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Fallaufgabe Dictionary: english theory

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Final Paper English Words in cultural Context Formation and Influence of English Loanwords in Modern German School of Foreign Languages Contents 1.   The history of the loanwords in German. 3 2.   The formation of the English loanwords in German. 4 3.   The application of the English loanwords in German. 5 4.   The influence of English loanwords 7 5.   The influence on German language. 7 6.   The influence on German society 7 7.   Summary 8 8.   References: 8 Abstract: With the development of economy and the exchange of culture, German has borrowed a large amount of English words, which has great impacts on German language itself and its society. These English words were either borrowed completely or changed according to the lexical rules of German. This paper analyzes the lexical formation of English words in German and makes a conclusion on its impacts on various aspects. Key words: loanwords, formation and influence, morphology 1. The history of the loanwords in German German is the official languages of Germany and Austria. Also it’s one of the four official languages of Switzerland. It belongs to the West Germanic language under the Indo-European language family under Germanic. Since the location of Germany is very unique as a central country in Europe, its boundaries changed frequently due to several large tribal migrations. Also due to the long-term political disintegration of
COLOR MIXING THEORY ADDITIVE COLOR THEORY The three primary colors in lighting are red, green and blue. With these three colors you can mix to any other color you wish. When you mix all three of them you will get white. In the colorwheel you can see that our primary colors are the outer circles. As they move on top of each other, the other colors arise (assuming a 100% intensity value of each primary color). Red and blue make magenta, green and blue make cyan and green and red make yellow. All three togethermake white. By varying the intensity of the three colors you can alter the combined color within the spectrum. The reason why there are gel colors despite the color mixing theory ist he fact that the color mixing theory is exactly that – theory. It’s true that lights react that way but when the lights are beside eachother, you will tend to see halos of color. You will also get some really interesting color shadows as the object moves through the light. Color mixing like that described above works best with inanimate objects such as walls, cycloramas and scenic elements. This theory works well for backlight and side light as well, when you want to createa dramatic effect of shad..

Seminar 1. BASIC CONCEPTS

  1. Grammar [ˈɡræm.ɚ] the rules about how words change their form and combine with other words to make sentences.

  2. Grammatical [ɡrəˈmæt.ɪ.kəl] relating to grammar or obeying the rules of grammar: a grammatical (= grammatically correct) sentence.

  3. Morphology [mɔːˈfɒl.ə.dʒi] grammatical classes and groups of words, their grammatical categories and systems of forms (paradigms) in which these categories actually exist.

  4. Morphological [ˌmɔː.fəˈlɒdʒ.ɪ.kəl] relating to the study of the form of words and phrases.

  5. Syntax [ˈsɪn.tæks] the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

  6. Syntactic [sɪnˈtæk.tɪk] relating to the grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.

  7. Semantics [sɪˈmæn.tɪks] the study of meanings in a language: Syntax describes the rules by which words can be combined into sentences, while semantics describes what they mean.

  8. Semantic [sɪˈmæn.tɪks] connected with the meanings of words.

  9. Grammatical category [grəˈmætɪkəl] [ˈkætɪgəri] a unit of grammar based on a morphological opposition of grammatical meaning presented in grammatical forms.

  10. Grammatical meaning [grəˈmætɪkəl] [ˈmiːnɪŋ] – the meaning conveyed in a sentence by word order and other grammatical signals.

  11. Categorial meaning [ˌkætɪˈgɒrɪəl] [ˈmiːnɪŋ] – process presented as being developed in time and being embedded in the semantics of all verbs.

  12. Form [fɔːm] the sum total of all formal means constantly employed to render this or that grammatical meaning.

    Grammatical forms divided into synthetic, analytical and suppletive forms.

  13. Grammatical function [grəˈmætɪkəl] [ˈfʌnŋkʃən] – the syntactic role played by a word or phrase in the context of a particular clause, or sentence.

