3 Getting the Message Across. Summery Unit I - Media - Summary/Zusammenfassung
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MASS MEDIA IN BRITAIN Inhalt BRITISH PRINT MEDIA. 2 1.   Newspapers 3 2.   Quality Press 4 3.   Middle-Market 5 4.   Tabloids 5 5.   Magazines 6 ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN. 7 6.   TV. 7 7.   Soaps: 8 8.   Reality TV: 8    9.    Radio. 9          ­  ­         MEDIA FREEDOM IN THE UK Freedom of expression is protected under: · 1998 Human Rights Act which enacted into UK law the European Convention on Human Rights · 2005 Freedom of Information Act, the 1998 Act also introduced privacy as a statutory right. The British press is unrestricted by censorship or state control. It is considered to be an instrument and criticising government and decision-makers­. It has considerable influence in public affairs and therefore is sometimes called the „Fourth Estate“. The „Press Council“ was set up to safeguard the freedom of the press and to maintain the highest professional standards. Unlike most other European countries the British press receives no subsdies and relatively few tax and postal concessions. If a newspaper or magazine prints wrong or damaging information about an individual, it may be sued for lible. In such cases the editor, publishers, printer of the print matter, as well as the author, may all be held responsible. BRITISH PRINT MEDIA Britain is a nation of avid newspaper readers. More than 16 million people buy a copy of a morning paper and countless
MORPHOSYNTAX IN CODESWITCHING A CASE OF SHONA-GERMAN BILINGUALS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SPECIAL HONOURS DEGREE IN LINGUISTICS. BY 2012 SUPERVISOR: MRS CHIVERO ABSTRACT This research examines the morphosyntactic structure of code mixed utterances among Shona-German bilinguals. In particular, it analyses Shona-German code mixed utterances and test them against the Matrix Language Constraint. It also analyses morphosyntactic doubling in Shona-German code mixed utterances. Using data from participant and marginal observation from the German students at the University of Zimbabwe and at the German school, the study shows how German adjectives, nouns, locatives and verbs are integrated into the Shona morphosyntactic structure. The Matrix language Constraint successfully shows that the above grammatical categories are integrated into the Shona morphosyntactic structure. Doubling is evident in the analyzed data where the same syntactic element appears twice in two different languages especially with nouns marked for gender and with double pluralisation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT­S I would like to acknowledge the German students at the University of Zimbabwe and at the German school whose code switches inspired me to take up a fascinating topic. I also acknowledge my supervisor Mrs. Chivero,

UNIT 1

GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS

To get across: to succeed in communicating an idea or piece of information to someone, or to be communicated successfully.

Stranded (adj): to be stucked


What’s a GOOD communication?

·         Getting the message across quickly and efficiently.

·         Developing an interesting exchange of ideas.

·         Using language correctly: organization of the information to be transmitted, good articulation, knowledge of the jargon, background knowledge sharing, body language, etc.

·         Having time to think before you speak.

·         Being able to express your feelings.


Means of communication can be:

ADVANTAGEOUS

DISADVANTAGEOUS

Efficient: You can be reached wherever you are.


Intrusive: You can get disturbed when trying to relax.

Personal: You can take time to express yourself.


Impersonal: You can be able to communicate successfully.


Versatile: You can send sounds and pictures.


Slow: It can take weeks to reach destination.


Artistic: You can use customized paper and your handwriting.


Limited: You can only send brief messages

Quotes:     “The more elaborate our means of communication, the less we communicate.”

“Good communication is as stimulated as black coffe and just as hard to sleep after.”


Dots and Dashes Still Alive

In orbit high above Earth, a multi-billion-dollar formation of communications satellites stands ready to instantly connect pilots, seamen and all kinds of navigators. But what if the communication computers on board started acting up or even broke down? There is a backup plan, in part using technology that was invented in 1835: the Morse code, the language of dots and dashes that has survived the assault of higher technology for a century and a half.

Named after its inventor, Samuel F B Morse, the code is a series of combinations of short and long tones (dots and dashes) representing letters of the alphabet that can be transmitted manually by a key operator. A telegrapher combines the dots and dashes to form letters and words.

Morse telegraphy may seem like a quaint anachronism, with its brass sounder and key operated by the world's most basic tool, the human finger. However, it is sometimes vital to worldwide communications. “Newer isn't always better. Even though it is old and slow, Morse is still the most reliable in difficult conditions.”

