<
>
swopdoc logo
Download
a) trade for free
b) buy for 16.48 $
Document category

Exam thesis
English Language

University, School

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München - LMU

Grade, Teacher, Year

1, Prof. Dr. Schmid, 2013

Author / Copyright
Text by Rosina T. ©
Format: PDF
Size: 0.63 Mb
Without copy protection
Rating [details]

Rating 5.0 of 5.0 (1)
Networking:
0/0|0[0.0]|1/3







More documents
The history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) Inhalt 1. Introduction. 1 2. Difficulties in reconstructing the development of AAVE 2 3. Theories about AAVE’s origin. 3 4. AAVE’s position today. 5 5. Lexicon. 6 6. Other verbal and non-verbal features of AAVE 7 7. Conclusions. 8 Works cited. 10 1. Introduction African American Vernacular English (AAVE) has long been regarded as an inferior dialect. It has even been described entirely as slang or poor English. This can be demonstrated by several names this dialect has been…
Final Paper English Words in cultural Context Formation and Influence of English Loanwords in Modern German School of Foreign Languages Contents 1. The history of the loanwords in German. 3 2. The formation of the English loanwords in German. 4 3. The application of the English loanwords in German. 5 4. The influence of English loanwords 7 5. The influence on German language. 7 6. The influence on German society 7 7. Summary 8 8. References: 8 Abstract: With the development of economy and the exchange of culture, German has borrowed a large…

Fakultät für Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft

Englische Philologie


Zulassungsarbeit


zur wissenschaftlichen Prüfung für das Lehramt an Grundschulen in Bayern.


How to Do Things with Words Down Under:

A Variational-Pragmatic Study of

Australian English


Angefertigt bei Prof. Dr.


Vorgelegt von:


2013

ERKLÄRUNG ZUR URHEBERSCHAFT


Ich erkläre hiermit, dass ich diese Arbeit selbstständig verfasst und keine anderen Hilfsmittel als die angegebenen benützt habe. Die Stellen der Arbeit, die anderen Werken dem Wortlaut oder dem Sinn nach entnommen sind, sind in jedem einzelnen Fall unter Angabe der Quelle als Entlehnung kenntlich gemacht. Das Gleiche gilt für Zeichnungen, Kartenskizzen und bildliche Darstellungen.


Garmisch-Partenkirchen,…….……. …………………………

(Unterschrift)


Table of Contents


List of Abbreviations


CCSARP – Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project

DCT - Discourse Completion Task

FTA – Face Threatening Act

H - Hearer

IFID – Illocutionary Force Indicating Device

RP – Received Pronunciation

S – Speaker

S1 – Situation number 1


List of Figures



List of Tables



List of Appendices


Appendix A: Questionnaire used in the Australian English Survey…………………- I -

Appendix B: Results of the Australian English Survey……………………………. - V -

Appendix C: Questionnaire used in the American English Survey………………- XIII -

Appendix D: Results of the American English Survey…………………………- XVI -


1 Introduction

Pragmatics, an important and relatively young branch of linguistics, is the study of language use in context. Whereas the syntax of a language describes the relationship between signs, semantics explains the relationship between signs and their meaning. Pragmatics on the other hand, the focus of this thesis, describes the relationship between signs and their users.

One important component of pragmatics is represented by the theory of speech acts, an utterance made by a speaker to a hearer in a certain context. It was originally developed by Austin (1975) and Searle (1969) in the second half of the twentieth century. Speech acts consist of various elements and can be classified into different subgroups of which one is of particular importance in this thesis: expressives.

These are speech acts which give an insight into the psychological state of the speaker, for example expressions of gratitude or congratulations. An important type of expressives, and simultaneously the focus of this study, is the speech act of apologies, in which sorrow or regret is expressed.
This paper, a variational-pragmatic study, will investigate the language used in context between speakers of two different varieties of a language more precisely, the speech act of apologies in two different varieties of English: Australian and American English, will be thouroughly examined and analyzed.

Australian English has developed into an important regional epicenter of English, i.e. it forms a standard for a regional variety of English in competition with British and American English. From phonology over lexicology and syntax, Australian and American English have already been investigated and compared thoroughly. However to date, the linguistic area of pragmatics has often been neglected when investigating differences between the two varieties of English.
The basis to compare Australian and American English on a pragmatic level was first constituted by the study of Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP).

