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Does the Taming of the Shrew subvert the conventions of Paduan society

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Does The Taming of the Shrew subvert the conventions of Paduan society? Discuss.

It is beyond the scope of this essay to examine the relationship between Elizabethan society and the Paduan society described in the play or to discuss how far conventions were real or literary. But the action of the play rests on certain assumptions about class, the relationships of servants and masters, the duty of children to fathers, courtship, dowries and marriage.

In the first part I will discuss the way the play uses expected conventions and in the second part the way they are turned upside down. This way of looking at the play sheds an interesting light on the final speech.


Critics have questioned the value of the Induction, but it serves to introduce the idea of hierarchy and class relationships and it briefly encapsulates the reversal of the normal social order. Sly is transported from the street outside the alehouse, where he has collapsed, to a Lord’s chamber which is the height of Elizabethan luxury and described in language in which all the senses are pleased. “Take him up gently and to bed with him” this physical movement of Sly between the tavern and the Lord’s house reflects his movement between the status of the poor “rogue” and a Lord.

Christopher Sly as a lowly tinker, shouts “for God’s sake, a pot of small ale” not knowing he would be expected to order wine. The ways in which the Lord and his men convince Sly that he is a Lord (“Thou art a Lord and nothing but a Lord”), show that many identities are truly formed by how people treat us and by the names that we are called.

This is elaborately expanded in the main play where the identities of servants, masters and fathers are switched and where the conventions of courtship and marriage are transformed. Although the Induction portrays a reversal of the normal social order, the effect is actually to show the traditional power of a Lord who is able to use his privileged position to dupe a poor tinker.

In Act 1, scene 1 the conversation of Lucentio and Tranio demonstrates the many features of the master-servant relationship made conventional by Commedia dell’ Arte. ‘The innamorati seek assistance from servant characters called zanni who, with cunning intervention, bring the play to a happy conclusion.’ 1 Lucentio is poetic, idealistic and ambitious to “deck his fortunes with his virtuous deeds” Tranio is full of practical common sense “no profit grows where there is no pleasure tane” and more rapidly appraises the practicalities of Lucentio’s propo.....[read full text]

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1≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ≈≤∞≈∞ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †∋†+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠⊥†++∞⊇. 9∋†∞ ≤†∞∋+†+ †∋;†≈ †+ †;=∞ ∞⊥ †+ ≠+∋† ;≈ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋††+ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ +† +∞+ ∋≈ ∋ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+. 3+∞ ;≈ ∋+∞≈;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊥++ ∋ “†;∞≈⊇ +† +∞††” ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇ †+ +∞+ ∋⊥⊥∋+∞≈††+ ⊇∞†;†∞† ≈;≈†∞+ 3;∋≈≤∋ ≠++ ++∞+≈ +∞+ †∋†+∞+ ∋∞∞∂†+ “≈;+ †+ ++∞+ ⊥†∞∋≈∞+∞ +∞∋+†+ 1 ≈∞+≈≤+;+∞”.

4+≈∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+≠+;∞≈ ∋+∞ ∋†≈+ ∞≠≤∞⊥†;+≈∋††+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ;≈ 0∋⊇∞∋≈ ≈+≤;∞†+. 1≈ 4≤† 1 3≤∞≈∞ 2 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ≈†∋†∞≈ †+∋† +∞ ;≈†∞≈⊇≈ †+ “≠;=∞ ;† ≠∞∋††++ ;≈ 0∋⊇∞∋; 1† ≠∞∋††+;†+ †+∞≈ +∋⊥⊥;†+”. 8+≠∞=∞+ ≤+∞⊇∞ ∋≈⊇ +††∞≈≈;=∞ 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ ∋† +∞+ †;+≈† ∋∞∞†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ +;∋, +∞ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ +⊥∞≈ ∋++∞† +;≈ ≈∞∞∂;≈⊥ +† ≠∞∋††+.

