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Designer Babies: Biology Gene Editing

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Mrs. Martin - English CP10 Eugenics, the Future of Medicine Imagine selecting genes and even to be able to shape your child’s characteristics­. Imagine choosing their sex, their hair color, their eye color, their musical or their writing abilities, their sports, dance or artistic abilities, or even their level of intelligence. With eugenics, the applied science in which the gene pool of humans can be specifically selected, this all could be possible very soon. (Toth) Cloning of animals and also of humans was already available in 1997. The first cloned animal was Dolly the sheep which was created in Scotland (Kass). Because of religion and the belief that eugenics would violate god’s law by affecting our children’s genes, a lot of people are instantly against eugenics. But who are people to say, what gods will is? Why should not parents be allowed to help their children to a healthy life? What should be the role of the science of medicine in the debate between progress and religion?  “A doctor comes to a man, and the man says: ‘Who are you to violate God’s will by intervening in my health?’ and the Rabbi says: ‘I’m the doctor—tell me, what do you do for a living?’ and the man says: ‘I’m a farmer.’ ‘When you plant and grow and cultivate, you’re forcing the earth to bring forth a crop that would not ordinarily grow . is that a violation of god’s will?” (Sandel). From this point of view, God
Designer Babies: Biology Gene Editing

Around 7.9 million children each year are born with a serious birth defect due to genetic inheritance, 30% of all deaths worldwide are due to chronic diseases (such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes) in those under 70. (Genetics, Christopher Gyngell, 2018, pg.1).

With technology advancements and extensive testing and research designer babies and genetic engineering may one day give parents the opportunity of modifying their unborn child to prevent them having debilitating diseases.

The term "designer baby" refers to a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of genes or characteristics. (Future for All, 2018, pg. 1)

Genetic testing is a medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.

The results from the test alert us about suspected genetic condition and can help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is the term used to describe the process used to perceive a child outside the
body.

IVF involves extracting the eggs from the women’s ovaries and fertilising them for a few days in a specialised laboratory. The fertilised egg (embryos) which is now called a zygote is placed back into the uterus. (IVF Australia, 2018, pg.1). This procedure has led to another procedure which allows parents to weed out genetically defective embryos. This is called preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)

PGD is commonly used during an IVF procedure to test an embryo for genetic disorders before the zygote is inserted into the woman's uterus.

Once the egg is fertilized, a cell from each embryo is taken and then examined under a microscope to identify signs of genetic disorders. (PGD Laboratories, 2018, pg.1) This procedure is used by many couples that are aware of any inherited disorders in their genes to decrease the possibility that the disorder will passed to their child. Currently, PGD can be used to detect many disorders life changing diseases, including cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease and haemophilia A.

Some genetic disorders are specific to one gender or another, for example haemophilia, which g.....[read full text]

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3;†+ 126 ∋≈⊇ 068 ⊇+≤†++≈ ≤∋≈ ∞≠∋∋;≈∞ †+∞ ≤∞††≈ †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ †+∞ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ +† †+∞ ∞∋++++. 1≈ ∋≈ ∞=∞≈† ≠+∞+∞ ∋ †∋∋;†+ +∋≈ ∋ +;≈†+++ +† +∋∞∋+⊥+;†;∋, †+∞+ ≤∋≈ ≈∞†∞≤† +≈†+ †∞∋∋†∞ ∞∋++++≈ †++ ⊥†∋≤∞∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ∞†∞+∞≈ ;≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† ∋∋†∞ ∞∋++++≈. 068 ∞∋⊥+≠∞+≈ ∞≈ †+ ⊥;≤∂ +∞† ∞∋++++≈ †+∋† ⊇+≈'† +∋=∞ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ ⊇;≈++⊇∞+≈, ∋≈⊇ ≤++≈∞ †+∞ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ≠∞ ≠∋≈†, ++≠∞=∞+ ∋≈+†+∞+ ∋∞†++⊇ †+∋† ≤+∞†⊇ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋††+ ≈++≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ +∞∋∋≈ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤≈ ;≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ ⊥∞+∋†;≈∞ ⊥∞≈∞ †+∞+∋⊥+.

