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Fallaufgabe Dictionary: english theory

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Tula State University

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2018, Cook

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Seminar 1. BASIC CONCEPTS

  1. Grammar [ˈɡræm.ɚ] the rules about how words change their form and combine with other words to make sentences.

  2. Grammatical [ɡrəˈmæt.ɪ.kəl] relating to grammar or obeying the rules of grammar: a grammatical (= grammatically correct) sentence.

  3. Morphology [mɔːˈfɒl.ə.dʒi] grammatical classes and groups of words, their grammatical categories and systems of forms (paradigms) in which these categories actually exist.

  4. Morphological [ˌmɔː.fəˈlɒdʒ.ɪ.kəl] relating to the study of the form of words and phrases.

  5. Syntax [ˈsɪn.tæks] the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

  6. Syntactic [sɪnˈtæk.tɪk] relating to the grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.

  7. Semantics [sɪˈmæn.tɪks] the study of meanings in a language: Syntax describes the rules by which words can be combined into sentences, while semantics describes what they mean.

  8. Semantic [sɪˈmæn.tɪks] connected with the meanings of words.

  9. Grammatical category [grəˈmætɪkəl] [ˈkætɪgəri] a unit of grammar based on a morphological opposition of grammatical meaning presented in grammatical forms.

  10. Grammatical meaning [grəˈmætɪkəl] [ˈmiːnɪŋ] – the meaning conveyed in a sentence by word order and other grammatical signals.

  11. Categorial meaning [ˌkætɪˈgɒrɪəl] [ˈmiːnɪŋ] – process presented as being developed in time and being embedded in the semantics of all verbs.

  12. Form [fɔːm] the sum total of all formal means constantly employed to render this or that grammatical meaning. Grammatical forms divided into synthetic, analytical and suppletive forms.

  13. Grammatical function [grəˈmætɪkəl] [ˈfʌnŋkʃən] – the syntactic role played by a word or phrase in the context of a particular clause, or sentence. Sometimes called simply function.

  14. Opposition [ˌɒpəˈzɪʃən] a generalized correlation of language units, forms, by means of which a certain category or function is expressed.

  15. Binary [ˈbaɪnəri] – taking into consideration the number of members of the oppositions we can speak of binary and more-than-binary oppositions.

  16. Privative [ˈprɪvətɪv] – formed by a contrastive pair when one member is characterized by the presence of a certain differential feature, while the other member is characterized by the absence of this very feature.

  17. Gradual [ˈgrædjʊəl] – formed by a contrastive group of members which are distinguished not by the presence or absence of some feature but by the degree of the same feature.

  18. Equipollent [ˌiːkwɪˈpɒlənt] formed by a contrastive pair or group of members which are differentiated by dif.....[read full text]

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  • Auxiliary [ɔːgˈzɪljəri] – a constant element of an analytical structure, which is devoid of lexical meaning (it renders grammatical meanings and is a purely grammatical element).

  • Descriptivism [dɪsˈkrɪptɪvɪz(ə)m] – the belief that books about language should describe how language is really used, rather than giving rules to follow saying what is correct and not correct.

  • Morpheme [ˈmɔːfiːm] – the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

  • Zero morpheme [ˈzɪərəʊ] [ˈmɔːfiːm] – a morpheme that has no phonetic form

  • Root [ruːt] – its most basic form, to which other parts, such as affixes, can be added.

  • Affix [ˈæfɪks] – a letter or group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word

  • Prefix [ˈpriːfɪks] – the affix which is added to the beginning of a stem.

  • Suffix [ˈsʌfɪks] – the affix which is added to the end of a stem.

  • Inflection [ɪnˈflɛkʃən] – the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

  • Distributional analysis [ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃənəl] [əˈnæləsɪs] – we study units of language in the relation to their contextual environment.


    Seminar 2. GRAMMATICAL CLASSES OF WORDS

    1. Prescriptivism [prɪsˈkrɪptɪvɪz(ə)m] – the attempt to lay down rules defining preferred or "corre.....

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  • Substitution frame [ˌsʌbstɪˈtjuːʃən] [freɪm] – grammatical frames into which you can place related words.

