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MM2021 Management & Organization

Individual Essay


Topic: Motivation

Title: How Motivation Contributes to the Overall Performance of a Company?


According to the Business Dictionary (2017), motivation is defined as internal and external factors that energize, direct and sustain people to be continual to make an effort to attain a goal.

In this highly competitive business world, every organization aims to be a success. They all target at maximizing their profits. One way is to improve the employees’ productivity. Employees are the most valuable asset in a company. Employee satisfaction plays an important role in boosting a firm’s productivity. It can even affect the bottom line of a company. In fact, motivation is regarded as one of the essential elements which can increase employees’ productivity.

This essay will analyze the theories of motivation, its impacts on organizations, the relationship between motivation and work performance and some ways to enhance motivation.


To begin with, there are plenty of theories about motivation and this essay will focus on a few of them including the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Expectancy Theory.


Generally, needs, behavior, and satisfaction are the three basic elements of motivation.

In other words, you have certain needs, and this makes you do certain things, which satisfy those needs (Stephen, 2002). They have an inseparable relationship. In the workplace, employees who have certain needs try working harder, which result in getting rewards set up by their boss, which satisfy their needs, and so on.


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory is one of the most famous examples that people use to describe motivation.

Maslow (1943) categorized needs as five levels with lower- to higher-order. Higher-order needs include social, esteem and self-actualization and lower-order needs include physiological and safety. The theory mentions that we start looking for higher-order needs after we satisfy the basic one. The main concept is that lower-level needs no longer serves as a motivator once it is satisfied.

For example, the most basic needs of a human are air, water, and food, which are physiological needs. When you are extremely thirsty, all your behavior may be directed at finding water. But once you drink, you will stop finding water and the promise of water cannot motivate you anymore (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Such principle can also use for safety and love or belonging.

Conley, the founder of Joie de Vivre hotel chain, took the Maslow Pyramid and made it as an employee pyramid which saved his own company (KERMIT, 2010). He instills a culture of recognition in his company. He emphasized that it is more important to focus on lower levels of the pyramid instead of struggle with the abstract concept of self-actualization. Letting staffs understand the meaning of their roles help them realize the significance of their job, and they are able to feel respected and mot.....[read full text]

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4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 9∋∋⊇ (2014), ≈+≈-†;≈∋≈≤;∋† †∋≤†++≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ †∞∞⊇+∋≤∂ +∞†⊥ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞≈ ∞≈∞+⊥+, ∞≠≤;†∞∋∞≈†, †++∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈.


0≈†;∂∞ 4∋≈†+≠’≈ 8;∞+∋+≤++ +† 4∞∞⊇≈ 7+∞+++, 8∞+=+∞+⊥’≈ 4+†;=∋†;+≈-8+⊥;∞≈∞ 7+∞+++ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞⊇ †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ +† ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≠∋+.

8∞+=+∞+⊥ ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋† 1++ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ {++ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋+∞ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ ++ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋≤†++≈. 8∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† †+∞ ≠++∂ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† †+∋† ≈∋†;≈†+ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋+∞ ≈+† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ∋≈ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ †+∋† ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†+ †+∞∋ (8∞+=+∞+⊥, 4∋∞≈≈∞+, &∋∋⊥; 3≈+⊇∞+∋∋≈, 1959). 7+∞ †+∞+++ ∋∞≈†;+≈≈ †+∋† ++⊥;∞≈∞ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+ ⊥+†;≤+, ≈∋†∋++ ∋≈⊇ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ {++ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;=∋†++≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ ∋≤+;∞=∞∋∞≈†, +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ +∞≈⊥+≈≈;+;†;†+ ≤+∞∋†∞ {++ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈.

8;††∞+∞≈† †++∋ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† =;∞≠ +≈†+ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈†+ ≈∋†;≈†;∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†;∞⊇, 8∞+=+∞+⊥ †∞+†+∞+ ≤†∋≈≈;†;∞⊇ ++⊥;∞≈∞ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈†+ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈, ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;=∋†++≈ ;≈†+ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈. 3∋≈∞ +≈ †+;≈ †+∞+++, ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ +∋=∞ ∋ ∋++∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ ≠++∂†++≤∞, ≠∞ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ≠++∂ +≈ ;∋⊥++=;≈⊥ ++†+ †+∞ ∋+†;=∋†++≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥;∞≈∞ †∋≤†++≈ ≈+ ∋≈ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊇∞≤∞ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈.

