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Universidad Nacional de Córdoba- Argentina

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MASS MEDIA IN BRITAIN Inhalt BRITISH PRINT MEDIA. 2 1. Newspapers 3 2. Quality Press 4 3. Middle-Market 5 4. Tabloids 5 5. Magazines 6 ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN. 7 6. TV. 7 7. Soaps: 8 8. Reality TV: 8 9. Radio. 9 MEDIA FREEDOM IN THE UK Freedom of expression is protected under: 1998 Human Rights Act
MORPHOSYNTAX IN CODESWITCHING A CASE OF SHONA-GERMAN BILINGUALS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SPECIAL HONOURS DEGREE IN LINGUISTICS. BY M. M. 2012 SUPERVISOR: MRS CHIVERO ABSTRACT

UNIT 1

GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS

To get across: to succeed in communicating an idea or piece of information to someone, or to be communicated successfully.

Stranded (adj): to be stucked


What’s a GOOD communication?

·         Getting the message across quickly and efficiently.

·         Developing an interesting exchange of ideas.

·         Using language correctly: organization of the information to be transmitted, good articulation, knowledge of the jargon, background knowledge sharing, body language, etc.

·         Having time to think before you speak.

·         Being able to express your feelings.


Means of communication can be:

ADVANTAGEOUS

DISADVANTAGEOUS

Efficient: You can be reached wherever you are.


Intrusive: You can get disturbed when trying to relax.

Personal: You can take time to express yourself.


Impersonal: You can be able to communicate successfully.


Versatile: You can send sounds and pictures.


Slow: It can take weeks to reach destination.


Artistic: You can use customized paper and your handwriting.


Limited: You can only send brief messages

Quotes:     “The more elaborate our means of communication, the less we communicate.”

“Good communication is as stimulated as black coffe and just as hard to sleep after.”


Dots and Dashes Still Alive

In orbit high above Earth, a multi-billion-dollar formation of communications satellites stands ready to instantly connect pilots, seamen and all kinds of navigators. But what if the communication computers on board started acting up or even broke down? There is a backup plan, in part using technology that was invented in 1835: the Morse code, the language of dots and dashes that has survived the assault of higher technology for a century and a half.

Named after its inventor, Samuel F B Morse, the code is a series of combinations of short and long tones (dots and dashes) representing letters of the alphabet that can be transmitted manually by a key operator. A telegrapher combines the dots and dashes to form letters and words.

Morse telegraphy may seem like a quaint anachronism, with its brass sounder and key operated by the world's most basic tool, the human finger. However, it is sometimes vital to worldwide communications. “Newer isn't always better. Even though it is old and slow, Morse is still the most reliable in .....[read full text]

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0≈⊇∞+ 03 †∋≠, †+∞ +††;≤∞+ ∋∞≈† ≈⊥∞≈⊇ ∞;⊥+† ++∞+≈ ∞=∞++ ⊇∋+ ∋† ≈∞∋ ∋+≈;†++;≈⊥ †+∞ +∋⊇;+ †++ 4++≈∞ ⊇;≈†+∞≈≈ ≤∋††≈. 3++∞†⊇ ++∞ ∞=∞+ †;≈⊇ ++∞+≈∞†† ∋⊇+;†† ∋† ≈∞∋ ;≈ ∋ †;†∞++∋† †∋∞≈≤+∞⊇ †++∋ ∋ ≈;≈∂;≈⊥ ⊥∋≈≈∞≈⊥∞+ ≤+∞;≈∞ ≈+;⊥, ;† ≠;†† +∞ ∞⊥∞;⊥⊥∞⊇ ≠;†+ ∋ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈≈ ⊇∞=;≤∞: ∋ 4++≈∞ †+∋≈≈∋;††∞+ †+∋† ∋∞†+∋∋†;≤∋††+ ≈;⊥≈∋†≈ ∋ ⊇;≈†+∞≈≈ ≤∋††, +∞† ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∞⊥∞;⊥⊥∞⊇ ≠;†+ ∋ ∂∞+++∋+⊇ ;≈ ≤∋≈∞ ++∞ +∋⊥⊥∞≈ †+ ∂≈+≠ †+∞ 4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞.