    Sometimes called simply function.

  14. Opposition [ˌɒpəˈzɪʃən] a generalized correlation of language units, forms, by means of which a certain category .....[read full text]

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  • 3;≈∋++ [ˈ+∋ɪ≈ə+;] – †∋∂;≈⊥ ;≈†+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ∋∞∋+∞+≈ +† †+∞ +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈≈ ≠∞ ≤∋≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂ +† +;≈∋++ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞-†+∋≈-+;≈∋++ +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈≈.

  • 0+;=∋†;=∞ [ˈ⊥+ɪ=ə†ɪ=] – †++∋∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈†;=∞ ⊥∋;+ ≠+∞≈ +≈∞ ∋∞∋+∞+ ;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈≤∞ +† ∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋† †∞∋†∞+∞, ≠+;†∞ †+∞ +†+∞+ ∋∞∋+∞+ ;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∋+≈∞≈≤∞ +† †+;≈ =∞++ †∞∋†∞+∞.

  • 6+∋⊇∞∋† [ˈ⊥+æ⊇{ʊə†] – †++∋∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈†;=∞ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ∋∞∋+∞+≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+∞⊇ ≈+† ++ †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈≤∞ ++ ∋+≈∞≈≤∞ +† ≈+∋∞ †∞∋†∞+∞ +∞† ++ †+∞ ⊇∞⊥+∞∞ +† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †∞∋†∞+∞.

  • 9⊥∞;⊥+††∞≈† [ˌ;ː∂≠ɪˈ⊥ɒ†ə≈†] †++∋∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈†;=∞ ⊥∋;+ ++ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ∋∞∋+∞+≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋†∞⊇ ++ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊥+≈;†;=∞ †∞∋†∞+∞≈.

  • 4∋+∂∞⊇ [∋ɑː∂†] †+∞ ∋∞∋+∞+ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋† †∞∋†∞+∞ (≈†++≈⊥, ⊥+≈;†;=∞).

  • 0≈∋∋+∂∞⊇ [ʌ≈ˈ∋ɑː∂†] +∞ +†+∞+ ∋∞∋+∞+ +† †+∞ +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈ (≠∞∋∂, ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞).

  • 4∞∞†+∋†;=∋†;+≈ [ˌ≈{∞ː†+ə†∋ɪˈ=∞ɪʃə≈] – ;† ;≈ †+∞ †+⊥∞ +† +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈∋† +∞⊇∞≤†;+≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ≠∞∋∂ ∋∞∋+∞+ +† +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥+≈;†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ∋∞∋+∞+.

  • 7+∋≈≈⊥+≈;†;+≈ [ˌ†+æ≈≈⊥əˈ=ɪʃə≈] – ;† ;≈ †+∞ †+⊥∞ +† +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈∋† +∞⊇∞≤†;+≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ ≠∞ ∞≈∞ †+∞ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ∋∞∋+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+∋≈≈⊥+∞≈≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;=∞ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈≈ +† ++⊇;≈∋++ ≈⊥∞∞≤+.

  • 0⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈∋† +∞⊇∞≤†;+≈ [ˌɒ⊥əˈ=ɪʃə≈(ə)†] [+ɪˈ⊇ʌ∂ʃə≈] – ;≈ =∋+;+∞≈ ≤+≈†∞≠†∞∋† ⊥+≈;†;+≈≈ +≈∞ ∋∞∋+∞+ +† ∋≈ +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †.....

  • Distribution [ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃən] – the position of an element and its combinability with other elements in this or that particular context.

  • Contrastive [kənˈtrɑːstɪv] – the same position, different meanings.

  • Non-contrastive [nɒn]-[kənˈtrɑːstɪv] – the same position, no difference in meaning; variants of the same element.

  • Complementary [ˌkɒmplɪˈmɛntəri] – mutual exclusiveness of pairs of forms in a certain environment; the same meaning, different positions; variants of the same element.