This international project investigated the speech acts of requests and apologies in the 1980s. It was the most prominent research project in the area of inter-language and cross-cultural pragmatics and included the language and language varieties of British English, American English, Australian English, Danish, Hebrew, German, Canadian French and Russian. The project was established on a large scale, but particular focus was placed on similarities and differences between native and non-native speakers’ realization patterns of apologies. One particular constraint of the project was that it ignored the aspect of variational pragmatics, e.g. a comparison between Australian and American English.

In other words, findings to the individual varieties of English were rarely published and never publicly compared.
Therefore, the present study concentrates on this gap in the research area of pragmatics. In this thesis, the speech act of apologies will be directly compared between Australian and American English. To accomplish this, questionnaires of the original Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project were distributed among 50 native Australian English speakers and 50 native Amer.....[read full text]

Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Or language variety can also be caused from immigration (such as in the case of Spanish). A third influencing factor can be political division as observed in the case of Korean (cf. Ammon et al. 2004: 296). Moreover, Clyne (1992: 1) emphasizes that pluricentricity has both the functions of unifying and seperating people: a pluricentric language can unify people of two different nations through the use of the same language and, at the same time, separate them through specific national norms and linguistic variables of their variety.

Therefore, according to Ammon et al., every national variety of a pluricentric language is potentially a separate language.
In conclusion, Ammon states that

(…) many languages are pluricentric. Each of their national varieties reflect identity in much of the same way as a national language does. While the status of the variety is not symmetrical, for demographic, economic, political and/or historical reasons, many of the ‘less powerful’ varieties are now being emancipated through codification and through generally more positive attitudes to variation in language (Ammon et al. 2004: 299).

This codification and the development of positive attitudes highlighted by Ammon et al. is also observed in the variety of Australian English, which will be further described in the following section.

2.2 Australian English – the Emergence of a New Epicenter of English

2.2.1 The Dynamic Model of the Evolution of Australian English

A language or a variety of a language generally does not develop overnight; it can take centuries before it is a standardized and codified language or language variety. Schneider (2007: 29 ff.) developed the “Dynamic Model of the Evolution of New Englishes“, which is used to describe the development of an English variety.

This model is introduced in the next section, followed by an examination of the model specifically applied to Australian English.
Schneider (ibid.) claims that there is a shared underlying process which derives the formation for the different varieties of English, accounts for many similarities between them, and appears to operate whenever a language is transplanted.

The “Dynamic Model of the Evolution of New Englishes“ is divided into a sequence of five characterstic stages: Foundation, Exonormative Stabilization, Nativization, Endonormative Stabilization and Differentation. With this model, he describes the typical developmental processes with its corresponding constituent elements and with emphasis on those aspects which are most widely shared and observable (cf.

Fritz 2007: 13).

Figure 2: Schneider’s dynamic model of the evolution of new Englishes (cf. Schneider 2007: 30).

Australia was colonized by Great Britain and used as a penal colony in 1788. This was, linguistically, a crucial period since the so-called founder effect took place during this time. The founder effect highlights the importance of the first settlers and emphasizes that the first generation of a new dialect is said to have overwhelming power to determine what the dialect will be like, even with subsequent larger migration.

In the case of Australia, the first settlers had come from the southeast of England (cf. Kiesling 2006: 75). Therefore, historically, Australian English is a combination of British varieties such as Cockney, south-east English dialects in general, Received Pronunciation3 (RP), as well as Irish and Scottish. There are different opinions about the point of origin of the hybridization, whether it first took place in England, or whether it occurred at a later point in time in Australia.

In addition, there is disagreement regarding the different weighting of the dialects. Yet, Leitner (1996: 220) suggests that the first phase of the process of hybridization mainly took place in Australia.
Concerning the weighting of the different dialects which ultimately constituted Australian English, it is known that Irish lacked stronger influence in comparison .....

Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

This constitutes the fourth and fifth phases of Schneider’s dynamic model of the evolution of new Englishes, endonormative stabilization as well as differentiation, in which the local variety was fully established, investigated by scholars and codified in dictionaries or grammars, and sociolinguistic differences have emerged. In these phases, the variety became acceptable in formal and written contexts, and according to Fritz (2007: 14), it was in these phases that English in Australia developed into Australian English.
Today, Australian English is a codified and socially accepted variety of English.