7+;≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈++≠ +;∋ ;≈ ⊥∞;†∞ ∋ +∋⊇ †;⊥+† ∋≈ +∞ ;≈ ;∋⊥†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ∋∋++;∋⊥∞ ++;≈⊥≈ ∋++∞† +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈, ≈+† †++ †+=∞’≈ ≈∋∂∞ +∞† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ∋∋+++;≈⊥ ∋ ≠∞∋††++ ≠;†∞ ++;≈⊥≈ +;≤+∞≈ †+∋†, ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 0∞†+∞≤+;+, ;≈ +≈ ⊥∋+ ≠;†+ †+=∞. 8++†∞≈≈;+ ∞≈∞≈ ;∋∋⊥∞++ +† ≠∞∋††+ +∞† ;≈ ∋ ++∋∋≈†;≤ ≠∋+, “7∋+++, 0∞†+∞≤+;+, 1 ∋∞≈† ⊥+ ≠;†+ †+∞∞, 6++ ;≈ 3∋⊥†;≈†∋’≈ ∂∞∞⊥ ∋+ †+∞∋≈∞+∞ ;≈: 8∞ +∋†+ †+∞ {∞≠∞† +† ∋+ †;†∞ ;≈ ++†⊇, 8;≈ ++∞≈⊥∞≈† ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+, +∞∋∞†;†∞† 3;∋≈≤∋,” 8++†∞≈≈;+’≈ †;⊥∞+∞ +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ;≈ ≈+† ∋≈ ≤+∞⊇∞ ∋≈ 0∞†+∞≤+;+’≈ +=∞+† ∞⊥∞∋†;+≈ +† ≠;=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞∋††+, +∞† †+;≈ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ ⊇+∞≈ †+∞∋⊇ ⊇∋≈⊥∞++∞≈†+ ≤†+≈∞, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ∋≈ 8++†∞≈≈;+ ∋≤≤∞≈∞≈ 3∋⊥†;≈†∋ +† ++∋+⊇;≈⊥ +;≈ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+.

7+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ ∋∋⊇∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ∋∞+≤∞≈∋++ †+=∞+ 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ++∋∋≈†;≤ †+=∞+ 8++†∞≈≈;+.

1≈ 4≤†≈ 1 ∋≈⊇ 2 ≠∞ ≈∞∞ ∋∋++;∋⊥∞≈ †+∞∋†∞⊇ ∋≈ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ †+∋≈≈∋≤†;+≈≈. 8++†∞≈≈;+ ∋≈⊇ 6+∞∋;+ ∋⊥+∞∞ †+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ;≈ +;≈ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈∞≈ ;≈ ≠;≈;≈⊥, 9∋†∞ †∋+;≈⊥ ∋≈;⊇∞ †+∞;+ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†;+≈ ∞≈†;† †+∋† ++≈†∋≤†∞ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≈∞+∋+∞≈†∞⊇. “1 ⊥++∋;≈∞⊇ ≠∞ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ≤+≈†+;+∞†++≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞∋+ †+∞ ≤+∋+⊥∞ +† ≠++;≈⊥, ≠+∋†≈+∞’∞+”.

1≈ †+∞ 7∋∋;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 3++∞≠ +≈∞ +† †+∞ ≤+∋∞⊇;≤ ⊇∞=;≤∞≈ †+∋† 3+∋∂∞≈⊥∞∋+∞ ∞≈∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ +;⊇⊇;≈⊥ ≤+≈†∞≈† +∞†≠∞∞≈ 3;∋≈≤∋’≈ ≈∞;†++≈ ≠+;≤+ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ ;⊥≈++∞≈ +∞+ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈. 4† †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† †+∞ ∞≠†∞≈⊇∞⊇ =∞++∋† ⊇∞∞†;≈⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 9∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0∞†+∞≤+;+, 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ≤+∋∞≈ +∞† ≠;†+ †+∞ ++∞†∋† †∋≤† “†+∞≈ ;≈ ⊥†∋;≈ †∞+∋≈: ++∞+ †∋†+∞+ +∋†+ ≤+≈≈∞≈†∞⊇ †+∋† ++∞ ≈+∋†† +∞ ∋+ ≠;†∞, ++∞+ .....