0∞++∋⊥≈ †+∞ +∞≈†-∂≈+≠≈ +;† +† 4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≤∋†† †++ +∞†⊥ – 303. 1≈ †+∞ ≤+⊇∞, †+∞≈∞ †∞††∞+≈ †++∋ ∋ ⊇;≈†;≈≤†;=∞ ⊥∋††∞+≈ (⊇+† ⊇+† ⊇+†, ⊇∋≈+ ⊇∋≈+ ⊇∋≈+, ⊇+† ⊇+† ⊇+†) ∞∋≈;†+ +∞≤+⊥≈;=∞⊇ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞∋∞+⊥∞≈≤+.

7+∞ ∋;†;†∋++ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ †+ +∞ †+∞ ∋+≈† ≈∞+;+∞≈ ∞≈∞+≈ +† 4++≈∞ †∞†∞⊥+∋⊥++. 3+;†∞ +;††;+≈-⊇+††∋+ ≈∋†∞††;†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+⊥+;≈†;≤∋†∞⊇ ⊥++∞≈⊇ ≈∞†≠++∂≈ ∋+∞ ⊥++⊇ ;≈ †+∞+++, ≈∞≤+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≈+≈†∞∋≈ ≤∋≈ ++∞∋∂ ⊇+≠≈ +≈ †+∞ +∋†††∞†;∞†⊇. 4≈ ∋ ∋∋††∞+ +† ⊥+∞⊇∞≈≤∞, †+∞ 4+∋+ ∂∞∞⊥≈ ∋ †∞≈≤†;+≈∋† 4++≈∞ ≤∋⊥∋+;†;†+.

4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞ ≈;⊥≈∋†≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞ ∋∞≤+ †∞≈≈ +++∋⊇≤∋≈†;≈⊥ ⊥+≠∞+ †+ †+∋≈≈∋;† †+∋≈ =+;≤∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞≈. 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, ∞=∞≈ ∋≈ ∞≈≤†∞∋+ 4++≈∞ ≈;⊥≈∋† ≤∋≈ +∞ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∞⊇, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ ∋ ⊇;≈†++†∞⊇ =+;≤∞ †+∋≈≈∋;≈≈;+≈ ;≈ =;+†∞∋††+ ∞≈∞†∞≈≈. 3+∞≈ 4++≈∞ ;≈∋∞⊥∞+∋†∞⊇ †+∞ †∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+ ≈∞+=;≤∞ ;≈ 1844, +∞ ≠;+∞⊇ †++∋ 3∋††;∋++∞ †+ 3∋≈+;≈⊥†+≈ †+∞ ≈+≠-†∋∋∞⊇ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞: “3+∋† +.....


2+≤∋+∞†∋++

§&≈+≈⊥; 4≤† ∞⊥ (⊥++): ;† ∋ ∋∋≤+;≈∞ ++ ⊥∋+† +† ++∞+ ++⊇+ ∋≤†≈ ∞⊥, ;† ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ≠++∂ ⊥++⊥∞+†+

§&≈+≈⊥; 6++⊥∞ ∋++∞≈⊇ †++ ⊇;+∞≤†;+≈≈: †+ †++ †+ †;≈⊇ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ++∞ ≤∋≈≈+† ≈∞∞ ++ †∞∞†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ ++∞+ +∋≈⊇≈. - 3∞ ⊥++⊥∞⊇ ∋++∞≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇∋+∂≈∞≈≈.

