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Forms and Functions of the Irish Language in
Brian Friel’s Translations












Proseminararbeit
British Cultural Studies (Constructing Irish Cultural and Political Identities: The Literary Revival and Beyond)

Submitted by



Table of Contents:

1. Introduction 3

2. English and Irish as the languages of the play .3

3. Characters’ attitudes towards the languages .5
3.1 Maire
3.2 Yolland
3.3 Owen


4. Names and language as an expression of identity .7
4.1 Sarah
4.2 Owen
4.3 Angicisation of place-names
4.4 Irish as a signifier of tradition and identity


5. Translations as a metaphor for the language shift in the 19th century .11

6. Conclusion ……………… ……………………………………………12

7. Bibliography . 13




1. Introduction

With Brian Friel being one of Ireland’s most remarkable playwrights of the 20th century, his play Translations has become widely acclaimed as one of the most important works of Irish literature (cf.

Deane 1984: 20). The reason for that is of course that the three-act play addresses a variety of issues, some of which are still relevant nowadays, which have been very important to Ireland and its nation in the past. The consequences of these have permanently influenced Ireland’s history and have shaped it into the country it is today.

Brian Friel claims that Translations is “a play about language and only about language” which is why this paper focuses on the effects of the languages used in the play, the treatment of languages and its effects in the world of the play, as well as the relevance of the changes brought upon by he British rule for Ireland (Friel 1999: 75).

However, it must be mentioned that Translations does not only deal with language but with historical and political events. Even though the play is primarily a statement on the language shift from Irish to English the 19th century, it also introduces various issues that are of great importance for Ireland’s history and national identity, such as the potato blight, emigration to America, the introduction of a compulsory education system and cultural imperialism.

The first chapter of this paper will explore the languages spoken in the play, the focus being in English and Irish since the conflict between those two provides the basis for the storyline.

The second chapter focuses on the characters’ attitudes towards the languages and their reasoning behind it. In the third chapter the correlation between names, language and expression of identity is discussed. Finally, the final chapter is giving a very short insight into why the events in the fictional town of Baile Beag in Friels’s play are representative of the changes happening in Ireland at the time the play is set.


2. English and Irish as the languages of the play

In the play Translations several different languages a.....[read full text]

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3+;†∞ 7+∋≈≈†∋†;+≈≈ †+≤∞≈∞≈ +† ≤+∞+≈∞ +≈ †+∞ ⊇;≈≤+∞⊥∋≈≤+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ≈∋†;=∞ †+≈⊥∞∞ +† 1+∞†∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †++≤∞⊇ ∞⊥+≈ ++ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+, †+∞ ∋≈≤;∞≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ 7∋†;≈ ∋≈⊇ 6+∞∞∂ ∋+∞ ∋†≈+ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥†∋+ +∞≈;⊇∞ †+∋†. 4+≈† ≈+†∋+†∞ ;≈ +† ≤+∞+≈∞ †+∋† †+;≈ ⊥†∋+, ≠+;≤+ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞≈ †+∞ ⊇∞∋;≈∞ +† †+∞ 1+;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ;≈ ;†≈∞†† ≈+† ≠+;††∞≈ ;≈ 1+;≈+ ≈++ ⊇+∞≈ ;† ≤+≈†∋;≈ ∋≈+ 1+;≈+ ⊥++∋≈∞≈ ∋⊥∋+† +† †++∋ ≈∋∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥†∋≤∞-≈∋∋∞≈.

8+≠∞=∞+, ;† ;≈ +≈∞ +† †+∞ ∋+≈† +∞∋∋+∂∋+†∞ †∞∋†∞+∞≈ ∋++∞† †+;≈ ⊥†∋+ †+∋† ⊇∞≈⊥;†∞ †+;≈ †+∞ ∋∞⊇;∞≈≤∞ ≈†;†† +∋≈ †+∞ ;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ +† †≠+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +∞;≈⊥ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ +≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ (≤†. 5;≤+†∋+;∂ 1994: 554). 1≈ †+∞ †∞≠† ;† ;≈ ∋≤+;∞=∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ ∞;†+∞+ ∞≠⊥†;≤;††+ ∋∞≈†;+≈;≈⊥ ;† ;≈ †+∞ ⊇;∋†+⊥∞∞, †+∞ ≤+≈†+∋≈†;≈⊥ +† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ≠++ ∋+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥+≈∞⊇†+ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞ †+∞ ≤∋≈† ≤∋≈ ∋†≈+ ∋∋∂∞ ∞≈∞ +† ⊇;≈†;≈≤† ∋≤≤∞≈†≈.