6;≈∋††+ ;≈ 4≤† 3 ≈≤∞≈∞ 2 ≠∞ +∞∋+ 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ≈⊥∞∋∂ ∋++∞† 9∋†∞ “1 ≠;†† +∞ ∋∋≈†∞+ +† ≠+∋† ;≈ ∋;≈∞ +≠≈: ≈+∞ ;≈ ∋+ ⊥++⊇≈, ∋+ ≤+∋††∞†≈; ≈+∞ ;≈ ∋+ ++∞≈∞, ∋+ ++∞≈∞++†⊇-≈†∞††, ∋+ †;∞†⊇, ∋+ +∋+≈, ∋+ +++≈∞, ∋+ +≠, ∋+ ∋≈≈, ∋+ ∋≈+†+;≈⊥”. 0∞†+∞≤+;+’≈ ≠++⊇≈ ∋+∞ ⊇∞†;=∞+∞⊇ ≠+∞≈ +∞ ;≈ ⊥†∋+;≈⊥ †+∞ “++†∞” +† ∋ ⊇+∋;≈∞∞+;≈⊥ +∞≈+∋≈⊇ (+∞† ∋†† ∋≈ ⊥∋+† +† +;≈ ≠;†∞ †∋∋;≈⊥ ≈≤+∞∋∞).

8+≠∞=∞+, +;≈ ;≈≈;≈†∞≈≤∞ †+∋† 9∋†∞ ;≈ +;≈ ⊥++⊥∞+†+ ∞≤++∞≈ †+∞ +∞∋† ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ +† ∋+≈† 9†;=∋+∞†+∋≈ ≠+∋∞≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇†∞≈≈ +† +∞≈+∋≈⊇≈’ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈. ‘3+∞≈ ∋ ≠+∋∋≈ ⊥+† ∋∋++;∞⊇, ≈+∞ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋††+ †+≈† ∋†† ≤+≈†++† +=∞+ +∞+ ⊥++⊥∞+†+, ∞=∞≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ ≤†+†+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ {∞≠∞†++; +∞+ +∞≈+∋≈⊇ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈∞†† †+∞∋, †+++≠ †+∞∋ +∞†, ++ ⊥;=∞ †+∞∋ ∋≠∋+ ∋≈ +∞ ⊥†∞∋≈∞⊇.’1



3+ †∋+ ≠∞ +∋=∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇ †+∞ ∋≈≈∞∋⊥†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈≈ ;≈ 0∋⊇∞∋≈ ≈+≤;∞†+. 3†∋+†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ †+∞ =∞++∋† ⊇∞∋† +∞†≠∞∞≈ 9∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ;≈ 4≤† 2 ≈≤∞≈∞ 1 †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞⊇;∞≈≤∞ +∞⊥;≈ †+ †+≈∞ †+∞;+ +∞∋+;≈⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈++∋∋† ++⊇∞+ +† †+;≈⊥≈ ;≈ †∞+≈∞⊇ ∞⊥≈;⊇∞ ⊇+≠≈.

Petruchio’s courtship has an unconventional range of feeling comprising sarcasm, insults, bawdy, tenderness and finally mercenary fact. They dual as equals, subverting the expected relationship between an adoring suitor and his love. Conventions are flouted, but the scene ends with the feeling that the couple has really engaged their emotions and their minds and the play reaches a level of energy, which is sustained from then on. The sources of the play are relevant here.

The Sly induction is derived from a story in the Arabian nights, the subplot of servant and master disguises derives from an English version of Ariosto’s I Suppositi but there seems to be no clear source for the main plot of the taming except for folk law and ballads. 3 It is therefore likely that Shakespeare’s invention is most active from this point in the play and it is his imagination which is responsible for the comic reversal of c.....

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7+∞ ≠∞⊇⊇;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋ †+∋=∞≈†+ +† ∋ ⊇∞∞⊥†+ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ≤∞+∞∋+≈+. 3;+≈⊇∞††+ ⊥+∞⊥∋+∞≈ †++ 0∞†+∞≤+;+’≈ ∋++;=∋† ≠;†+ ∋ ⊇∞†∋;†∞⊇ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ +† +;≈ =∋≈+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∋≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ +;≈ ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞ +;⊇⊇∞≈ +++≈∞. 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ∋++;=∞≈ †∋†∞, ∋≈≈∋∞††≈ †+∞ ⊥+;∞≈†, ∂;≈≈∞≈ †+∞ ++;⊇∞ ≠;†+ ∋ “≤†∋∋+++∞≈ ≈∋∋≤∂” ∋≈⊇ ;≈≈;≈†≈ +≈ †∞∋=;≈⊥ +∞†++∞ †+∞ ≠∞⊇⊇;≈⊥ †∞∋≈†, +∞†+∋⊥;≈⊥ +;≈ †∋†+∞+ ;≈ †∋≠, †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇, ∋+≈† +† ∋††, 9∋†∞.