7+;≈ ⊥++≤∞⊇∞+∞ ;≈ †;∂∞ 068 +∞† +∋≈ ∋≈ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ ≈†∞⊥. 6∞+∋;≈∋† ≤∞††≈ ∋+∞ +∞+ +∞⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ ≤∞††≈. 7+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ ∋∞∋≈≈ ∋∋≈;⊥∞†∋†;≈⊥ ⊥∞≈∞≈ ⊥† †+∞ ≈⊥∞+∋, ∞⊥⊥ ++ ∞∋++++. 3+ ⊇+;≈⊥ †+;≈ ≠∞ ∋+∞ ∋⊇⊇;≈⊥ ≈∞≠ ⊥∞≈∞≈ †+ †+∞ ≤∞††≈, †+;≈ ∋∋∂∞≈ ;† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+∋† ∋+≈† †+∋;†≈ ≤+∞†⊇ +∞ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ ∋≈ ∞∋++++ †+ ≤+∞∋†∞ ∋ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞+ ≤+;†⊇. (8+≠ 3†∞†† 3++∂≈, 2018, ⊥⊥.4)

6∞≈∞†;≤ ≈≤+∞∞≈;≈⊥ ≤∋≈ +∞⊇∞≤∞ ∋ +∋+;∞≈ ≤+∋≈≤∞≈ +† +∞;≈⊥ +++≈ ≠;†+ ≈∞+;+∞≈, †;†∞ ∋††∞≤†;≈⊥ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 8+≠≈ ≈+≈⊇++∋∞, ≈⊥;≈∋† ∋∞≈≤∞†∋+ ∋†++⊥++, ≤+≈†;≤ †;+++≈;≈, †∋∋;†;∋† ++⊥∞+≤++†∞≈†∞++†∞∋;∋, +∋+∞ +†++⊇ ⊇;≈++⊇∞+≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 8;∋∋+≈⊇-3†∋≤∂ †∋≈ ∋≈∋∞∋;∋.(6∞≈∞†;≤ 3≤+∞∞≈;≈⊥, 2018, ⊥⊥.2) 6∋∋;†;∞≈ ≠;†+ ;≈+∞+;†∞⊇ ∋∞⊇;≤∋† ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ †;∂∞ ⊇;∋+∞†∞≈, ++∞≈;†+, ++⊥∞+†∞≈≈;+≈, ++ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈ †;∂∞ 0∋+∂;≈≈+≈’≈ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞, †+∋†∋≈≈∞∋;∋, ≤∋≈≤∞+, ∋+†++;†;≈, ++⊥+†++++;⊇;≈∋, 4†=+∞;∋∞+'≈ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞ ≤+∞†⊇ +∋=∞ †+∞ +⊥†;+≈ †+ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈ †+∞;+ +≠≈ +∋+;∞≈ †+ ⊥+∞=∞≈† †+∞ ≈∞≠† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈ †++∋ ;≈+∞+;†;≈⊥ ⊥∞≈∞≈ ≠;†+ †+∞≈∞ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈.

7+∞ ∋∋;≈ ;⊇∞∋ +† +∋=;≈⊥ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋+;∞≈ ;≈ †+ ;∋⊥++.....

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈ †+∋† ∋+∞ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞⊇ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ +∞∋≈+≈≈. 6∞≈∞†;≤ ∞≈⊥;≈∞∞+;≈⊥ ≤∋≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∋≈ +⊥†;+≈ †++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠++ ≠∋≈† †+ ⊥++†∞≤† †+∞;+ †∞†∞+∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈≈ †++∋ ∋≤⊥∞;+;≈⊥ †∋†∋† ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞+;†;†∋†;≈⊥ ;††≈∞≈≈∞≈ †+∋† +∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ †∋∋;†+.

8∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋+;∞≈ ∋∋+ ∋†≈+ +∞ +∞†⊥†∞† †++ ⊥∋+∞≈†≈ ≠++ +∋=∞ ∋≈ ∞≠;≈†;≈⊥ ≤+;†⊇ ≠++ ≤∋++;∞≈ ∋ ≈∞+;+∞≈ ;††≈∞≈≈.