Under US law, the officer must spend eight hours every day at sea monitoring the radio for Morse distress calls. Should you ever find yourself adrift at sea in a lifeboat launched from a sinking passenger cruise ship, it will be equipped with a single communications device: a Morse transmitter that automatically signals a distress call, but is also equipped with a keyboard in case you happen t.....[read full text]

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0∞++∋⊥≈ †+∞ +∞≈†-∂≈+≠≈ +;† +† 4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≤∋†† †++ +∞†⊥ – 303. 1≈ †+∞ ≤+⊇∞, †+∞≈∞ †∞††∞+≈ †++∋ ∋ ⊇;≈†;≈≤†;=∞ ⊥∋††∞+≈ (⊇+† ⊇+† ⊇+†, ⊇∋≈+ ⊇∋≈+ ⊇∋≈+, ⊇+† ⊇+† ⊇+†) ∞∋≈;†+ +∞≤+⊥≈;=∞⊇ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞∋∞+⊥∞≈≤+.

7+∞ ∋;†;†∋++ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ †+ +∞ †+∞ ∋+≈† ≈∞+;+∞≈ ∞≈∞+≈ +† 4++≈∞ †∞†∞⊥+∋⊥++. 3+;†∞ +;††;+≈-⊇+††∋+ ≈∋†∞††;†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+⊥+;≈†;≤∋†∞⊇ ⊥++∞≈⊇ ≈∞†≠++∂≈ ∋+∞ ⊥++⊇ ;≈ †+∞+++, ≈∞≤+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≈+≈†∞∋≈ ≤∋≈ ++∞∋∂ ⊇+≠≈ +≈ †+∞ +∋†††∞†;∞†⊇. 4≈ ∋ ∋∋††∞+ +† ⊥+∞⊇∞≈≤∞, †+∞ 4+∋+ ∂∞∞⊥≈ ∋ †∞≈≤†;+≈∋† 4++≈∞ ≤∋⊥∋+;†;†+.

4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞ ≈;⊥≈∋†≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞ ∋∞≤+ †∞≈≈ +++∋⊇≤∋≈†;≈⊥ ⊥+≠∞+ †+ †+∋≈≈∋;† †+∋≈ =+;≤∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞≈. 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, ∞=∞≈ ∋≈ ∞≈≤†∞∋+ 4++≈∞ ≈;⊥≈∋† ≤∋≈ +∞ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∞⊇, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ ∋ ⊇;≈†++†∞⊇ =+;≤∞ †+∋≈≈∋;≈≈;+≈ ;≈ =;+†∞∋††+ ∞≈∞†∞≈≈. 3+∞≈ 4++≈∞ ;≈∋∞⊥∞+∋†∞⊇ †+∞ †∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+ ≈∞+=;≤∞ ;≈ 1844, +∞ ≠;+∞⊇ †++∋ 3∋††;∋++∞ †+ 3∋≈+;≈⊥†+≈ †+∞ ≈+≠-†∋∋∞⊇ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞: “3+∋† +∋†+ 6+⊇ ≠++∞⊥+†!”


2+≤∋+∞†∋++

§&≈+≈⊥; 4≤† ∞⊥ (⊥++): ;† ∋ ∋∋≤+;≈∞ ++ ⊥∋+† +† ++∞+ ++⊇+ ∋≤†≈ ∞⊥, ;† ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ≠++∂ ⊥++⊥∞+†+

§&≈+≈⊥; 6++⊥∞ ∋++∞≈⊇ †++ ⊇;+∞≤†;+≈≈: †+ †++ †+ †;≈⊇ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ++∞ ≤∋≈≈+† ≈∞∞ ++ †∞∞†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ ++∞+ +∋≈⊇≈. - 3∞ ⊥++⊥∞.....

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≠++†⊇ ⊥+∞≈ ≈;†∞≈†

§&≈+≈⊥; 3∋≤∂∞⊥ ⊥†∋≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ 4++≈∞ ≤+⊇∞: †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +† ⊇+†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋≈+∞≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 7∞⊇;+∞≈: ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †+∋† ;≈ †∞⊇;+∞≈ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞≈ †++ ∋ †+≈⊥ †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≈+† ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ [= +++;≈⊥]

§&≈+≈⊥; 0∞∋;≈†: ∞≈∞≈∞∋† ∋≈⊇ ∋††+∋≤†;=∞, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ ∋≈ +†⊇-†∋≈+;+≈∞⊇ ≠∋+. -∋ ⊥∞∋;≈† †;†††∞ =;††∋⊥∞ ;≈ 5++∂≈+;+∞

§  Anachronism: someone or something that seems to belong to the past, not the present. - The monarchy is something of an anachronism these days.

§  Brass sounder: musical instruments that are made of metal

§  Went off (phr): stop working

§  “We see the Morse code as a dying art, but we refuse to let it die completely.”

§  Merchant vessel:  a ship or large boat

§  Bearing the US flag: To bear: (bore/borne): literary to carry someone or something, especially something important: The US Constitution states that the people have a right to bear arms.

§  Distre.....