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≠++†⊇ ⊥+∞≈ ≈;†∞≈†

§&≈+≈⊥; 3∋≤∂∞⊥ ⊥†∋≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ 4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞: †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +† ⊇+†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋≈+∞≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 7∞⊇;+∞≈: ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ;≈ †∞⊇;+∞≈ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞≈ †++ ∋ †+≈⊥ †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≈+† ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ [= +++;≈⊥]

§&≈+≈⊥; 0∞∋;≈†: ∞≈∞≈∞∋† ∋≈⊇ ∋††+∋≤†;=∞, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ ∋≈ +†⊇-†∋≈+;+≈∞⊇ ≠∋+. -∋ ⊥∞∋;≈† †;†††∞ =;††∋⊥∞ ;≈ 5++∂≈+;+∞

§&≈+≈⊥; 4≈∋≤+++≈;≈∋: ≈+∋∞+≈∞ ++ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ +∞†+≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ⊥∋≈†, ≈+† †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†. - 7+∞ ∋+≈∋+≤++ ;≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ +† ∋≈ ∋≈∋≤+++≈;≈∋ †+∞≈∞ ⊇∋+≈.

§  Brass sounder: musical instruments that are made of metal

§  Went off (phr): stop working

§  “We see the Morse code as a dying art, but we refuse to let it die completely.”

§  Merchant vessel:  a ship or large boat

§  Bearing the US flag: To bear: (bore/borne): literary to carry someone or something, especially something important: The US Constitution states that the people have a right to bear arms.

§  Distre.....

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§&≈+≈⊥; 7+ †;≈⊇ ++∞+≈∞†† ∋⊇+;†† ∋† ≈∞∋/ †+ ⊥+ ∋⊇+;††/ †+ +∞ ∋⊇+;†† :  ∋ †∋ ⊇∞+;=∋

§&≈+≈⊥;  “7+∞ ∞≈⊇∞+;≈⊥ ∞≈∞ +† 4++≈∞ †∞†∞⊥+∋⊥++ ;≈ †+∞ †∞⊥∋≤+ +† ∋ +∞+≈† +† ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∋†;=∋†;+≈.”

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+ +∞†∋+ ++⊇∞+≈: †+ ⊥∋≈≈ ∋ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ †++∋ +≈∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ++ ⊥†∋≤∞ †+ ∋≈+†+∞+ [= ⊥∋≈≈ +≈] +∞†∋+ ≈†+ †+ ≈+.

§&≈+≈⊥; 3+∞† ⊇+≠≈ (⊥++): ≈†+⊥ +⊥∞+∋†;≈⊥, ∞;†+∞+ ⊥∞+∋∋≈∞≈††+ ++ †++ ∋ ≈+++† †;∋∞.

§&≈+≈⊥; 4 ∋∋††∞+ +† ⊥+∞⊇∞≈≤∞: ⊥+∞⊇∞≈≤;∋

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+ ≤+∋∞ +∞† +≈ †+⊥: †+ ≠;≈/ ⊥∋;≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 7∋∂∞ +=∞+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇: †∋∂∞ ≤+≈†++†

§&≈+≈⊥; 0∞≤∂ (=): ;† ∋ +;+⊇ ⊥∞≤∂≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++ ⊥∞≤∂≈ ∋† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥, ;† ∋∋∂∞≈ ⊥∞;≤∂ +∞⊥∞∋†∞⊇ ∋+=∞∋∞≈†≈ ≠;†+ ;†≈ +∞∋∂ †+ †++ †+ ∞∋† ⊥∋+† +† ;†, ∋∋∂∞ ∋ ++†∞ ;≈ ;† ∞†≤ (†;⊥∞+∋†;=∞†+ ;≈ †+;≈ ≤∋≈∞)

§&≈+≈⊥; 4 ≤†∋††∞+ +† ≈+∞≈⊇≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 3;† +∋≤∂ (⊥++): †+ +∞†∋≠ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞ ≈+ ∞††++† †+ ⊥∞† ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ≠+∋† +∋⊥⊥∞≈≈. - 8+≈'† {∞≈† ≈;† +∋≤∂ ∋≈⊇ ≠∋;† †++ ≈∞≠ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ †+ ≤+∋∞ †+ ++∞.