3;††;∋∋ 7+∞∞+, †+∞ 4+≈-9≠∞≤∞†;=∞ 8;+∞≤†++ +† †+∞ 9+≠†++≈ 4+†++ 3∞≈ 0+∋⊥∋≈+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋ ⊥++⊇ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞. 1≈ †+∞ +∞≤∞≈† ;≈†∞+=;∞≠, +∞ ≈∋;⊇ †+∋† ∋ ⊥++⊇ †∞∋⊇∞+ ≈∞∞⊇≈ †+ †∞† ++∞+ ≈†∋††≈ †∞∞† ∋⊥⊥+∞≤;∋†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥++†∞⊇ (4∋+∂, 2014), “7∞∋⊇∞+ ≈++∞†⊇ ≈+† +≈†+ ≈;† ;≈ †+∞ +††;≤∞ +∞† ≠++∂ ≠;†+ ∋†† ∋∞∋+∞+≈.” 8∞ ∋†≠∋+≈ †∞††≈ +;≈ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ≠+∋† †+∞+ ≤∋≈ ;∋⊥++=∞ ∋≈⊇ ≠+∋† †+∞+ ⊇;⊇ ≠∞††. “7+ ⊥+∞=∞≈† {++ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈, ≠∞ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞+∞ ≠∞ †+∞∋† ∞=∞+++≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ †;+∋ †∋;+†+, ≈+ ∋∋††∞+ +∞ ;≈ †+∞ 090 ++ †+∞ ≤†∞∋≈∞+,” +∞ ≈∋;⊇. “0∋+;≈⊥ ∋++∞ ∋††∞≈†;+≈ †+ †+∞ †++≈††;≈∞ ≈†∋††≈ +∞†⊥ †++∋ ≈∞⊥⊥++†;=∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞ †+∞∋ ∋++∞ ∋+∋∞≈†∞∋ ≠+;≤+ +∞≈∞††≈ ;≈ ∋≈ ;≈≤+∞∋.....


0†+∞+ †+∋≈ †++≈∞ ≈∞∞⊇-+∋≈∞⊇ †+∞++;∞≈ +† ∋+†;=∋†;+≈, 9≠⊥∞≤†∋≈≤+ 7+∞+++ ≈†∋†∞≈ †+∋† ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† ≠;†† ⊇∞≤;⊇∞ ≠+∋† †+∞+ +∞+∋=∞ ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ +∞†≤+∋∞≈ †+∞+ ∞≠⊥∞≤† †+ +∞.

9≠⊥∞≤†∋≈≤+, ;≈≈†+∞∋∞≈†∋†;†+, ∋≈⊇ =∋†∞≈≤∞ ∋+∞ †+∞ †++∞∞ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ +† 9≠⊥∞≤†∋≈≤+ 7+∞+++ (0++†∞+ &∋∋⊥; 7∋≠†∞+, 1968). 1† ≈++≠≈ ∋≈ ∞⊥∞∋†;+≈ †+∋† ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ ∞⊥∞∋†≈ †+ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† +† †+∞ †++∞∞ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈. 3+∞≈ ∋≈ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ +∞†;∞=∞ +;≈ ∞††++† ≠;†† +∞≈∞†† ;≈ †+∞ ⊇∞≈;+∞⊇ ⊥+∋†, ≠+∞≈ +∞ †+∞≈†≈ +∞ ≠;†† +∞≤∞;=∞ +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ;† +∞ ∋∞∞†≈ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞†, ∋≈⊇ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ =∋†∞∞ +† †+∞ +∞≠∋+⊇ ≈∋†;≈†;∞≈ ≠+∋† +∞ ≠∋≈†≈, +∞ ≠;†† †∞≈⊇ †+ ⊥∋+ ∋++∞ ∞††++† +≈ ≠++∂.

7+∞ ∂∞+ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† +† †+;≈ †+∞+++ ;≈ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ ⊥+∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ †;≈∂∋⊥∞≈ ∋∋+≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∞††++†, ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞, ∋≈⊇ +∞≠∋+⊇≈. 0≈∞ 4∞†7;†∞ ∋≈ ∋≈ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, 1 ≠++∂ ;≈ 4∞†7;†∞ ∋≈ ∋≈ ;≈≈∞+∋≈≤∞ ∋⊥∞≈† †++ ∋++∞† ∋ +∋†† +∞∋+. 3+∋† 1 †+∞≈⊇ +∞† ;≈ †+∋† ∋†† †+∞ ≈†∋†† +∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋+†;=∋†∞⊇. 0≈∞ +∞∋≈+≈ ;≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †+†≈ +† +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ++ +∞+ ++≈≈. 7+∞ ∋++∞ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ ++∞ ⊥∞†; †+∞ ∋++∞ ≤+∋∋;≈≈;+≈ ++∞ ⊥∞†.

