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Fakultät für Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft

Englische Philologie



Zulassungsarbeit



zur wissenschaftlichen Prüfung für das Lehramt an Grundschulen in Bayern.



How to Do Things with Words Down Under:

A Variational-Pragmatic Study of

Australian English



Angefertigt bei Prof.

Dr. S.



Vorgelegt von:



2013

ERKLÄRUNG ZUR URHEBERSCHAFT


Ich erkläre hiermit, dass ich diese Arbeit selbstständig verfasst und keine anderen Hilfsmittel als die angegebenen benützt habe.

Die Stellen der Arbeit, die anderen Werken dem Wortlaut oder dem Sinn nach entnommen sind, sind in jedem einzelnen Fall unter Angabe der Quelle als Entlehnung kenntlich gemacht. Das Gleiche gilt für Zeichnungen, Kartenskizzen und bildliche Darstellungen.


Garmisch-Partenkirchen,…….……. …………………………

(Unterschrift)



Table of Contents



List of Abbreviations



CCSARP – Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project

DCT - Discourse Completion Task

FTA – Face Threatening Act

H - Hearer

IFID – Illocutionary Force Indicating Device

RP – Received Pronunciation

S – Speaker

S1 – Situation number 1



List of Figures





List of Tables





List of Appendices



Appendix A: Questionnaire used in the Australian English Survey…………………- I -

Appendix B: Results of the Australian English Survey……………………………. - V -

Appendix C: Questionnaire used in the American English Survey………………- XIII -

Appendix D: Results of the American English Survey…………………………- XVI -



1 Introduction

Pragmatics, an important and relatively young branch of linguistics, is the study of language use in context.

Whereas the syntax of a language describes the relationship between signs, semantics explains the relationship between signs and their meaning. Pragmatics on the other hand, the focus of this thesis, describes the relationship between signs and their users. One important component of pragmatics is represented by the theory of speech acts, an utterance made by a speaker to a hearer in a certain context.

It was originally developed by Austin (1975) and Searle (1969) in the second half of the twentieth century. Speech acts consist of various elements and can be classified into different subgroups of which one is of particular importance in this thesis: expressives. These are speech acts which give an insight into the psychological state of the speaker, for example expressions of gratitude or congratulations.

An important type of expressives, and simultaneously the focus of this study, is the speech act of apologies, in which sorrow or regret is expressed.
This paper, a variational-pragmatic study, will investigate the language used in context between speakers of two different varieties of a language more precisely, the speech act of apologies in two different varieties of English: Australian and American English, will be thouroughly examined and analyzed.

Australian English has developed into an important regional epicenter of English, i.e. it forms a standard for a regional variety of English in competition with British and American English. From phonology over lexicology and syntax, Australian and American English have already been investigated and compared thoroughly. However to date, the linguistic area of pragmatics has often been neglected when investigating differences between the two varieties of English.
The basis to compare Australian and American English on a pragmatic level was first constituted by the study of Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP).

This international project investigated the speech acts of requests and apologies in the 1980s. It was the most prominent research project in the area of inter-language and cross-cultural pragmatics and included the language and language varieties of British English, American English, Australian English, Danish, Hebrew, German, Canadian French and Russian. The project was established on a large scale, but particular focus was placed on similarities and differences between native and non-native speakers’ realization patterns of apologies. One particular constraint of the project was that it ignored the aspect of variational pragmatics, e.g. a comparison between Australian .....[read full text]

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1≈ +†+∞+ ≠++⊇≈, †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ †+ †+∞ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† =∋+;∞†;∞≈ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≠∞+∞ +∋+∞†+ ⊥∞+†;≈+∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞=∞+ ⊥∞+†;≤†+ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇.
7+∞+∞†++∞, †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ≈†∞⊇+ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†∞≈ +≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥ ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ∋+∞∋ +† ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤≈. 1≈ †+;≈ †+∞≈;≈, †+∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∋≤† +† ∋⊥+†+⊥;∞≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇;+∞≤††+ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ ∋≈⊇ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+. 7+ ∋≤≤+∋⊥†;≈+ †+;≈, ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞≈ +† †+∞ ++;⊥;≈∋† 0++≈≈-0∞††∞+∋† 3⊥∞∞≤+ 4≤† 5∞∋†;=∋†;+≈ 0++{∞≤† ≠∞+∞ ⊇;≈†+;+∞†∞⊇ ∋∋+≈⊥ 50 ≈∋†;=∞ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ 50 ≈∋†;=∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈.