7+∞ †;+≈† ∋+∋∞≈† †+++∞⊥+ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ∋∞⊇;∞≈≤∞ ;≈ ∋†∞+†∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ +≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ≈++∞†⊇ ;≈ †∋≤† +∞ ⊥∞+≤∞;=∞⊇ ∋≈ 1+;≈+ ;≈ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ †;+≈† ∋≤† ≠+∞≈ 4∋;+∞ ⊇∞†;=∞+≈ ∋;†∂ †+ †+∞ +∞⊇⊥∞ ≈≤+++† ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈=∞+≈∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ 1;∋∋+ 1∋≤∂ 0∋≈≈;∞ ++;∞††+ †∋∋∞≈†≈ ++≠ ≈+∞ ≠;≈+∞≈ ≈+∞ ≈⊥+∂∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+. (44159: 7+∋†’≈ †+∞ +∞;⊥+† +† ∋+ 7∋†;≈.

6;† ∋∞ +∞††∞+ ;† 1 +∋⊇ ∞=∞≈ †+∋† ∋∞≤+ 9≈⊥†;≈+. (7 1: 15) 3+∞≈ ≈+∞ †+∞≈ ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†≈ 1;∋∋+ †+∞ †∞≠ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≠++⊇≈ ≈+∞ +∋⊇ †∞∋+≈† †++∋ +∞+ ∋∞≈†, ≈+∞ ≈∋+≈ †+∞∋ ≠;†+ ∋ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞ ∋≤≤∞≈† (8∞+ ∋≤≤∞≈† ;≈ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ≈+∞ ;≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ∋ †++∞;⊥≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ≈+∞ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ≠+∋† ≈+∞ ;≈ ≈∋+;≈⊥. (7 1: 25/26)).

1≈ †+;≈ ∋+∋∞≈† ;† ;≈ †+∞+∞†++∞ ≈+† +≈†+ ∞≠⊥†;≤;††+ +∞∋∋+∂∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ †+∋† †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ +† †+∞ ⊥†∋+ ;≈ ≈+† 9≈⊥†;≈+, +∞+ ∞≈†∋∋;†;∋+;†+ ≠;†+ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ∋†≈+ +;⊥+†;⊥+†∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ +∞+ ∋≠∂≠∋+⊇ ⊥++≈∞≈≤;∋†;+≈. 7+∞+∞ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋∋≈+ ∋++∞ ∋+∋∞≈†≈ †+∞≈⊇ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ ⊥†∋+ ≠+∞+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ∞≠⊥†;≤;††+ ∋∞≈†;+≈ †+∞;+ †∋≤∂ +† ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† ∞;†+∞+ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ++ 1+;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

0†+∞+ ≈≤∞≈∞≈ †+∋† ∞∋⊥+∋≈;≈∞ †+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥+≈∞⊇ ⊇;≤++†+∋+ +† 1+;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋+∞ †+∞ +≈∞≈ ≠+∞+∞ 1+;≈+ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ;≈†∞.....