7+∞ ++∋∞≤+∋;≈⊥ ∋† 0∞†+∞≤+;+’≈ ++∞≈∞ ;≈ 4≤† 4 ≈≤∞≈∞ 1 ;≈ ≤+†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;≈++≈⊥;†∋+†∞ ≠;†+ ≈+ †;+∞, ≈+ †++⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞∋≈∞†∞≈≈ ∋††∋≤∂≈ +≈ +;≈ ≈∞+=∋≈†≈. 7+∞ ≠∞∞⊇;≈⊥ ≈;⊥+† ;†≈∞†† ;≈ ⊇∞∞⊥†+ ∞≈≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ∋≈ 9∋†∞ ;≈ ∂∞⊥† ∋≠∋∂∞ †;≈†∞≈;≈⊥ †+ ∋ “≈∞+∋+≈ +† ≤+≈†;≈∞≈≤+”. 6+∞∋;+ +∞+∋=∞≈ ∋≈ ∋≈ “∋†† †;≤∞≈≈∞⊇ †++†” †+∞∞ †+ †∋∞≈† †+∞ ≈†∋+=;≈⊥ 9∋†∞ ≠;†+ †++⊇ †+∋† +∞ †+∞≈ ≠;†+⊇+∋≠≈ ∋≈ “†++ ≤++†∞+;≤”.

4 †∋;†++ ∋≈⊇ ∋ +∋+∞+⊇∋≈+∞+ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ≤+∋∋;≈≈;+≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∋ †∋≈+;+≈∋+†∞ +∞††;† +≈†+ †+ +∞ ;≈≈∞††∞⊇ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ †∞+†+∞+ 9∋†∞’≈ +∞∋;†;∋†;+≈. 6;≈∋††+ ∋† +∞+ ++∞∋∂;≈⊥ ⊥+;≈†, 9∋†∞ ∋⊥+∞∞≈ †+ ≤∋†† †+∞ ≈∞≈ †+∞ ∋++≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ∋∋≈ ∋ ≠+∋∋≈.

7+∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ +† ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞+⊥†+† ≈†∋+†≈ †+ ∞≈≠;≈⊇ ;≈ 4≤† 5 ≈≤∞≈∞ 1, ≠+∞≈ †+∞ †+∞∞ 2;≈≤∞≈†;+ ∋++;=∞≈ +∋=;≈⊥ ∞≈≤+∞≈†∞+∞⊇ †+∞ +;=∋++∞ +∞+∋=;++ +† 9∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0∞†+∞≤+;+ +≈ †+∞ ++∋⊇. 8∞ †+∞≈ ∋∞∞†≈ †+∞ ∋∞+≤+∋≈† ≠++ ;≈ ;∋⊥∞+≈+≈∋†;≈⊥ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ ≤+++∞≤††+ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ 3;+≈⊇∞††+ ∋≈⊇ 7+∋≈;+.

3+∞≈ 7+∋≈;+ †+;∞≈ †+ ∞⊥++†⊇ +;≈ ⊇;≈⊥∞;≈∞ “≈;+ ++∞ ≈∞∞∋ ∋ ≈++∞+ ∋≈≤;∞≈† ⊥∞≈††∞∋∞≈ ++ ++∞+ +∋+;†, +∞† ++∞+ ≠++⊇≈ ≈++≠ ++∞ ∋ ∋∋⊇∋∋≈” 2;≈≤∞≈†;+ +∞∋≤+∞≈ †+∞ ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈ †+∋† 7+∋≈;+ +∋≈ ∋∞+⊇∞+∞⊇ +;≈ ∋∋≈†∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋+⊥∞≈ +;∋ ≠;†+ ∋∞+⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ +††;≤∞+ ;≈ ≈∞∋∋+≈∞⊇. 4 ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ ≤+∞†⊇ ∋∋∂∞ †+∞ ≤+∋∞⊇+ †∞∞†∞+ +≈ †+∞ ++;≈∂ +† ⊇;≈∋≈†.....