7+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞≈ ≠∞+∞ ⊇∞≤+⊇∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ≤+⊇;≈⊥ ≈≤+∞∋∞ +∞††;≈∞⊇ ;≈ 003450 ≤+⊇;≈⊥ ∋∋≈∞∋†. 4∞≠† †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈∋;++∞≈ ≠∞+∞ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋††+ ∋≈∋†=∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ †;≈∋††+ †+∞ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ ≠∞+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇.
4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ +∋≈ ∋ ≤+≈†;≈∞∋††+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ;∋⊥∋≤† ∋≈ ∋≈ ;≈⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇∞≈† =∋+;∞†+ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+. 1† ;≈ ∋ ≤+⊇;†;∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∋††+ ∋≤≤∞⊥†∞⊇ =∋+;∞†+, ∋≈⊇ +∋≈ ≈∞∋∞++∞≈ ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞.

7+∞+∞†++∞, †+;≈ ;≈⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇∞≈≤+ ≈++∞†⊇ ∋†≈+ +∞ ∋⊥⊥∋+∋+∞≈† +≈ †+∞ ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤ †∞=∞† ∋∋+≈⊥ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈. 4≈ ∋≈ +∞†≤+∋∞ +† †+;≈ ∞≠⊥†++∋†;=∞ ≈†∞⊇+, ;† ;≈ ∋≈†;≤;⊥∋†∞⊇ †+∋† ≈+∋∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ≤+≈†∞≠† +∞†≠∞∞≈ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ ∋≈⊇ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ≠;†† ∋⊥⊥∞∋+.
7+;≈ †+∞≈;≈ ;≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∞⊇ ∋≈ †+††+≠≈: 6;+≈† ∋ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥†∞+;≤∞≈†+;≤ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠;†† +∞ ⊥;=∞≈, †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ ∋ +;≈†++;≤ +=∞+=;∞≠ +† †+∞ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+.

7+;≈ †+∞≈;≈ ≠;†† ≤+≈†;≈∞∞ ≠;†+ ≈+∋∞ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† ;≈≈;⊥+†≈ ∋++∞† †+∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≈∞+{∞≤† +† ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤ ⊥+†;†∞≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇, ;≈ ⊇+;≈⊥ ≈+, †+∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≈+†;+≈ +† †∋≤∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †∋≤∞ ≠++∂ ∋+∞ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇. 4∞≠†, †+∞ †+∞++;∞≈ +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∋≤† ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∋≤† +† ∋⊥+†+⊥;∞≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇, †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ ∋≈ ;≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈ ;≈†+ †+∞ †+⊥;≤ +† =∋+;∋†;+≈∋† ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤≈.

7+∞ ⊥++{∞≤† +≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ +∋≈∞⊇ ∞⊥+≈, †+∞ 003450, ;≈ †+∞≈ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† †∋≤†++≈ †∋∂∞≈ ∞≈⊇∞+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈ ∋+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇. 4≈ ∞≠⊥†∋≈∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≠∋+ †+∞ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ ⊇∋†∋ +† †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ ≤+⊇∞⊇ ;≈ †+††+≠∞⊇.
1≈ †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+, , †+∞ ;≈≈†+∞∋∞≈† +† †+∞ 8;≈≤+∞+≈∞ 0+∋⊥†∞†;+≈ 7∋≈∂ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞ ≠;†† †;+≈† +∞ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇. 3∞≤+≈⊇, †+∞ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ ∋≈⊇ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈∋∋⊥†∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞⊇∞+∞ +† ⊇∋†∋ ≤+††∞≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∋†∞∋†;+≈ ≠;†† †+∞≈ +∞ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇.