7+∞ †;+≈† ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞ +† †+;≈ ;≈ ≠+∞≈ 7;∞∞†∞≈∋≈† 5+††∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ 7∋≈≤∞+ ∞≈†∞+ †+∞ +∞⊇⊥∞ ≈≤+++† †+ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∞≈†∞+⊥+;≈∞ +† †+∞ 0+⊇;≈∋≈≤∞ 3∞+=∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈≈;⊥≈;≈⊥ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈∋∋∞≈ †+ †+∞ ∋†+∞∋⊇+ ∞≠;≈†;≈⊥ 1+;≈+ +≈∞≈. 3∞≤∋∞≈∞ 7∋≈≤∞+ ∋≈⊇ 5+††∋≈⊇ ⊇+ ≈+† ≈⊥∞∋∂ ∋≈+ 1+;≈+, 0≠∞≈, +≈∞ +† †+∞ †∞≠ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ≈⊥∞∋∂ ++†+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, ≈†∞⊥≈ ;≈ †+ ∋≤† ∋≈ ∋≈ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∞+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ =;††∋⊥∞†+†∂. (744095: […] 8+ †+∞+ ≈⊥∞∋∂ ∋≈+ 9≈⊥†;≈+, 5+†∋≈⊇? 0394: 8+≈’† ≠++++, 1’†† †+∋≈≈†∋†∞. (7 1: 30)) 7+∞ ∋∞⊇;∞≈≤∞ ≤∋≈ +† ≤+∞+≈∞ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ++†+ ⊥∋+†;∞≈ +∞† †+++∞⊥+ 0≠∞≈’≈ ⊥∋+∋⊥++∋≈;≈⊥ +† 7∋≈≤∞+’≈ ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈†≈ †+∞ ∞††∞≤† +† ∋ +∞∋† †+∋≈≈†∋†;+≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈;≈⊥ +≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ ∋≤+;∞=∞⊇.

0≈∞ ∋++∞ ⊇∞=;≤∞ +† ≈;∋∞†∋†;≈⊥ †≠+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≈∞ +† ≤+≈†+∋≈†;≈⊥ +∞⊥;+≈∋† ∋≤≤∞≈†≈.

9=∞≈ †++∞⊥+ †+;≈ ;≈ ≈+† ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ++;⊥;≈∋† †∞≠†, ;† ≠∋≈ ⊇∞⊥†++∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ ⊥†∋+ ++ †+∞ 6;∞†⊇ 8∋+ 7+∞∋†+∞ 0+∋⊥∋≈+ ;≈ 1980 (≤†. 0’3+;∞≈ 1989: 102). 6+;∞† +;∋≈∞†† ∋≈⊇ 3†∞⊥+∞≈ 5∞∋, ≠++ †+∞≈⊇∞⊇ †+∞ 6;∞†⊇ 8∋+ 7+∞∋†+∞ 0+∋⊥∋≈+ †+⊥∞†+∞+, ≤∋≈† ∋≤†++≈ +† ⊥+∞⊇+∋;≈∋≈††+ 0†≈†∞+ ++;⊥;≈≈ ≠;†+ ≈∋†;=∞ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 7;∋∋ 4∞∞≈+≈ ∋≈⊇ 3+∞≈⊇∋ 3≤∋††+≈ †+ ⊥++†+∋+ †+∞ 1+;≈+ =;††∋⊥∞+≈ ≠+∞+∞∋≈ 0∋⊥†∋;≈ 7∋≈≤∞+ ≠∋≈ ⊥++†+∋+∞⊇ ++ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≤†++ 8∋=;⊇ 8∞∋⊥ (≤†.

4++∋≈+ 2002: 549). 7+++∞⊥+ †+;≈ ≤†∞=∞+ ≤∋≈†;≈⊥ ≤++;≤∞ †+∞ ≤+≈†+∋≈† +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 1+;≈+ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ≠∋≈ ∋∋⊥†;†;∞⊇ †++ †+∞ ∋∞⊇;∞≈≤∞.


3. 0+∋+∋≤†∞+≈’ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈

1≈ 7+∋≈≈†∋†;+≈≈ †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ⊇;≈⊥†∋+ =∞++ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ 1+;≈+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

8+≠ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ++ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ;≈ +† ≤+∞+≈∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞⊇ ++ †+∞;+ +⊥;≈;+≈ +≈ †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, †+∞;+ +≠≈ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ +† ++;⊥;≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈≤∞ †+∞+ +∞∋+ †++ †+∞∋. 7+∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ +∞∋;≈;≈≤∞≈† +† †+∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† 1+;≈+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈’≈ +⊥;≈;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞††∞≤† †+∞ ≤+≈≤∞+≈≈ ∋++∞† †+∞ ≈+≤;+-∞≤+≈+∋;≤∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ 1+∞†∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊇∞+≠∞≈† ∋† †+∋† †;∋∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞ 3+;†;≈+ +∞†∞ (≤†.