The number of Australian dictionaries, teaching materials and language policy statements has increased considerably and language teaching activities are dynamically supported by the government. Australian English is accepted as a feasible alternative to American and British English in the Pacific region (cf. Leitner 1992: 208). Quirk et al. summarizes it with the following words:

Australian English is undoubtedly the dominant form of English in the Antipodes and by reason of Australia’s increased wealth, population and influence in world affairs, this national standard (…) is exerting an influence in the northern hemisphere. (Quirl et al. 1985: 21)

Hence, Australian English has developed into an important regional epicenter5 of the English language (cf. Leitner 1996: 218). It is now a standard for the regional variety of English in competition with British and American English and the features that are shared by Australian as well as New Zealand English are included in this variety (cf. Kiesling 2006: 84).
According to Leitner (1996: 219), there is an outwards and inwards dimension to limitations of an linguistic epicenter: the outwards dimension delimits Australian English from other epicenters, therefore the distinctive attributes of Australian English are highlighted which circumscribe it from other epicenters such as American or British English.

The inwards dimension eliminates different forms of English within Australia which do not belong to Australian English.
For a future perspective, Kiesling (2006: 84) also sees changes in progress in Australian English, with ethnicity playing a large role. He claims that speakers with a Greek or an Italian background in particular are leading changes. Additionally, further internal stratification and differentiation is predicted by Schneider (cf.

Schneider 2003: 167).

Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Nevertheless, it was in this phase that Australians began to identify with their country as well as their linguistic identity.
In stage three, Mainstream Australian English Phase 1, it is stated that from the 1930s on, feelings towards Australian English remained ambivalent, but a local accent was certainly recognized. In the fourth and final stage, Mainstream Australian English Phase 2, the linguistic identity and independence of Australian English became fully recognized and accepted.

This acceptance started in the 1970s with the accent, and was passed onto vocabulary, grammar and style until ultimately all of it became codified. By the end of the 1980s, Australian English had a secure place in the society of Australia (cf.Leitner 2004b: 114, Leitner 2004a: 94 ff.).
Following this depiction of the emergence of Australian English as an epicenter of English, it is necessary to introduce the essentials of linguistic pragmatics in order to compare the speech act of apologies between Australian and American English.

Therefore, linguistic background theories and concepts will be presented at this point.

3 Concepts of Pragmatics: Speech Acts and Pragmatic Politeness

3.1 Concepts of Pragmatics

This thesis concentrates on the question of whether the development of Australian English to an independent epicenter of English is also visible on the pragmatic level. According to Kortmann, human language is a complex sign system and linguistics a semiotic science. Following this definition further, semiotics is “the science of the linguistic and nonlinguistic signaling systems and signing processes” (Kortmann 2005: 17).

In semiotics, the subjects of study are viewed from three different angles and therefore constitute three different sub-disciplines: syntax, which is the relation between signs; semantics, which is the relation between signs and their meaning, and finally pragmatics, which is the relation between signs and their users (ibid.).
It has already been established that on the level of phonology or syntax, Australian English has developed into an independent variety of English apart from American and British English.

However, to my knowledge, no such evidence has been given so far at the pragmatics level. Hence, the current study will attempt to find evidence that the development of Australian English as an independent variety of English has also taken place on the pragmatics level. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis will lie on the study of linguistic performance, i.e. pragmatics, the study of la.....

Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

The illocutionary act relates to the function that is borne in mind by forming an utterance (cf. Yule 1996: 48). In other words, the illocutionary act is what the speaker intends to do by an utterance, such as to give assurance or to produce a request, an order or an apology (cf. Fuentes-Mascuñana 1998: 7). Therefore, an illocutionary act is “doing something in saying something” (cf.

Austin 1975: 98). Moreover, the theory behind the different functions which language can carry out is what Austin calls the illocutionary force (cf. Austin 1975: 99). Thus, the illocutionary force is the communicative purpose behind the utterance, such as a question, warning or statement (cf. Yule 1996: 48 ff.).
When performing a
locutionary act and thereby an illocutionary act, another act can be simultanously carried out: the perlocutionary act.

The perlocutionary act denominates the effect of the previous acts such as to change someone’s mind, to make someone feel insecure, or to convince someone; in other words “doing something by saying something” (Austin 1975: 102). Therefore, the difference between the illocutionary act and the perlocutionary act is principally between the utterance itself and its effect (ibid).
Searle (1969: 23 ff.), who further developed Austins speech act theory, proposed some modifications to Austin’s original theory.

In his opinion, when producing an utterance, there are always three main acts which are performed simultanenously: the utterance act, the propositional act and the illocutionary act. Searle’s utterance act generally consists of Austin’s locutionary act, which is the utterance of linguistic sounds according to the grammar, vocabulary and intonation of a language.