§&≈+≈⊥; 5∞≤∞⊇∞ †++∋ ⊥∞+†;≤ =;∞≠: ;† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++∞ ≤∋≈ ≈∞∞ ++ +∞∋+ +∞≤∞⊇∞≈, ;† ⊥∞†≈ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≠∋+ ∞≈†;† ;† ⊇;≈∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈. +∞≤∞⊇∞ ;≈†+: †++†≈†∞⊥≈ +∞≤∞⊇;≈⊥ .....


4≤† 10.

1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ +†⊇ ∋∋≈ 650098 450048 †+∞ ⊇;∋†+-†;† +++∋ †++ +;≈ ≈†;⊥⊥∞+≈.

2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 5 ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞† ∞⊥ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋=∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ≠∋≈ ≈+ 7981003.

3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 6++⊇ †∞††∞+ ≠+;†;≈⊥ ;≈ †∋≈† +∞≤+∋;≈⊥ ∋ 85146 457.

4.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈∋;†++ ≠∋≈ 485167 47 ≈∞∋ †++ †+∞+ ⊇∋+≈ +∞†++∞ +∞ ≠∋≈ +∞≈≤∞∞⊇.

5.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈;≈∂;≈⊥ ≈+;⊥ ≈∞≈† +∞†81375933 0477.

6.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈∞≤+∞†∋++ +∞≈;†+ 090998 4345 ∋† †+∞ ∂∞+++∋+⊇ +† +∞+ ≠++⊇ ⊥++≤∞≈≈++.


6∋≤;∋† ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈≈:


§&≈+≈⊥; 3∞∋∋: ∋ ≠;⊇∞ +∋⊥⊥+ ≈∋;†∞. – 4 +∞∋∋ +† ⊇∞†;⊥+†.

§&≈+≈⊥; 6†∋+∞: ∋ †+≈⊥ ∋≈⊥++ †++∂. – 3+∞ ⊥∋=∞ +;∋ ∋ ++≈†;†∞ ⊥†∋+∞.

§&≈+≈⊥; 3∋;+∂: ≈+∞≈[≤+∞≈†∋+†∞]-8∞ +∋⊇ ∋ ≈∞††-≈∋†;≈†;∞⊇ ≈∋;+∂ +≈ +;≈ †∋≤∞.
(=) †+ ≈∋;†∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞≈⊥†∞∋≈∋≈† ≠∋+ †+∋† ≈++≠≈ †+∋† ++∞ ∋+∞ ⊥†∞∋≈∞⊇ ++ ≈+∋∞+≈∞ ∞†≈∞'≈ +∋⊇ †∞≤∂ ++ †+;≈∂ ++∞ ∋+∞ +∞††∞+ †+∋≈ +†+∞+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞. ≈∋;+∂ ∋†: 3+∋† ∋+∞ ++∞ ≈∋;+∂;≈⊥ ∋†?

§&≈+≈⊥; 6++≠≈: †+∞ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ +≈ ++∞+ †∋≤∞ ≠+∞≈ ++∞ ∋+=∞ ++∞+ ∞+∞+++≠≈ †+⊥∞†+∞+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ++∞ ∋+∞ ∋≈⊥++, ∞≈+∋⊥⊥+, ++ ≤+≈†∞≈∞⊇. ≠;†+ ∋ †++≠≈: 8∞ †++∂∞⊇ ∋† +∞+ ≠;†+ ∋ ⊥∞==†∞⊇ †++≠≈.
(=) 3+∞ †++≠≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ≈+∞ +∞∋⊇ †+∞ †∞††∞+. †++≠≈ ∋†: 4∋††;∞ †++≠≈.....