1≈ ∋≤† 5 3≤∞≈∞ 1 †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ †+∋† +∋=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ ++†∞≈ ∋+∞ +∞≈†++∞⊇ †+ †+∞;+ †+∞∞ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≈≈∞ +† †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∋† ++⊇∞+ +† †+;≈⊥ +∞;≈⊥ +∞∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇. 4≈ 7∞≤∞≈†;+ ∋≈≈+∞≈≤∞≈, “†+=∞ ≠++∞⊥+† †+∞≈∞ ∋;+∋≤†∞≈”. 7++∞∞ ≤+≈†+∋≈†;≈⊥ ∋∋++;∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤∞†∞++∋†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;≈∋† ≈≤∞≈∞.

7+∞ ∞≈;+≈ +† †+∞ 3;⊇+≠ ∋≈⊇ 8++†∞≈≈;+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ †+ +∞ †+∞ ∋+≈† ∋∞+≤∞≈∋++ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋≈† ∋††∞≤†;+≈∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ †+;≈ +∞=∞+≈∞≈ †+∞ ∞∋+†;∞+ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 8++†∞≈≈;+ ∋≈⊇ 0∞†+∞≤+;+ ∋≈ †+=∞+≈. 3;∋≈≤∋ ∋≈⊇ 7∞≤∞≈†;+’≈ ∋∋++;∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞†† +† ∋ ++∋∋≈†;≤ ∞†+⊥∞∋∞≈†. 9∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0∞†+∞≤+;+’≈ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ †++⊥∞⊇ ++ 0∞†+∞≤+;+’≈ ∞≠†+∋++⊇;≈∋++ +∞+∋=;++ ∋≈⊇ 9∋†∞’≈ ⊥+∋⊇∞∋† †+∋≈≈†++∋∋†;+≈.

7+∞ †;≈∋† †∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋⊥∞+ ∋≈⊇ 9∋†∞’≈ ≈+†;†+⊥∞+ ;≈ ∋ ≤∞†∞++∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ⊇∞†∞≈≈∞ +† †+∞ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† ++†∞≈ +† ∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†∞. 1† ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ †+∞ +∞≈† ⊥+∞†++ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥†∋+ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋++;∞≈ †+∞ ≤+≈=;≤†;+≈ †+∋† +∞+ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈ ∋+∞ ∋∞†+∞≈†;≤. 7+∞ ⊥+∞∋† †;≈∞ “1 ∋∋ ∋≈+∋∋’⊇ †+∋† ≠+∋∞≈ ∋+∞ ≈+ ≈;∋⊥†∞” ;≈, ;≈ ∋ †;≈∋† +∞=∞+≈∋† +† ++†∞≈, ‘∋⊇=;≈;≈⊥ ≠+∋∞≈ ++≠ †+ +∞†∞ ∋+≈+†∞†∞†+ ≠+;†∞ †∞;⊥≈;≈⊥ ++∞⊇;∞≈≤∞’ 3 4 ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ ≤∋≈ ∞∋≈;†+ +∞∋+ †+∞ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∋†;+≈ †+∋† ⊥∞∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ +∋+∋+≈+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ +∞≈†++∞⊇ ∋††∞+ ∋†† †+∞ +∞=∞+≈∋†≈ +† †+∞ ⊥†∋+. ‘4† †∋≈†, †++∞⊥+ †+≈⊥, +∞+ {∋++;≈⊥ ≈+†∞≈ ∋⊥+∞∞, ∋≈⊇ †;∋∞ ;† ;≈ ≠+∞≈ +∋⊥;≈⊥ ≠∋+ ;≈ ⊇+≈∞ †+ ≈∋;†∞ ∋† ≈≤+∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+;†≈ +=∞++†+≠≈”.


1- 8;∞†++∞≈≈ 7;∋∞†;≈∞ +† 4+† 8;≈†+++- 2007 1∞≈≈;†∞+ 4∞∋⊥+∞+

2- 7+∞ 3†∋†∞≈ +† 3+∋∞≈ ;≈ 3+∋∂∞≈⊥∞∋+∞’≈ †;∋∞- 2003 6∋†∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈† +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈

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4- 3+∋∂∞≈⊥∞∋+∞. 7+∞ 1≈=∞≈†;+≈ +† †+∞ 8∞∋∋≈- .....


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