7+∞ ∋++∞ ≤+∋∋;≈≈;+≈ ++∞ ⊥∞†; †+∞ ∋++∞ +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ++∞ +∋=∞. 4++∞+=∞+, ≈+† +≈†+ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† ≤∋≈+ ++≈∞≈ ;≈ ;≈=+†=∞⊇, +∞† ∋†≈+ +∋≈⊥∞∞† ++ ∞=∞≈ †+;⊥≈ ∋++∞≈⊇ †+∞ ≠++†⊇. 1≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ +∞≤∞;=∞ †++≈∞ ∋+∞≈⊇∋≈† +∞≠∋+⊇≈, ∞=∞+++≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ †;+∋ †+;∞≈ †+∞;+ +∞≈† †+ †;≈⊇ ∋++∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞ ≤†;∞≈† ≠+;≤+ ⊥;=∞≈ +∞⊥∞ +∞≈∞†;†≈ †+ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+. 1† ;≈ †+∞≈⊇ †+∋† +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ;≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈≈ ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†∞ +∞;≈†++≤∞ ∋≤+;∞=∞∋∞≈† (9∋∋⊇, 2014).


7+∞ †++∞∞ †+∞++;∞≈ +≈ †+⊥ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ †+∋† ∋††∞≤† ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈’ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ +† ∋ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+.

Actually, motivation is one of the indispensable factors that impact the overall productivity of the firm. It is indicated that motivation forces us to action, which drives us to work harder and pushes us to succeed (Booth, 2004). According to Ibrahim and Brobbey (2015), motivation helps to improve the level of efficiency of employees. It is suggested that effective use of motivation creates a productive workforce.

However, lack of motivation factors can also give a chance to employees to search for reasons to give maximum effort by themselves (Miller, 2007). As a manager of an organization, it is a good news that we can enhance employee motivation to boost the overall productivity. Managers can tailor job assignments and rewards if they know what drives their staffs to work.

In this case, motivation is conceived of as the things it takes to encourage workers to perform well by fulfilling their needs. “It is goal-directed, and therefore cannot be outside the goals of any organization whether public, private, or non-p.....

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7+∞+∞†++∞, ∋≈ †+;≈ ∞≈≈∋+ +∋≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇, ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈ ∋;∋ †+ +∞ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋ ∂∞+ ⊥+;≈† †+ ∋≤+;∞=∞ †+;≈ ⊥+∋†.

7+∞≈, †+∞ ≈∞≠† ≈†∞⊥ ;≈ †+ †;≈⊇ ≠∋+≈ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈’ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈. 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊥†∞≈†+ +† ∋∞†++⊇≈ †+ ∋∞∞† †+;≈ †∋+⊥∞†. 3∋≈∞ +≈ †+∞ 9≠⊥∞≤†∋≈≤+ 7+∞+++, ⊥;=;≈⊥ +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ;≈ ∋ †+⊥;≤∋† ≠∋+ †+ ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥∞ ≠++∂∞+≈ †+ ⊥∞+†++∋ +∞††∞+. 9≠∋∋⊥†∞≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ ∋††∞≈⊇∋≈≤∞ ∋≠∋+⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋≤+;∞=∞∋∞≈† ∋≠∋+⊇. 1≈ †+∞ ⊥∋≈† †;∋∞, †+∞ ;≈⊇∞≈†++ †;∂∞≈ †+ ≈∞† ∋††∞≈⊇∋≈≤∞ ∋≠∋+⊇ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞+∞ ∋†† †+∞ ≠++∂∞+≈ ≤+∋∞ †+ ≠++∂ +≈ †;∋∞ ++ ∞=∞≈ ≠++∂ +=∞+†;∋∞.

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋∋≈+ ∂;≈⊇≈ +† ∋≤+;∞=∞∋∞≈† ∋≠∋+⊇. 5+∞ ∋∋+ ⊥∞† †+∞ +∞≠∋+⊇ +≈≤∞ ++∞ †∞††;†† †+∞ †∋+⊥∞† †∞+≈+=∞+, †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈ ++ ∋∋+∞≈† +† ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ ≈∞† ++ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+. 7+;≈ ≠∋+ ⊥;=∞≈ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋ ≤†∞∋+ ∋;≈⊇ +† ≠+∋† †+∞+ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ∋≤+;∞=∞ ∋≈⊇ ;† +∞†⊥≈ †+∞ †;+∋≈ †+ ∋∞∞† †+∞;+ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ †∋+⊥∞†. 7++≈∞ +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋ ≤∋≈+ ++≈∞≈, ∋;+†;≈∞ †;≤∂∞†≈ ++ ∋ ≤∞+†;†;≤∋†∞, ≠+;≤+ ≈++∞†⊇ ∋∞∞† ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈’ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∋†;+≈≈ ≈+ ∋≈ †+ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ †+∞∋ †+ ≠++∂.