§&≈+≈⊥; 3;≈≤∞: (≈): +† ⊥∋;≈: ∋∞∞≤∋ ⊇∞ ⊇+†++. +† ∞∋+∋++∋≈≈∋∞≈†: ≤∋+∋ ⊇∞ =∞+⊥∞∞≈=∋
 (=)
†+ ≈∞⊇⊇∞≈†+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ +≈ ++∞+ †∋≤∞ ∋≈ ∋ +∞∋≤†;+≈ †+ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ⊥∋;≈†∞† ++ ∞⊥≈∞††;≈⊥.
 (=) †+ ≈∞⊇⊇∞≈†+ †∞∞† =∞++ ∞≈≤+∋†++†∋+†∞ ++ ∞∋+∋++∋≈≈∞⊇ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† +∋⊥⊥∞≈≈, ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++∞ +∞∋∞∋+∞+ ∞†≤ [= ≤+;≈⊥∞] ≠;≈≤∞ ∋† †+∞ ∋∞∋+++/†++∞⊥+†/;⊇∞∋: 1 ≈†;†† ≠;≈≤∞ ∋† †+∞ †++∞⊥+† +† †+∋† †∞++;+†∞ ∞=∞≈;≈⊥.

§&≈+≈⊥; 6+;∋∋≤∞: ∋≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ ++∞ ∋∋∂∞ ++ †≠;≈†;≈⊥ ++∞+ †∋≤∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ++∞ ⊇+ ≈+† †;∂∞ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ++∞ ∋+∞ †∞∞†;≈⊥ ⊥∋;≈: 8;≈ †∋≤∞ †≠;≈†∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+;∋∋≤∞ +† ⊥∋;≈/⊇;≈⊥∞≈†.



3†+†∞≈ +† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;≈⊥

=&≈+≈⊥; 0∋∞≈∞: (+∋≤∞+ ∞≈∋ ⊥∋∞≈∋) ∋++∞⊥††+/ ⊇;⊥†+∋∋†;≤∋††+/ ∋≈⊥+;†+.

=&≈+≈⊥; 5∞†++†: (+∞⊥†;≤∋+)  ∋++∞⊥††+/ ∋≈⊥+;†+/

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+∞∞+: (∋≈;∋∋+)  ∞≈†+∞≈;∋≈†;≤∋††+

=&≈+≈⊥; 3∋;†∞: (≈+≈+∞;+) ⊥∞≈††+/ ⊇;⊥†+∋∋†;≤∋†+

=&≈+≈⊥; 1≈≈†+∞≤† (≈+): (;≈†++∋∋+) †;+∋†+/ ⊥∞≈††+

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+∋†++† (≈+): (+∞≈⊥+≈⊇∞+) ⊥∞≈††+

=&≈+≈⊥; 3++∞⊥: (∞≈≤+⊥∞+ †+≈ ++∋+++≈) ;≈⊇;††∞+∞≈††+/ ∋≈⊥+;†+

0+††+≤∋†;+≈≈

=&≈+≈⊥; 8∞∋⊇/ ≤+††+⊥∞;∋† 74460469

7+ ∋=+;⊇ ∞≈;≈⊥ ≤+††+⊥∞;∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞

=&≈+≈⊥; 8∋∋∋⊥;≈⊥/ ;≈†++∋∋†;=∞ 590057

7+∞ ⊥∞+†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ∋ ⊇∋∋∋⊥;≈⊥ +∞⊥++†

=&≈+≈⊥; 4≈;∋∋†∞⊇/ +∞∋†∞⊇ 8130033104

7+ +∋=∞ ∋≈ ∋≈;∋∋†∞⊇ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈;+≈ 04 ≈†+

=&≈+≈⊥; 9;≈⊇/ ⊥++†+∞≈⊇ 30583

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+†;†;≤∋†/ ++∞≈;≈⊥ 309908

5+∞≈;≈⊥: ∞≈†+∞≈;∋≈†;≤

7+ ⊥;=∞ ∋ ++∞≈;≈⊥ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ †+ ≈+

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+≈†;⊇∞≈†;∋†/ ⊥∞+†;≈∞≈† 14605447104

7+ +∞=∞∋† ≤+≈†;⊇∞≈†;∋† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈

=&≈+≈⊥; 1≈†++∋∋†/ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† 004295347104

7+ +∞ ≤∋⊥∋+†∞ +† ∞≈⊥∋⊥;≈⊥ 14 ∋≈ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† .....


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