4∞≠†, †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ †+ †+∞ =∋+;∞†;∞≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞†+, †;+≈† ++ ;⊇∞≈†;†+;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞≈∞††≈ +† 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈∋;++∞≈? ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ≈∞+≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ +≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈∋;∞∞≈. 4∞≠† ≠;†† †+††+≠ ∋≈ ∞†∋+++∋†∞ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ +† †+∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∋≤† +† ∋⊥+†+⊥;∞≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ †≠+ =∋+;∞†;∞≈. 6;≈∋††+, ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈≈ †++∋ †+∞ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ +† †+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇+∋≠≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∂;≈⊇ +† ⊇;††;≤∞††;∞≈ ≠+;≤+ ≠∞+∞ ∞≈≤+∞≈†∞+∞⊇ ≠+;†∞ ∞∋⊥†++;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋∞†++⊇ +† †+∞ 003450, ;.∞. †+∞ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+⊇;≈⊥ ≈≤+∞∋∞ †++∋ †+∞ 00.....

2 7+∞ 8∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+

2.1 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈ ∋ 0†∞+;≤∞≈†+;≤ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞

9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∞≈;⊥∞∞ ;≈ ≤+≈†+∋≈† †+ +†+∞+ ⊥†∞+;≤∞≈†+;≤1 †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈.

1† ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋+≈† ≠;⊇∞†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈†∞+≈∋†;+≈∋††+ ;≈ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ⊇+∋∋;≈≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋=;∋†;+≈, ≈≤;∞≈≤∞ ++ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+. 1† ;≈ ∋†≈+ †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠;†+ ≠+;≤+ †≠+ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞+≈ ≠;†+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋+†+∞+ †+≈⊥∞∞≈ ≤+++≈∞ †+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†∞ ;≈. 1≈ +†+∞+ ≠++⊇≈, 9≈⊥†;≈+ +∋≈ +∞≤+∋∞ “†+∞ ≠++†⊇’≈ †;≈⊥∞∋ †+∋≈≤∋2 ⊥∞+ ≈∞” (7∞;†≈∞+ 1992: 179).

9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈ ∋≈ +††;≤;∋†, +∞† ≈+† ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞

6;⊥∞+∞ 1: 3⊥+∞∋⊇ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≠;†+ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ∞⊥;≤∞≈†∞+≈ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+. (035 3;+†≈≤+∋†† ∞≈⊇ 3+=;∋†=∞+≈;≤+∞+∞≈⊥: 2008)


6;⊥∞+∞ 1 ;††∞≈†+∋†∞≈ ≠+∞+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ≠+∞+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∋≈ +††;≤;∋†, +∞† ≈+† ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

8∞+∞++, †+∞ ≠++†⊇-≠;⊇∞ ≈⊥+∞∋⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠†∞≈≈;=∞ ∞≈∞ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≤++≈≈ ∋†† ≤+≈†;≈∞≈†≈ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∞∋⊥+∋≈;=∞⊇. 4∋†;=∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ⊥†∞+;≤∞≈†+;≤;†+ ;≈ †;∋;†∞⊇ †+ ∋ †∞≠ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈, ∞.⊥. †+∞ 034, 6+∞∋† 3+;†∋;≈, 0∋≈∋⊇∋, 4∞≈†+∋†;∋, 4∞≠ 5∞∋†∋≈⊇ ++ 3+∞†+ 4†+;≤∋. 6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, 4∞†≤+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ 3+∋≠ (2003: 6 ††.) +;⊥+†;⊥+† †+∞ †∋≤† †+∋† ∞=∞≈ †++∞⊥+ +†+∞+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 8;≈⊇∞ ++ 0+;≈∞≈∞ +∋=∞ ∋ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+†+ +;⊥+∞+ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≈∋†;=∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ †+∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, †+∞≈∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ⊇+ ≈+† ≤∋+++ †+∞ ∋∞††;†∞≈≤†;+≈∋† ∞≈∞ ≠+;≤+ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞≈ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

1≈ †∋≤†, +=∞+ †+∞ ≤+∞+≈∞ +† †;∋∞, †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† †++∞;⊥≈-†∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ≈∞≤+≈⊇-†∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ +∋=∞ ∞≠≤∞∞⊇∞⊇ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≈∋†;=∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈, ≠++ ≈+≠ ∋∞+∞†+ ≤+≈≈†;†∞†∞ ∋ ∋;≈++;†+ +† ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈.
7+∞ +∞∋≈+≈≈ †++ ∋ ⊥†∞+;≤∞≈†+;≤ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+ +∋=∞ ≈∞=∞+∋† ≈∋†;+≈∋† =∋+;∞†;∞≈ ≤∋≈ =∋++.

