;≈;†∞ ≈∞∋+∞+. 7+∞+ ∋+∞ ≈+† †;∋;†∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ∞∋++++≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †∋+.


;03 ≤∞††≈2:

3+ ≠+∋† ≤∋≈ ∋ ≈≤;∞≈†;≈† ⊇+ ≠;†+ ;03 ≤∞††≈?

-;03 ≤∞††≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †++ ≈†+⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∋ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞ ++ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ;03 ≤∞††≈ †++∋ ⊥∋†;∞≈†≈ ≠;†+ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈, +∞⊥++⊥+∋∋∋;≈⊥ †+∞∋ †+ ∋≈ ;03 ≤∞†† ≈†∋†∞, ≠∋†≤+;≈⊥ ≠+;≤+ ⊥∞≈∞≈ ⊥+ ≠++≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †;≈⊇;≈⊥ ∋ ≠∋+ †+ ≈†+⊥ †+∞ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞ ;≈ †+∞;+ †+∋≤∂≈
-;03 ≤∞††≈ ≤∋≈ ∋†≈+ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥++≠ ≈∞≠ †;≈≈∞∞ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥∋≈≈, ≠+;≤+ ≤∋≈ +∞⊥†∋≤∞ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞⊇ +≈∞≈.

3∞† ;† ≤∋≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈ †+∋† †+∞ ++⊇+’≈ ;∋∋∞≈∞ ≈+≈†∞∋ ∋††∋≤∂≈ †+∞ ≈∞≠ ++⊥∋≈≈. ;03 ≤∞††≈ ≤∋≈ ∋†≈+ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ∋+⊇∞†∋†∞ †+∞ ++⊇+’≈ ;∋∋∞≈∞ ≈+≈†∞∋ †+∋† ;† ⊇+∞≈≈’† ∋††∋≤∂ †+∞ ≈∞≠ ++⊥∋≈≈.
4∞=∞+†+∞†∞≈≈ †+;≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† ⊥++≠;≈⊥ ∋∋†≤+∞⊇ †;≈≈∞∞ ;≈ =∞++ ∞≠⊥∋≈≈;=∞. 7+∋† ;† ≠++∂∞⊇ ≈++≠≈ ∞≈ ∋≈ ∋+†;≤†∞ ∋++∞† ∋ ++∞≈⊥ ⊥;+†, ≠+;≤+ ≠∞ ∋+∞ ≈+≠ ⊥+;≈⊥ .....


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