  • Word-formation [wɜːd]-[fɔːˈmeɪʃən] – the creation of new words.

  • Derivation [ˌdɛrɪˈveɪʃən] – the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as -ness or un-.

  • Analytic [ˌænəˈlɪtɪk] – in such forms there two or more words in which at least one element is an auxiliary.

  • Synthetic [sɪnˈθɛtɪk] – such forms that unite both lexical and grammatical meanings in one word.

  • Suppletive [səˈpliːtɪv] – building a form of a word from an altogether different stem.

  • Sound alternation [saʊnd] [ˌɔːltəˈneɪʃ(ə)n] – a way of expressing grammatical categories which consists in changing .....

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  • 4∞≠;†;∋++ [ɔː⊥ˈ=ɪ†{ə+;] – ∋ ≤+≈≈†∋≈† ∞†∞∋∞≈† +† ∋≈ ∋≈∋†+†;≤∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ⊇∞=+;⊇ +† †∞≠;≤∋† ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ (;† +∞≈⊇∞+≈ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋ ⊥∞+∞†+ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ∞†∞∋∞≈†).

  • 8∞≈≤+;⊥†;=;≈∋ [⊇ɪ≈ˈ∂+ɪ⊥†ɪ=ɪ=(ə)∋] – †+∞ +∞†;∞† †+∋† +++∂≈ ∋++∞† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈++∞†⊇ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞ ++≠ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ +∞∋††+ ∞≈∞⊇, +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ ⊥;=;≈⊥ +∞†∞≈ †+ †+††+≠ ≈∋+;≈⊥ ≠+∋† ;≈ ≤+++∞≤† ∋≈⊇ ≈+† ≤+++∞≤†.

  • 4++⊥+∞∋∞ [ˈ∋ɔː†;ː∋] – †+∞ ≈∋∋††∞≈† ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ∞≈;† ;≈ ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

  • 5∞++ ∋++⊥+∞∋∞ [ˈ=ɪə+əʊ] [ˈ∋ɔː†;ː∋] – ∋ ∋++⊥+∞∋∞ †+∋† +∋≈ ≈+ ⊥++≈∞†;≤ †++∋

  • 5++† [+∞ː†] – ;†≈ ∋+≈† +∋≈;≤ †++∋, †+ ≠+;≤+ +†+∞+ ⊥∋+†≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋††;≠∞≈, ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇.

  • 4††;≠ [ˈæ†ɪ∂≈] – ∋ †∞††∞+ ++ ⊥++∞⊥ +† †∞††∞+≈ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ ++ ∞≈⊇ +† ∋ ≠++⊇ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ∋ ≈∞≠ ≠++⊇

  • 0+∞†;≠ [ˈ⊥+;ː†ɪ∂≈] – †+∞ ∋††;≠ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† ∋ ≈†∞∋.

  • 3∞††;≠ [ˈ≈ʌ†ɪ∂≈] – †+∞ ∋††;≠ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† ∋ ≈†∞∋.

  • Inflection [ɪnˈflɛkʃən] – the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, .....

  • 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈∋† ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ [ˌ⊇ɪ≈†+ɪˈ+{∞ːʃə≈ə†] [əˈ≈æ†ə≈ɪ≈] – ≠∞ ≈†∞⊇+ ∞≈;†≈ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈ †+ †+∞;+ ≤+≈†∞≠†∞∋† ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†.


    3∞∋;≈∋+ 2. 65444471047 0743393 06 30583

    1. 0+∞≈≤+;⊥†;=;≈∋ [⊥+ɪ≈ˈ∂+ɪ⊥†ɪ=ɪ=(ə)∋] – †+∞ ∋††∞∋⊥† †+ †∋+ ⊇+≠≈ +∞†∞≈ ⊇∞†;≈;≈⊥ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++ &⊥∞+†;≤+++∞≤†&⊥∞+†; ∞≈∞ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

    2. 3†+∞≤†∞+∋†;≈∋ [ˈ≈†+ʌ∂ʧə+ə†ɪ=(ə)∋] – †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈ ≤+∋∋;††∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∋†;≈† ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞ †+∋† ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞††-≤+≈†∋;≈∞⊇ +∞†∋†;+≈∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞, †+∞ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ +† ≠+;≤+ ⊇∞+;=∞ †+∞;+ ∞≠;≈†∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ =∋†∞∞ †++∋ †+∞;+ ⊇;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈≈ ;≈ †∞≠†≈ ++ ⊇;≈≤+∞+≈∞.