5;≤+†∋+;∂ 1994: 554).

3.1 4∋;+∞

4∋;+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+ ≠++ ;≈ ∞∋⊥∞+ †+ †∞∋+≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †++∋ †+∞ =∞++ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥. 1≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ∋≤† +† †+∞ ⊥†∋+ ≈+∞ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞≈ 8∞⊥+ ∋≈⊇ +∞+ †∞††+≠ ≤†∋≈≈∋∋†∞≈ +† †+∞ +∞⊇⊥∞ ≈≤+++†, ≠++ ⊇+ ≈+† +∋=∞ ∋ =∞++ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ +⊥;≈;+≈ +≈ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ∋≈⊇ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈∞≈ +∞+ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∋†;+≈ †+ †∞∋+≈ ;†.

3+∞ ≈†∋†∞≈ ++≠ ;† ;≈ +† ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈≤∞ †++ +∞+ †+ +∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ≈⊥∞∋∂ ;† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ≈+∞ +∋≈ ⊥†∋≈≈ †+ ∋+=∞ †+ 4∋∞+;≤∋. 6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, ≈+∞ ∞≈∞≈ ∋ ⊥∞+†∞ ++ 8∋≈ 0’0+≈≈∞††, ∋≈ 1+;≈+ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† †∞∋⊇∞+ ≠++ ⊇∞≈⊥;†∞ ≤∋∋⊥∋;⊥≈;≈⊥ †++ †+∞ 0∋†++†;≤ 9∋∋≈≤;⊥∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† †+∞ 4≤† +† 0≈;+≈, ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥∞⊇ †+∞ 1+;≈+ †+ †∞∋+≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, †+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† +∞+ ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈† (≤†. 0’3+;∞≈ 1989: 104; ≤†.

Tuathaigh 2005: 44).


MAIRE: We should all be learning to speak English. That’s what my mother says. That’s what I say. That’s what Dan O’Connell said last month in Ennis. He said the sooner we all learn to speak English the better. […] I’m talking about the Liberator, Master, as you well know.

And what he said was this: ‘The old language is a barrier to modern progress.’ He said that last month. And he’s right. I don’t want Greek. I don’t want Latin. I want English. […] I want to be able to speak English because I’m going to America as soon as the harvest’s all saved. (T .....

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7∋†∞+ +≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥†∋+, ∋≈ 4∋;+∞ +∞≤+∋∞≈ ≤†+≈∞+ †+ 5+††∋≈⊇, ≈+∞ ⊥∋;≈≈ ∋≈+†+∞+ +∞∋≈+≈ †+ †∞∋+≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+.

3∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ +∋=∞ ≈+ ≈+∋+∞⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;† ;≈ ;∋⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †++ †+∞∋ †+ ++†⊇ ∋ ≤+≈=∞+≈∋†;+≈ ≠;†++∞† †+∞ +∞†⊥ +† 0≠∞≈ ∋≈ ∋ †+∋≈≈†∋†++ ≠+;≤+ +∞≤+∋∞≈ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ ∞=;⊇∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ≈≤∞≈∞ +† 4≤† 11. 8∞+;≈⊥ †+∞;+ †+=∞ ≈≤∞≈∞ 4∋;+∞ ∋≈⊇ 5+††∋≈⊇ †++ †+∞;+ +∋+⊇∞≈† †+ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈ †+∞;+ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈ †++ ∋≈+†+∞+ +∞† ≠;†++∞† †+∞ +∋≈;≈ +† ∋ ≈+∋+∞⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;† +∞≤+∋∞≈ ∋ †+∞≈†+∋†;≈⊥ ∋+∋∞≈† +† ∋;≈≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ †++ †+∞∋ (5077448: 1 ≠;≈+ †+ 6+⊇ ++∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ∋∞. (7 11/2: 52)).