The second act, the propositional act, is divided into a reference and predication act. Through the propositional act, the speaker refers to certain objects in the world, and with the predication act, the speaker assigns an attribute to the object he had referred to before. Finally, as a fourth component, the speaker also adds the perlocutionary act (ibid.).

Austin’s Theory of Speech Acts

Searle’s Theory of Speech Acts

Locutionary Act

  • Phonetic Act

  • Phatic Act

  • Rhetic Act

Illocutionary Act

Perlocutionary Act

Utterance Act

Propositional Act

  • Reference Act

  • Predication act

Illocutionary Act

Perlocutionary Act

Table 1: Speech Act Theory according to Austin and Searle (cf. Austin 1975: 92 ff., Searle 1969: 23 ff.).

In table 1, Austin’s and Searle’s theory of speech acts are juxtaposed. In the following table, Meyer visually illustrates Searle’s theory of speech acts in comparison to Austin’s (cf. Meyer 2007: 30).




Utterance Act

Propositional Act

Reference Act

Predication Act

Illocutionary Act

Locutionary act of Austin

Rhetic act of Austin (Indications of facts)

Reference to the world

Predication about the world

Same as in Austin’s definition

Expression of words, morphemes and sentences

Common denominator of the meaning of sentences, irrespective of of the specific form and lexicology

Objects and referents which are talked about

Specific attributes are assigned to referents and objects

These include representatives, declarations, directives, commissives and expressives

Table 2: Overview of Searle’s Distribution of Speech Acts in reference to Austin’s Theory of Speech A.....

Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Yule 1996: 53 ff.).
In addition to Representatives, Declarations, Directives or Commissives, speech acts can be classified into one further category: Expressives. These are speech acts in which the speaker expresses what they feel. They are all about the speaker’s experience, feelings and opinions; the psychological state is uttered. An example of an Expressive could be the act of thanking or congratulating.

This category is the most important for this study, since the speech act of apology belongs to this category (cf. Yule 1996: 53 ff.). Thus, in order to find out whether Australian English has developed into an independent variety on the level of pragmatics, the speech act class of Expressives will be further investigated. Additionally, within the broad category of Expressives, the speech act of apologies will be the main focus.

3.3 Face Work and Pragmatic Politeness

3.3.1 Face Work: Positive Face vs. Negative Face

In uttering an Expressive such as an apology, one has to be aware of self-image – the speaker’s and hearer’s face6. The social recognition of an individual’s face is very important (cf. Trosborg 1987: 147). Olshtain and Cohen (1989: 59) claim that social interactions are generally motivated by two different kinds of needs: maintaining the positive and negative face.
The positive face desires to be connected and accepted, it looks for solidarity and approval (cf.

Wardhaugh 1998: 272). In other words, it is the aspiration of every person that his or her wants are desirable to at least a few others as well. In contrast, the negative face of a person is the basic claim to territories, the desire to be independent as well as the right to non-distraction, and the freedom of action and imposition. It is desired and expected that these actions are unimpeded by others (cf.

Brown & Levinson 2002: 61 ff.). Taking a closer look at the connotations of the different terms, the negative face does not have anything to do with `bad´, it just carries the name in order to demonstrate the opposite pole (cf. Yule 1996: 61 ff.). As a result, according to Brown and Levinson, “face can be lost, maintained or enhanced, and must be constantly attended to in interaction” (Brown & Levinson 2002: 61).

Generally, it is the interactants desire to maintain each other’s face (ibid.).
When interacting, awareness of both kinds of face is necessary and politeness strategies can either be positive-face-oriented or negative-face-oriented (cf. Olshtain & Cohen 1989: 59). Consequently, there is a choice of two kinds of politeness: positive and negative politeness.

3.3.2 Pragmatic Politeness: Positive Politeness vs. Negative Politeness

Solidarity-based positive politeness is oriented towards the positive face of the addressee. It emphasizes shared attitudes and values as well as common ground between two people (cf. Holmes 2001: 268). It presupposes solidarity and cooperation (Olshtain & Cohen 1989: 59). According to Wardhaugh (1998: 272), there are certain positive politeness strategies, such as when to give a compliment or offer friendship in order .....

This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download How to Do Things with Words Down Under: A Variational-Pragmatic Study of Australian English
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Legal info - Data privacy - Contact - Terms-Authors - Terms-Customers -
Swap+your+documents