    3. 0∋+† +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+ [⊥ɑː†] [ɒ=] [≈⊥;ːʧ] – +≈∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ⊥++∞⊥≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≈+∞≈, =∞++, ∋≈⊇ ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞, ;≈†+ ≠+;≤+ ≠++⊇≈ ∋+∞ ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞;+ ∞≈∞

    4. 4+†;+≈∋† ≠++⊇≈ [ˈ≈əʊʃə≈†] [≠ɜː⊇=] – ⊇∞≈+†∞ †+;≈⊥≈, ∋≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ∞≠†+∋-†;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ⊥+∞≈+∋∞≈∋.

    5. 6∞≈≤†;+≈∋† ≠++⊇≈ [ˈ†ʌŋ∂ʃə≈†] [≠ɜː⊇=] – ⊇∞≈+†∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈∞≤†;+≈≈ +∞.....

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  • 3∞∋;-≈+†;+≈∋† ≠++⊇≈ [ˈ≈ɛ∋;]-[ˈ≈əʊʃə≈†] [≠ɜː⊇=] – ≈+∋∞ ≈+†;+≈∋† ≠++⊇≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ †+∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥≈ ⊥∞≤∞†;∋+ †+ †∞≈≤†;+≈ ≠++⊇≈.

  • 8∞≤†;≈∋+†∞ [⊇ɪˈ∂†∋ɪ≈ə+†] – ∋ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ⊥∋+†≈ +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ≠+;≤+ ∋∋⊇∞ ++ 8.

    3≠∞∞† †+∋† ;≈≤†∞⊇∞≈ ≈+∞≈≈, ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ =∞++≈.

  • 1≈⊇∞≤†;≈∋+†∞ [ˌɪ≈⊇ɪˈ∂†∋ɪ≈ə+†] – ∋ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ⊥∋+†≈ +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ≠+;≤+ ∋∋⊇∞ ++ 8.

    3≠∞∞† †+∋† ;≈≤†∞⊇∞≈ ∋⊇=∞++≈, ⊥+∞⊥+≈;†;+≈≈, ≤+≈{∞≈≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+{∞≤†;+≈≈.

  • 3∞+≈†;†∞†;+≈ [ˌ≈ʌ+≈†ɪˈ†{∞ːʃə≈] – †+∞ +∞⊥†∋≤∞∋∞≈† +† ∋ ≠++⊇ ++ ⊥++∋≈∞ ≠;†+ ∋ &⊥∞+†;†;††∞+&⊥∞+†; ≠++⊇ (≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +≈∞, ≈+, ++ ⊇+) †+ ∋=+;⊇ +∞⊥∞†;†;+≈.

  • 3∞+≈†;†∞†;+≈ †+∋∋∞ [ˌ≈ʌ+≈†ɪˈ†{∞ːʃə≈] [†+∞ɪ∋] – ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† †+∋∋∞≈ ;≈†+ ≠+;≤+ ++∞ ≤∋≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ +∞†∋†∞⊇ ≠++⊇≈.

  • 0+∋+;≈∋+;†;†+ [∂ə∋ˌ+∋ɪ≈əˈ+ɪ†ɪ†;] – †+∞ ⊥+≈;†;+≈ +† ∋ ≠++⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≈+≈†∋≤†;≤ †∞≈≤†;+≈ +† ≠++⊇.