  • Combinability [kəmˌbaɪnəˈbɪlɪti] – the position of a word in the sentence is the syntactic function of word.

  • Variability [ˌveərɪəˈbɪlɪti] – refers to regional, social or contextual differences in the ways that a particular language is used.

  • Variable [ˈveərɪəbl] – relating to variability.

  • Invariable [ɪnˈveərɪəbl] – explaining similarities and differences betwee how an idea is understand in ordinary usage and how it is understood when used as a conceptual metaphor.

  • Noun [naʊn] – a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

  • Article [ˈɑːtɪkl] – a grammatical element used to indicate definiteness or indefiniteness.

  • Adjective [ˈæʤɪktɪv] – a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

  • Numeral [ˈnjuːmərəl] – a member of a part of speech characterized by th.....

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  • Inanimate [ɪnˈænɪmɪt] – a semantic category of noun, which refers to a thing or concept (corn, boyhood, sleep). Inanimate nouns correlate with it, which.

  • Human [ˈhjuːmən]

  • Non-human [nɒn]-[ˈhjuːmən]

  • Collective [kɒˈlɛktɪv] – a count noun that denotes a group of individuals (e.g. assembly, family, crew).

  • Derived [dɪˈraɪvd] – nouns consisting of a stem and one or more morphemes (stem + affix, affix + stem – thingness).

  • Compound [ˈkɒmpaʊnd] – a noun made up of two or more existing words, e.g. cat food or playgroup (stem+ stem – armchair).

  • Determiner [dɪˈtɜːmɪnə] – a word that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

  • Number [ˈnʌmbə] – nouns have the category of number (singular and plural), though some individual nouns may lack either a singular or a plural form.

  • Singular [ˈsɪŋgjʊlə] – names one perso.....

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  • Feminine [ˈfɛmɪnɪn] – a noun, pronoun, adjective, or inflectional form or class of the feminine gender.

  • Masculine [ˈmɑːskjʊlɪn] – a noun, pronoun, adjective, or inflectional form or class of the masculine gender.

  • Neuter [ˈnjuːtə] – a noun, pronoun, adjective, or inflectional form or class of the neuter gender.

  • Case [keɪs] – the grammatical way that writers show how nouns or pronouns relate to other words in a sentence.

  • Genitive [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

  • Objective genitive [əbˈʤɛktɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the case in which the person or thing in the genitive is the recipient of the action represented by the noun.

  • Subjective genitive [səbˈʤɛktɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the case in which the person in the genitive case creates something.

  • Possessive genitive [pəˈzɛsɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the genitive case is when we add apostrophe S ('s) to show possession, that something belongs to another or a type of relationship between things.

  • Descriptive genitive [dɪsˈkrɪptɪv] [ˈʤɛnɪtɪv] – the noun in the genitive case here completely loses its meaning of possession, comes to denote a quality, and refers to a whole class of similar objects: a girls’ schoo.....

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  • Prepositive [prɪˈpɒzɪtɪv] – an attributive adjective that placed before the noun or pronoun that it modifies.

  • Qualitative [ˈkwɒlɪtətɪv] – describe the qualities of a person or thing – whether they are large or small, happy or sad, etc.

  • Relative [ˈrɛlətɪv] – a pronominal adjective that introduces a clause qualifying an antecedent (as which in “our next meeting will be on Monday, at which time a new chairman will be elected”) or a clause functioning as a substantive (as which in “I do not know which course I should follow”).

  • Evaluative function [ɪˈvæljʊətɪv] [ˈfʌnŋkʃən] – when an adjective acquires an evaluative force and, consequently, can presuppose a greater or lesser degree ("amount") of the denoted properly in the corresponding referent.

  • Specificative function – when an adjective becomes a specificative, not an evaluative unit in the grammatical sense.

  • Category of state [ˈkætɪgəri] [ɒv] [steɪt] – a class of words in English with the following morphological, semantic and syntactic characteristics.

  • Stative – a property that cannot be conceived as a developing process and the dynamic property of an entity is a property that is conceived as active, or as a developing process.

  • Degrees of comparison [dɪˈgriːz] [ɒv] [kəmˈpærɪsn] – adjective change in form w.....

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