4+† ∋†† †+∞ +∞≠∋+⊇≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋†. 5∞†∞+ †+ 4∋≈†+≠’≈ 8;∞+∋+≤++ +† 4∞∞⊇≈ 7+∞+++, +;⊥+∞+-++⊇∞+ ≈∞∞⊇≈ ∋+∞ ∋†≠∋+≈ ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥;≤∋† ≈∞∞⊇≈. 4≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞††, +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ +† ⊥++⊇ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+∞∋† ≠∋+ †+ ;≈≈⊥;+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈. 5∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ ≤+≈†≈ ≈+†+;≈⊥ ∋≈ ;† ≤∋≈ +∞ {∞≈† ∋ †∞≠ ≠++⊇≈ ++ ∋≤†;+≈≈, +∞† ;≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ∋∋∂∞ †+∞∋ †∞∞† +∞≈⊥∞≤†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;=∋†∞⊇ †+ ≠++∂., ≈;≈≤∞ ≈+≈-†;≈∋≈≤;∋† †∋≤†++≈ +∞†⊥ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞≈ ∞≈∞+⊥+, ∞≠≤;†∞∋∞≈†, †.....

6++∋ †+∞ 8∞+=+∞+⊥’≈ 4+†;=∋†;+≈-8+⊥;∞≈∞ 7+∞+++, ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈ ;≈ +≈∞ †+;≈⊥ †+∋† ∋∋+ †∞∋⊇ †+ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈. 6∞††;††;≈⊥ ≈+∋∞ +∋≈;≤ ≤+;†∞+;∋ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ∋ ≠++∂ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† †+∋† ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥∞≈ ⊥+≈;†;=;†+, +∋+∋+≈+, ∋≈⊇ +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ ;≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† †++ ∋+†;=∋†;≈⊥ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈. 7+∞ ∞††∞≤† +† †∞††;††;≈⊥ ≈∞≤+ †+≠-++⊇∞+ ≈∞∞⊇≈ ∋∋+ ≈+† †∋≈† ≈+ †+≈⊥ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ 4∋≈†+≠’≈ 8;∞+∋+≤++ +† 4∞∞⊇≈ 7+∞+++, +∞† ;† ;≈ +∞††∞+ ≈+† †+ †∞† ≈†∋††≈ +∞ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†;∞⊇ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞∋.


1≈ ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈, †+∞ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ ;≈⊇;≤∋†∞ †+∋† ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ +† ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈’ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ +∞≈∞†† ;≈ †+∞ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ +† ∋ †;+∋’≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;=;†+.

7+;≈ ∞≈≈∋+ ≈+∞⊥+† †+ ∋≈≈∞≈≈ ++≠ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈’ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ ∋††∞≤†≈ {++ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞. 3∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈, ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† †∋≤†++ ;≈ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈;≈⊥ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞. 7+∞ †++∞∞ †+∞++;∞≈ ∋+∞ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋≈∋†+=∞ ++≠ ∋+†;=∋†;+≈ ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ +≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈. 4 ⊥++⊇ †∞∋⊇∞+ ≤∋≈ ∋†≠∋+≈ ≠∞†† ∋+†;=∋†∞ †+∞;+ ≈†∋††≈. 4∞=∞+†+∞†∞≈≈, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+ ⊥∞+†∞≤† ∋≈≈≠∞+ †+ ++≠ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞+≈ ≈++∞†⊇ ⊥∞† †+∞;+ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋+†;=∋†∞⊇ ∋† ≠++∂.

3∞≈;≈∞≈≈ +≠≈∞+≈ +††∞≈ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ †∋≤∞ †+∞ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋. 3+∋∞†;∋∞≈, †+∞+ ∋∋+ ∋†≈+ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †+∞;+ ≈†∋††≈ ;≈ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† †+∞;+ †;=∞≈ +∞†≈;⊇∞ +† ≠++∂ (995417, 2010). 4+† +≈†+ †+∞ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞+≈ ++ †+∞ +≠≈∞+≈, ∞∋⊥†++∞+≈ ⊥†∋+ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ++†∞ ;≈ ∋+†;=∋†;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ≠++∂†++≤∞ †+ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋++∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ ∋† ≠++∂ †++ (4∋+∂, 2016). 0≈†+ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋≤† ;≈ ≤+≈≤∞+† ≤∋≈ †+;≈ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥;≈⊥ ⊥+++†∞∋ +∞ ⊇∞∋†† ≠;†+ ∞††∞≤†;=∞†+.

0†+∞+≠;≈∞, +∞+ ⊇+∞∋∋ {++≈ ≠;†† ≈∞+∞†+ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ †+ +∞ ∋≈ ∞†∞≈;=∞ ⊇+∞∋∋ †++ ∞≈.


3++⊇≈ 0+∞≈†: 1641


5∞†∞+∞≈≤∞:

3∋∞∋∞;≈.....

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