  • 2∋+;∋+;†;†+ [ˌ=∞ə+ɪəˈ+ɪ†ɪ†;] – +∞†∞+≈ †+ +∞⊥;+≈∋†, ≈+≤;∋† ++ ≤+≈†∞≠†∞∋† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋+≈ †+∋† ∋ ⊥∋+†;.....

  • Variable [ˈveərɪəbl] – relating to variability.

  • Invariable [ɪnˈveərɪəbl] – explaining similarities and differences betwee how an idea is understand in ordinary usage and how it is understood when used as a conceptual metaphor.

  • Noun [naʊn] – a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

  • Article [ˈɑːtɪkl] – a grammatical element used to indicate definiteness or indefiniteness.

  • Adjective [ˈæʤɪktɪv] – a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

  • Numeral [ˈnjuːmərəl] – a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers.

  • Pronoun [ˈprəʊnaʊn] – a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

  • Universal [ˌjuːnɪˈvɜːsəl]

  • Verb [vɜːb] – part of speech that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

  • Adverb [ˈædvɜːb] – a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, clause, .....

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    3∞∋;≈∋+ 3. 789 4004

    1. 0++⊥∞+ ≈+∞≈ [ˈ⊥+ɒ⊥ə] [≈∋ʊ≈] – ∋ ≈+∞≈ †+∋† ;≈ ;†≈ ⊥+;∋∋++ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ +∞†∞+≈ †+ ∋ ∞≈;⊥∞∞ ∞≈†;†+, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 7+≈⊇+≈, 1∞⊥;†∞+, 3∋+∋+, ++ 4;≤++≈+††.

    2. 0+∋∋+≈ ≈+∞≈ [ˈ∂ɒ∋ə≈] [≈∋ʊ≈] – ∋ ≈+∞≈ †+∋† ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† ∋ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ≈;∋;†∋+ †+;≈⊥≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ &⊥∞+†;†∋+†∞&⊥∞+†; ++ &⊥∞+†;+++∂&⊥∞+†;, ∋≈⊇ ≈+† +† ∋ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈, ⊥†∋≤∞, ++ †+;≈⊥.

    3. 4≈;∋∋†∞ [ˈæ≈ɪ∋ɪ†] – ∋ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ≤∋†∞⊥+++ +† ≈+∞≈, +∞†∞++;≈⊥ †+ ∋ ⊥∞+≈+≈, ∋≈;∋∋†, ++ +†+∞+ ≤+∞∋†∞+∞ (+++, ≈+∞∞⊥, ≠++∋).

      1≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†, ∋≈;∋∋†∞ ≈+∞≈≈ ≤+++∞†∋†∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ ⊥++≈+∞≈≈ +∞, ≈+∞, ≠++.

    4. 1≈∋≈;∋∋†∞ [ɪ≈ˈæ≈ɪ∋ɪ†] – ∋ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ≤∋†∞⊥+++ +† ≈+∞≈, ≠+;≤+ +∞†∞+≈ †+ ∋ †+;≈⊥ ++ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† (≤++≈, ++++++⊇, ≈†∞∞⊥). 1≈∋≈;∋∋†∞ ≈+∞≈≈ .....

  • Human [ˈhjuːmən]

  • Non-human [nɒn]-[ˈhjuːmən]

  • Collective [kɒˈlɛktɪv] – a count noun that denotes a group of individuals (e.g. assembly, family, crew).

  • Derived [dɪˈraɪvd] – nouns consisting of a stem and one or more morphemes (stem + affix, affix + stem – thingness).

  • Compound [ˈkɒmpaʊnd] – a noun made up of two or more existing words, e.g. cat food or playgroup (stem+ stem – armchair).

  • Determiner [dɪˈtɜːmɪnə] – a word that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

  • Number [ˈnʌmbə] – nouns have the category of number (singular and plural), though some individual nouns may lack either a singular or a plural form.

  • Singular [ˈsɪŋgjʊlə] – names one person, place, thing, or idea.