3;†+ ≈∞≠ ⊥∞≈∞≈ †++∋ ∋ †∋∋;†+ ∋∞∋+∞+, †+∞+ ≤∋≈ ∞≠†+∋≤† ≈†∞∋ ≤∞††≈ †++∋ †+∞ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞⊇ +∋++ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈∞ †+∞∋ †+ †+∞∋† †+∞ ≈;+†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ ∋ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞, ⊥++†+≈⊥;≈⊥ †+;≈ ≤+;†⊇’≈ †;†∞.

7+∞ ≈≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ +∞+;≈⊇ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋+;∞≈ ;≈ ≈+ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠.

6∞≈∞†;≤ ∞≈⊥;≈∞∞+;≈⊥ +∋≈≈’† +∞∞≈ ⊥∞+†∞≤†∞⊇ +∞† ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ≤+∋⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ +;≈∂≈ ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;†∞ +† †+∞≈∞ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋+;∞≈.

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋∋≈+ +;≈∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞≈ ≠∞ ∋∞≈† +=∞+≤+∋∞ +∞†++∞ ≠∞ ≈†∋+† ∞≈;≈⊥ 068 ∋≈⊥ 667 †+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞†;†≈ +† ⊥∞≈∞ ∞⊇;†;≈⊥.

Safety is the biggest challenge scientists are trying to overcome. Following global ethical standards, no experiments should be conducted where there is a high risk of harm to the participant, and a low chance of benefit. Current techniques and procedures are imprecise and can possibly lead to extensive damage to the genome. It would be unethical if a child was born whose genome was edited with current techniques.

A risk associated with designer babies could be that we end up with low biodiversity throughout a whole generation.

Low biodiversity means a lowering of the immunity to different virus’ and diseases that may spring up as well as less difference between people; if it is seen that blue eyes is favourable over other coloured eyes, then eventually the gene pool in society would consist of most blue genomes and a tiny proportion of other colours. Although this may be a simple example, the larger spread of immunity to disease and other cond.....

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8∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋+;∞≈ ≤+∞†⊇ ∋†≈+ †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋≈ ;∋+∋†∋≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+≈.

7+;≈ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋ ∋∋≈≈;=∞ ⊥+++†∞∋ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 0+;≈∋ ≠∞+∞ +++≈ ∋+∞ †∋=+∞+∞⊇ +=∞+ ⊥;+†≈. 8∋=;≈⊥ †+∞ +⊥†;+≈ †+ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈ +∞+ +∋+;∞≈ ≤+∞†⊇ †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋ ≈∞⊥∞+†;≤;∋† ≈+≤;∞†+. 6∞†∞+∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≈+ ††∋≠≈, †+∞+ ≠;†† +∞ ;≈†∞††;⊥∞≈†, ≈⊥++†+ ∋≈⊇ †++∂ †;∂∞ ≈∞⊥∞+ ∋+⊇∞†≈.

0∞++∞≈††+ ;† ;≈ ∞≈∞†+;≤∋† †+ ∞≈∞ ⊥++≤∞⊇∞+∞≈ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ †+ ≤+∞∋†∞ ∋ ‘⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋++’, +∞† ≠;†+ +∋⊥;⊇†+ ∋⊇=∋≈≤;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ∋≈⊇ †∞+†+∞+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞≈ 1 †+;≈∂ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞+ +∋+;∞≈ ≤+∞†⊇ +∞ ∋ +∞∋† ⊥+≈;†;=∞ †++ +∞+ ≈+≤;∞†+.

1≈ †+∞ †∞†∞+∞ ;† †+;≈ ⊥++≤∞⊇∞+∞ ;≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞∞†≈ †+∞ ⊥†++∋† ∞†+;≤∋† ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇≈ 1 †+;≈∂ ;† ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ ∞†;†;≈∞⊇ +∞† +≈†+ ;† ;† ;≈ ∋⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞. 1 †+;≈∂ †+∞+∞ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ †;∋;†∋†;+≈≈ †+ ≠+∋† ;† ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †++. 6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ +≈†+ ∞≈∞ ;† †++ ⊥+∞=∞≈†;≈⊥ ≈∞+;+∞≈ +;+†+ ⊇∞†∞.....







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