It can stem from colonization, (such as in the cases of English and French). Or language variety can also be caused from immigration (such as in the case of Spanish). A third influencing factor can be political division as observed in the case of Korean (cf. Ammon et al. 2004: 296). Moreover, Clyne (1992: 1) emphasizes that pluricentricity has both the functions of unifying and seperating people: a pluricentric language can unify people of two different nations through the use of the same language and, at the same time, separate them through specific national norms and linguistic variables of their variety.

Therefore, according to Ammon et al., every national variety of a pluricentric language is potentially a separate language.
In conclu.....

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(…) ∋∋≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊥†∞+;≤∞≈†+;≤. 9∋≤+ +† †+∞;+ ≈∋†;+≈∋† =∋+;∞†;∞≈ +∞††∞≤† ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ;≈ ∋∞≤+ +† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ≠∋+ ∋≈ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ⊇+∞≈.

3+;†∞ †+∞ ≈†∋†∞≈ +† †+∞ =∋+;∞†+ ;≈ ≈+† ≈+∋∋∞†+;≤∋†, †++ ⊇∞∋+⊥+∋⊥+;≤, ∞≤+≈+∋;≤, ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ∋≈⊇/++ +;≈†++;≤∋† +∞∋≈+≈≈, ∋∋≈+ +† †+∞ ‘†∞≈≈ ⊥+≠∞+†∞†’ =∋+;∞†;∞≈ ∋+∞ ≈+≠ +∞;≈⊥ ∞∋∋≈≤;⊥∋†∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ ≤+⊇;†;≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+++∞⊥+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋††+ ∋++∞ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ †+ =∋+;∋†;+≈ ;≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ (4∋∋+≈ ∞† ∋†. 2004: 299).


7+;≈ ≤+⊇;†;≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ +;⊥+†;⊥+†∞⊇ ++ 4∋∋+≈ ∞† ∋†. ;≈ ∋†≈+ ++≈∞+=∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ =∋+;∞†+ +† 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, ≠+;≤+ ≠;†† +∞ †∞+†+∞+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ ≈∞≤†;+≈.

2.2 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ – †+∞ 9∋∞+⊥∞≈≤∞ +† ∋ 4∞≠ 9⊥;≤∞≈†∞+ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+

2.2.1 7+∞ 8+≈∋∋;≤ 4+⊇∞† +† †+∞ 9=+†∞†;+≈ +† 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+

4 †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ++ ∋ =∋+;∞†+ +† ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋††+ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ +=∞+≈;⊥+†; ;† ≤∋≈ †∋∂∞ ≤∞≈†∞+;∞≈ +∞†++∞ ;† ;≈ ∋ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇;=∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤+⊇;†;∞⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ =∋+;∞†+.

3≤+≈∞;⊇∞+ (2007: 29 ††.) ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ †+∞ “8+≈∋∋;≤ 4+⊇∞† +† †+∞ 9=+†∞†;+≈ +† 4∞≠ 9≈⊥†;≈+∞≈“, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞ †+∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† ∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ =∋+;∞†+. 7+;≈ ∋+⊇∞† ;≈ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≠† ≈∞≤†;+≈, †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ ∋≈ ∞≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∋+⊇∞† ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤∋††+ ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ †+ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+.
3≤+≈∞;⊇∞+ (;+;⊇.) ≤†∋;∋≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ∞≈⊇∞+†+;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ≠+;≤+ ⊇∞+;=∞≈ †+∞ †++∋∋†;+≈ †++ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† =∋+;∞†;∞≈ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+, ∋≤≤+∞≈†≈ †++ ∋∋≈+ ≈;∋;†∋+;†;∞≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞∋, ∋≈⊇ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ †+ +⊥∞+∋†∞ ≠+∞≈∞=∞+ ∋ †∋≈.....