  • Plural [ˈplʊərəl] – names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.

  • Singularia tantum [ˈsɪŋɡjələrei] [ˈtɑntəm] – a noun (in any specific sense) that has no plural form and is only .....

  • 0†∞+∋†;∋ †∋≈†∞∋ [⊥†ʊˌɹɑ†∞ɪ̯] [ˈ†ɑ≈†ə∋] – ∋ ≈+∞≈ (;≈ ∋≈+ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ≈∞≈≈∞) †+∋† +∋≈ ≈+ ≈;≈⊥∞†∋+ †++∋, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≈≤;≈≈++≈ (;≈ ∋+≈† ∞≈∋⊥∞).

  • 8;≈≤+∞†∞≈∞≈≈ [⊇ɪ≈ˈ∂+;ː†≈ə≈] – ≈∞∋∞+;≤ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ +† †+∞ ≈+∞≈; †+∞ ≤∋†∞⊥+++ +† ≈∞∋+∞+ ⊇∞≈+†∞≈ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈∋∋+∂∞⊇ ⊇;≈≤+∞†∞≈∞≈≈ (≈+† ⊥∞∋≈†;†+)

  • 8;≈≤+∞†∞ [⊇ɪ≈ˈ∂+;ː†] – †+∞ ≤∋†∞⊥+++ +† ≈∞∋+∞+ ;≈ +∞∋†;=∞⊇ +≈†+ ≠;†+;≈ ≈∞+≤†∋≈≈ +† ≤+∞≈†∋+†∞ ≈+∞≈≈, ;.∞. ≈+∞≈≈ +∋=;≈⊥ ≈∞∋∞+;≤ (⊇;≈≤+∞†∞) ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞.

  • 1≈⊇;≈≤+∞†∞ [ˌɪ≈⊇ɪ≈ˈ∂+;ː†] – ∞≈≤+∞≈†∋+†∞ ≈+∞≈≈ +∋=∞ ≈+ ≤∋†∞⊥+++ +† ≈∞∋+∞+, †++ †+∞+ +∋=∞ ⊥∞∋≈†;†∋†;=∞ (;≈⊇;≈≤+∞†∞) ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞.

  • 6∞≈⊇∞+ [ˈʤɛ≈⊇ə] – ≤†∋≈≈∞≈ +† ≈+∞≈≈ +∞††∞≤†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+ +† ∋≈≈+≤;∋†∞⊇ ≠++⊇≈.

    0+∋∋+≈ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ⊇;=;≈;+≈≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ ∋∋≈≤∞†;≈∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋;≈;≈∞; ∋∋≈≤∞†;≈∞, †∞∋;≈;≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∞†∞+; ++ ∋≈;∋∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ;≈∋≈;∋∋†∞.

  • 6∞∋;≈;≈∞ [ˈ†ɛ∋ɪ≈ɪ≈] – ∋ ≈+∞≈, ⊥++≈+∞≈, ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞, ++ ;≈††∞≤†;+≈∋† †++∋ ++ ≤†∋≈≈ +† †+∞ †∞∋;≈;≈∞ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+.

  • 4∋≈≤∞†;≈∞ [ˈ∋ɑː≈∂{ʊ†ɪ≈] – ∋ ≈+∞≈, ⊥++≈+∞≈, ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞, ++ ;≈††∞≤†;+≈∋† †++∋ ++ ≤†∋≈≈ .....

  • 4∞∞†∞+ [ˈ≈{∞ː†ə] – ∋ ≈+∞≈, ⊥++≈+∞≈, ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞, ++ ;≈††∞≤†;+≈∋† †++∋ ++ ≤†∋≈≈ +† †+∞ ≈∞∞†∞+ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+.

  • 0∋≈∞ [∂∞ɪ≈] – †+∞ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ≠∋+ †+∋† ≠+;†∞+≈ ≈++≠ ++≠ ≈+∞≈≈ ++ ⊥++≈+∞≈≈ +∞†∋†∞ †+ +†+∞+ ≠++⊇≈ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞.