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§&≈+≈⊥; 7+ †;≈⊇ ++∞+≈∞†† ∋⊇+;†† ∋† ≈∞∋/ †+ ⊥+ ∋⊇+;††/ †+ +∞ ∋⊇+;†† :  ∋ †∋ ⊇∞+;=∋

§&≈+≈⊥;  “7+∞ ∞≈⊇∞+;≈⊥ ∞≈∞ +† 4++≈∞ †∞†∞⊥+∋⊥++ ;≈ †+∞ †∞⊥∋≤+ +† ∋ +∞+≈† +† ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∋†;=∋†;+≈.”

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+ +∞†∋+ ++⊇∞+≈: †+ ⊥∋≈≈ ∋ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ †++∋ +≈∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ++ ⊥†∋≤∞ †+ ∋≈+†+∞+ [= ⊥∋≈≈ +≈] +∞†∋+ ≈†+ †+ ≈+.

§&≈+≈⊥; 3+∞† ⊇+≠≈ (⊥++): ≈†+⊥ +⊥∞+∋†;≈⊥, ∞;†+∞+ ⊥∞+∋∋≈∞≈††+ ++ †++ ∋ ≈+++† †;∋∞.

§&≈+≈⊥; 4 ∋∋††∞+ +† ⊥+∞⊇∞≈≤∞: ⊥+∞⊇∞≈≤;∋

§&≈+≈⊥; 7+ ≤+∋∞ +∞† +≈ †+⊥: †+ ≠;≈/ ⊥∋;≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 7∋∂∞ +=∞+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇: †∋∂∞ ≤+≈†++†

§&≈+≈⊥; 0∞≤∂ (=): ;† ∋ +;+⊇ ⊥∞≤∂≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++ ⊥∞≤∂≈ ∋† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥, ;† ∋∋∂∞≈ ⊥∞;≤∂ +∞⊥∞∋†∞⊇ ∋+=∞∋∞≈†≈ ≠;†+ ;†≈ +∞∋∂ †+ †++ †+ ∞∋† ⊥∋+† +† ;†, ∋∋∂∞ ∋ ++†∞ ;≈ ;† ∞†≤ (†;⊥∞+∋†;=∞†+ ;≈ †+;≈ ≤∋≈∞)

§&≈+≈⊥; 4 ≤†∋††∞+ +† ≈+∞≈⊇≈

§&≈+≈⊥; 3;† +∋≤∂ (⊥++): †+ +∞†∋≠ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞ ≈+ ∞††++† †+ ⊥∞† ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ≠+∋† +∋⊥⊥∞≈≈. - 8+≈'† {∞≈† ≈;† +∋≤∂ ∋≈⊇ ≠∋;† †++ ≈∞≠ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ †+ ≤+∋∞ †+ ++∞.

§&≈+≈⊥; 5∞≤∞⊇∞ †++∋ ⊥∞+†;≤ =;∞≠: ;† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++∞ ≤∋≈ ≈∞∞ ++ +∞∋+ +∞≤∞⊇∞≈, ;† ⊥∞†≈ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≠∋+ ∞≈†;† ;† ⊇;≈∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈. +∞≤∞⊇∞ ;≈†+: †++†≈†∞⊥≈ +∞≤∞⊇;≈⊥ .....


4≤† 10.

1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ +†⊇ ∋∋≈ 650098 450048 †+∞ ⊇;∋†+-†;† +++∋ †++ +;≈ ≈†;⊥⊥∞+≈.

2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 5 ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞† ∞⊥ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋=∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ≠∋≈ ≈+ 7981003.

3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 6++⊇ †∞††∞+ ≠+;†;≈⊥ ;≈ †∋≈† +∞≤+∋;≈⊥ ∋ 85146 457.

4.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈∋;†++ ≠∋≈ 485167 47 ≈∞∋ †++ †+∞+ ⊇∋+≈ +∞†++∞ +∞ ≠∋≈ +∞≈≤∞∞⊇.

5.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈;≈∂;≈⊥ ≈+;⊥ ≈∞≈† +∞†81375933 0477.

6.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ≈∞≤+∞†∋++ +∞≈;†+ 090998 4345 ∋† †+∞ ∂∞+++∋+⊇ +† +∞+ ≠++⊇ ⊥++≤∞≈≈++.


6∋≤;∋† ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈≈:


§&≈+≈⊥; 3∞∋∋: ∋ ≠;⊇∞ +∋⊥⊥+ ≈∋;†∞. – 4 +∞∋∋ +† ⊇∞†;⊥+†.

§&≈+≈⊥; 6†∋+∞: ∋ †+≈⊥ ∋≈⊥++ †++∂. – 3+∞ ⊥∋=∞ +;∋ ∋ ++≈†;†∞ ⊥†∋+∞.