7+∞ “8+≈∋∋;≤ 4+⊇∞† +† †+∞ 9=+†∞†;+≈ +† 4∞≠ 9≈⊥†;≈+∞≈“ ;≈ ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ ;≈†+ ∋ ≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞ +† †;=∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈†;≤ ≈†∋⊥∞≈: 6+∞≈⊇∋†;+≈, 9≠+≈++∋∋†;=∞ 3†∋+;†;=∋†;+≈, 4∋†;=;=∋†;+≈, 9≈⊇+≈++∋∋†;=∞ 3†∋+;†;=∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ 8;††∞+∞≈†∋†;+≈. 3;†+ †+;≈ ∋+⊇∞†, +∞ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞≈ †+∞ †+⊥;≤∋† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈†∋† ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈ ≠;†+ ;†≈ ≤+++∞≈⊥+≈⊇;≈⊥ ≤+≈≈†;†∞∞≈† ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†+ ∞∋⊥+∋≈;≈ +≈ †++≈∞ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ∋+≈† ≠;⊇∞†+ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ++≈∞+=∋+†∞ (≤†.

6+;†= 2007: 13).

6;⊥∞+∞ 2: 3≤+≈∞;⊇∞+’≈ ⊇+≈∋∋;≤ ∋+⊇∞† +† †+∞ ∞=+†∞†;+≈ +† ≈∞≠ 9≈⊥†;≈+∞≈ (≤†. 3≤+≈∞;⊇∞+ 2007: 30).


4∞≈†+∋†;∋ ≠∋≈ ≤+†+≈;=∞⊇ ++ 6+∞∋† 3+;†∋;≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥∞≈∋† ≤+†+≈+ ;≈ 1788. 7+;≈ ≠∋≈, †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤∋††+, ∋ ≤+∞≤;∋† ⊥∞+;+⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞ ≈+-≤∋††∞⊇ †+∞≈⊇∞+ ∞††∞≤† †++∂ ⊥†∋≤∞ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+;≈ †;∋∞.

7+∞ †+∞≈⊇∞+ ∞††∞≤† +;⊥+†;⊥+†≈ †+∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† †+∞ †;+≈† ≈∞†††∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋⊥+∋≈;=∞≈ †+∋† †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈ +† ∋ ≈∞≠ ⊇;∋†∞≤† ;≈ ≈∋;⊇ †+ +∋=∞ +=∞+≠+∞†∋;≈⊥ ⊥+≠∞+ †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ ≠+∋† †+∞ ⊇;∋†∞≤† ≠;†† +∞ †;∂∞, ∞=∞≈ ≠;†+ ≈∞+≈∞⊥∞∞≈† †∋+⊥∞+ ∋;⊥+∋†;+≈. 1≈ †+∞ ≤∋≈∞ +† 4∞≈†+∋†;∋, †+∞ †;+≈† ≈∞†††∞+≈ +∋⊇ ≤+∋∞ †++∋ †+∞ ≈+∞†+∞∋≈† +† 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇ (≤†.

9;∞≈†;≈⊥ 2006: 75). 7+∞+∞†++∞, +;≈†++;≤∋††+, 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋+;≈∋†;+≈ +† 3+;†;≈+ =∋+;∞†;∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 0+≤∂≈∞+, ≈+∞†+-∞∋≈† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊇;∋†∞≤†≈ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†, 5∞≤∞;=∞⊇ 0++≈∞≈≤;∋†;+≈3 (50), ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ 1+;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 3≤+††;≈+. 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† +⊥;≈;+≈≈ ∋++∞† †+∞ ⊥+;≈† +† ++;⊥;≈ +† †+∞ ++++;⊇;=∋†;+≈, ≠+∞†+∞+ ;† †;+≈† †++∂ ⊥†∋≤∞ ;≈ 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇, ++ ≠+∞†+∞+ ;† +≤≤∞++∞⊇ ∋† ∋ †∋†∞+ ⊥+;≈† ;≈ †;∋∞ ;≈ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋.

1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ⊇;≈∋⊥+∞∞∋∞≈† +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≠∞;⊥+†;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ⊇;∋†∞≤†≈. 5∞†, 7∞;†≈∞+ (1996: 220) ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ †+∋† †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥+∋≈∞ +† †+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† ++++;⊇;=∋†;+≈ ∋∋;≈†+ †++∂ ⊥†∋≤∞ ;≈ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋.
0+≈≤∞+≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ≠∞;⊥+†;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊇;∋†∞≤†≈ ≠+;≤+ ∞††;∋∋†∞†+ ≤+≈≈†;†∞†∞⊇ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, ;† ;≈ ∂≈+≠≈ †+∋† 1+;≈+ †∋≤∂∞⊇ ≈†++≈⊥∞+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ .....

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