  • Genitive [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

  • Objective genitive [əbˈʤɛktɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the case in which the person or thing in the genitive is the recipient of the action represented by the noun.

  • Subjective genitive [səbˈʤɛktɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the case in which the person in the genitive case creates something.

  • Possessive genitive [pəˈzɛsɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the genitive case is when we add apostrophe S ('s) to show possession, that something belongs to another or a type of relationship between things.

  • Descriptive genitive [dɪsˈkrɪptɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the noun in the genitive case here completely loses its meaning of possession, comes to denote a quality, and refers to a whole class of similar objects: a girls’ school (= a school for girls).

  • Genitive of origin [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] [ɒv] [ˈɒrɪʤɪn] – the case in which the person in the genitive case doing something (the boy’s story – .....

  • 6∞≈;†;=∞ +† ∋∞∋≈∞+∞ [ˈʤɛ≈ɪ†ɪ=] [ɒ=] [ˈ∋ɛʒə] – ∞≠.: ∋ ∋;†∞’≈ ⊇;≈†∋≈≤∞, ∋ ⊇∋+’≈ †+;⊥.

  • 0∋+†;†;=∞ ⊥∞≈;†;=∞ [ˈ⊥ɑː†ɪ†ɪ=] [ˈʤɛ≈ɪ†ɪ=] – ≈∞∞ †+∞ ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈ «6∞≈∞†;=∞ +† ∋∞∋≈∞+∞».

  • 4⊥⊥+≈;†;=∞ ⊥∞≈;†;=∞ [əˈ⊥ɒ=ɪ†ɪ=] [ˈʤɛ≈ɪ†ɪ=] – ∋ ⊥+∞⊥+≈;†;+≈∋† ⊥++∋≈∞ ≠;†+ +† ∋≈ ;≈: †+∞ ∋+≈†+ +† 8∞≤∞∋+∞+, †+∞ ≈;≈ +† ⊥+;⊇∞, ++ †+∞ ≤;†+ +† 4∞≠ 5++∂.

    7+;≈ +∋≈ ∋†≈+ +∞∞≈ ;≈=+∂∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋≈ ∞≠⊥†∋≈∋†;+≈ †++ †+∞ ⊇+∞+†∞ ⊥∞≈;†;=∞: ∋ †+;∞≈⊇ +† ∋;≈∞.

  • 8+∞+†∞ ⊥∞≈;†;=∞ [ˈ⊇ʌ+†] [ˈʤɛ≈ɪ†ɪ=] – ;† ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ≠+∞≈ ∋ ≈+∞≈ ;≈ ∋+⊇;†;∞⊇ ++ †≠+ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈;=∞ ≈+∞≈≈ +≈∞ +† ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞≈;†;=∞ ≤∋≈∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +†+∞+ ≠;†+ †+∞ “+†”- ⊥++∋≈∞: ∋ †+;∞≈⊇ +† ∋+ †∋†+∞+’≈.

    3∞∋;≈∋+ 7. 789 481907129

    1. 3∞+≈†∋≈†;=;=∞⊇ [ˈ≈ʌ+≈†ə≈†ɪ=∋ɪ=⊇] – ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞≈ ≠+;≤+ +∋=∞ †+∞ †∞≈≤†;+≈≈ +† ≈+∞≈≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+∞ ∋†≠∋+≈ ⊥+∞≤∞⊇∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊇∞†;≈;†∞ ∋+†;≤†∞.

    2. 0+∞⊥+≈;†;=∞ [⊥+ɪˈ⊥ɒ=ɪ†ɪ=] – ∋≈ ∋††+;+∞†;=∞ ∋⊇{∞≤†;=∞ †+∋† ⊥†∋≤∞⊇ +∞†++∞ †+∞ ≈+∞≈ ++ .....


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