7+∞;+ “≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≤+††∋⊥≈∞≈ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ≤+≈†∞≠† ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ∋⊥+∞∞⊇ ≤+⊇∞” (8∋≈†∋≈∞≈ 1985: 175). 1++≈;≤∋††+, †+∞+ ∞=∞≈ †∋;† †+ ≤+≈=∞+ †+∞;+ ≠;††;≈⊥≈∞≈≈ +† †;=;≈⊥ ;≈ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+’≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ ++∋∞ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈. (5077448: 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †∞†† ++∞ ++≠ 1 ≠∋≈† †+ +∞ +∞+∞- †+ †;=∞ +∞+∞- ∋†≠∋+≈-≠;†+ ++∞-∋†≠∋+≈, ∋†≠∋+≈. […] 1 ∋∋ ≈+† ⊥+;≈⊥ †+ †∞∋=∞ +∞+∞. […] 44159: 7∋∂∞ ∋∞ ∋≠∋+ ≠;†+ ++∞, 6∞++⊥∞. (7 11/2: 52))

3.2 5+††∋≈⊇

5+††∋≈⊇’≈ ;≈≤†;≈∋†;+≈ †+ †∞∋+≈ 1+;≈+ ≈†∞∋≈ †++∋ †≠+ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈.

6;+≈††+, +∞ ;≈ +† †+∞ ≤+≈=;≤†;+≈ †+∋† ∋≈ ∋ †++∞;⊥≈∞+ +∞ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≈∋†;=∞≈ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥†∞† ≤+≈=∞+≈∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ †+≤∋†≈ (5077448: […]1 †∞∞† =∞++ †++†;≈+ †+†+†+ +∞ ≠++∂;≈⊥ +∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+.....

3∞† 1 ;≈†∞≈⊇ †+ +∞≤†;†+ †+∋†. […] 1 ++⊥∞ ≠∞’+∞ ≈+† †++. 7++ ≤+∞⊇∞ ∋≈ ;≈†+∞≈;+≈ +≈ ++∞+ †;=∞≈. (7 1: 25/26)) 7+;≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤† †++ 3∋;†∞ 3∞∋⊥ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ “⊇;≈†;≈≤†;=∞ ≤∞††∞+∋† ≤†;∋∋†∞” ≈†∋≈⊇≈ ;≈ ≈†∋+∂ ≤+≈†+∋≈† ≠;†+ 7∋≈≤∞+’≈ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞ ⊇;≈+∞⊥∋+⊇ †++ †+∞ 1+;≈+ ≤∞††∞+∞ (8∋≈†∋≈∞≈ 1985: 185).

3∞≤+≈⊇†+, 5+††∋≈⊇ +∋≈ †∋∂∞≈ ∋ †;∂;≈⊥ †++ 1+∞†∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∞=∞≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+ ≈†∋+ †+∞+∞ +∞++≈⊇ +;≈ ≤∞++∞≈† ∋;†;†∋++ ∋;≈≈;+≈ (5077448: 1 †+;≈∂ ++∞+ ≤+∞≈†++≈;⊇∞ ;≈ ;≈ ;≈ ;≈ =∞++ +∞∋∞†;†∞†.

1’=∞ †∋††∞≈ ;≈ †+=∞ ≠;†+ ;† ∋†+∞∋⊇+. […] 1 ∂≈+≠ †+∋† 1’∋ ⊥+;≈⊥ †+ +∞ +∋⊥⊥+, =∞++ +∋⊥⊥+ +∞+∞. […] 0394: 8∞ ;≈ ∋†+∞∋⊇+ ∋ ≤+∋∋;††∞⊇ 8;+∞+≈+⊥+;†∞ (7 1: 32)).

0=∞+ †+∞ ≤+∞+≈∞ +† †+∞ ⊥†∋+ +∞ ∋⊇+⊥†≈ ∋ ∋++∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞ ++∋∋≈†;≤;≈∞⊇ =;∞≠ +† †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ ≠+;≤+ ∋∋∂∞≈ +;≈ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ †+ †∞∋+≈ †+∞ ≈∋†;=∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ ⊥++≠ ∞=∞≈ ∋++∞. (5077448: 8+ ++∞ †+;≈∂ 1 ≤+∞†⊇ †;=∞ +∞+∞? […] 1†’≈ +∞∋††+ +∞∋=∞≈†+.[…]0394: 8+≈’† +∞ ≈∞≤+ ∋ +†++⊇+ ++∋∋≈†;≤!) 8+≠∞=∞+, 5+††∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋≠∋+∞ †+∋† ≈;∋⊥†+ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠;†† ≈+† ∋∋∂∞ +;∋ ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ ;≈ 3∋;†∞ 3∞∋⊥.

8∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞≈ ++≈†;††;†+ †++∋ ≈+∋∞ +† †+∞ †+≠≈≈⊥∞+⊥†∞ (5077448: 3+∋∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∞+∞ +∞≈∞≈† ∞≈. […] 1 ≠∋≈ ⊥∋≈≈;≈⊥ ∋ †;†††∞ ⊥;+† +∞≈†∞+⊇∋+ ∋≈⊇ ≈+∞ ≈⊥∋† ∋† ∋∞. (7 11.1: 37)) ∋≈⊇ +∞ +∞≤+⊥≈;≈∞≈ †+∋† ∞=∞≈ ;† +∞ †∞∋+≈≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +∞ ≠;†† ≈†;†† †∋≤∂ †+∞ ≤+††∞≤†;=∞ ∋∞∋+++ ∋≈⊇ †+∋⊇;†;+≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ 3∋;†∞ 3∞∋⊥ ≈+∋+∞. (5077448: 9=∞≈ ;† 1 ⊇;⊇ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 1+;≈+ 1’⊇ ∋†≠∋+≈ +∞ ∋≈ +∞†≈;⊇∞+ +∞+∞, ≠+∞†⊇≈’† 1? 1 ∋∋+ †∞∋+≈ †+∞ ⊥∋≈≈≠++⊇ +∞† †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ †+;+∞ ≠;†† ∋†≠∋+≈ ∞†∞⊇∞ ∋∞, ≠+≈’† ;†? 7+∞ ⊥+;=∋†∞ ≤++∞ ≠;†† ∋†≠∋+≈ +∞… +∞+∋∞†;≤, ≠+≈’† ;†? (7 11.1: 40)) 7∋†∞+ +≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥†∋+ +∞ †∋††≈ ;≈ †+=∞ ≠;†+ 4∋;+∞ ∋≈⊇ +;≈ †+∞≈†+∋†;≈⊥ ;≈∋+;†;†+ †+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†∞ ≠;†+ +∞+ +∞≤+∋∞≈ ∋≈+†+∞+ ;≈≤∞≈†;=∞ †++ +;∋ †+ †∞∋+≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

3.3 0≠∞≈

4† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ⊥†∋+ 0≠∞≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ++†⊇ †+∞ 1+;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ =∞++ +;⊥+ ∞≈†∞∞∋.

1≈ +;≈ ∋;≈⊇ ;† ;≈ +∞†⊇∋†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ++†⊇ ∋∞≤+ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈≤∞ ∋⊥∋+† †++∋ ≈+∋∞ ≈†;⊥+† ≈∞≈†;∋∞≈†∋† =∋†∞∞. 8∞ ∞=∞≈ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ †+;≈∂ ∋++∞ +;⊥+†+ +† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;≈⊥ ;† ≠;†+ ∋+⊇∞+≈;†+ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈. (0394: […]4+ {++ ;≈ †+ †+∋≈≈†∋†∞ †+∞ ⊥∞∋;≈† ∋+≤+∋;≤ †+≈⊥∞∞ ++∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ⊥∞+≈;≈† ;≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ;≈†+ †+∞ 9;≈⊥’≈ ⊥++⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+. (7 1: 29)) 0+≈†+∋++ †+ +;≈ +++†+∞+ 4∋≈∞≈ 0≠∞≈ +∞∋⊇;†+ ∋⊇∋⊥†≈ †+ †+∞ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞+≈, ≠;††;≈⊥†+ ≈⊥∞∋∂≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+ †+∞∋ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥∞≈ +;≈ +++†+∞+ †+ ⊇+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞. (0394: 0∋≈’† ++∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 9≈⊥†;≈+ +∞†++∞ ++∞+ ∋∋≈? 44403: 3++? 0394: 0∞† +† ≤+∞+†∞≈+. (7 11.1: 36/37); 0394: […] 0+∋∞ +≈, ∋∋≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂ ;≈ 9.....

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