§&≈+≈⊥; 3∋;+∂: ≈+∞≈[≤+∞≈†∋+†∞]-8∞ +∋⊇ ∋ ≈∞††-≈∋†;≈†;∞⊇ ≈∋;+∂ +≈ +;≈ †∋≤∞.
(=) †+ ≈∋;†∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞≈⊥†∞∋≈∋≈† ≠∋+ †+∋† ≈++≠≈ †+∋† ++∞ ∋+∞ ⊥†∞∋≈∞⊇ ++ ≈+∋∞+≈∞ ∞†≈∞'≈ +∋⊇ †∞≤∂ ++ †+;≈∂ ++∞ ∋+∞ +∞††∞+ †+∋≈ +†+∞+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞. ≈∋;+∂ ∋†: 3+∋† ∋+∞ ++∞ ≈∋;+∂;≈⊥ ∋†?

§  Frown: the expression on your face when you move your eyebrows together because you are angry, unhappy, or confused. with a frown: He looked at her with a puzzled frown.
(v) She frowned as she read the letter. frown at: Mattie frowned at him disapprovingly.

§  Wince: (n): of pain: mueca de dolor. of embarrassment: cara de verguenza
 (v)
to suddenly change the expression on your face as a reaction to something painful or upsetting.
 (v) to suddenly feel very uncomfortable or embarrassed because of something that happens, something you remember etc [= cringe] wince at the memory/thought/idea: I still wince at the thought .....

§&≈+≈⊥; 6+;∋∋≤∞: ∋≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ ++∞ ∋∋∂∞ ++ †≠;≈†;≈⊥ ++∞+ †∋≤∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ++∞ ⊇+ ≈+† †;∂∞ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ++ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ++∞ ∋+∞ †∞∞†;≈⊥ ⊥∋;≈: 8;≈ †∋≤∞ †≠;≈†∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+;∋∋≤∞ +† ⊥∋;≈/⊇;≈⊥∞≈†.


3†+†∞≈ +† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;≈⊥

=&≈+≈⊥; 0∋∞≈∞: (+∋≤∞+ ∞≈∋ ⊥∋∞≈∋) ∋++∞⊥††+/ ⊇;⊥†+∋∋†;≤∋††+/ ∋≈⊥+;†+.

=&≈+≈⊥; 5∞†++†: (+∞⊥†;≤∋+)  ∋++∞⊥††+/ ∋≈⊥+;†+/

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+∞∞+: (∋≈;∋∋+)  ∞≈†+∞≈;∋≈†;≤∋††+

=&≈+≈⊥; 3∋;†∞: (≈+≈+∞;+) ⊥∞≈††+/ ⊇;⊥†+∋∋†;≤∋†+

=&≈+≈⊥; 1≈≈†+∞≤† (≈+): (;≈†++∋∋+) †;+∋†+/ ⊥∞≈††+

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+∋†++† (≈+): (+∞≈⊥+≈⊇∞+) ⊥∞≈††+

=&≈+≈⊥; 3++∞⊥: (∞≈≤+⊥∞+ †+≈ ++∋+++≈) ;≈⊇;††∞+∞≈††+/ ∋≈⊥+;†+

0+††+≤∋†;+≈≈

=&≈+≈⊥; 8∞∋⊇/ ≤+††+⊥∞;∋† 74460469

7+ ∋=+;⊇ ∞≈;≈⊥ ≤+††+⊥∞;∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞

=&≈+≈⊥; 8∋∋∋⊥;≈⊥/ ;≈†++∋∋†;=∞ 590057

7+∞ ⊥∞+†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ∋ ⊇∋∋∋⊥;≈⊥ +∞⊥++†

=&≈+≈⊥; 4≈;∋∋†∞⊇/ +∞∋†∞⊇ 8130033104

7+ +∋=∞ ∋≈ ∋≈;∋∋†∞⊇ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈;+≈ 04 ≈†+

=&≈+≈⊥; 9;≈⊇/ ⊥++†+∞≈⊇ 30583

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+†;†;≤∋†/ ++∞≈;≈⊥ 309908

5+∞≈;≈⊥: ∞≈†+∞≈;∋≈†;≤

7+ ⊥;=∞ ∋ ++∞≈;≈⊥ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ †+ ≈+

=&≈+≈⊥; 0+≈†;⊇∞≈†;∋†/ ⊥∞+†;≈∞≈† 14605447104

7+ +∞=∞∋† ≤+≈†;⊇∞≈†;∋† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈

=&≈+≈⊥; 1≈†++∋∋†/ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† 004295347104

7+ +∞ ≤∋⊥∋+†∞ +† ∞≈⊥∋⊥;≈⊥ 14 ∋≈ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† .....


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