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Gut (1.7), Prof. Dr. McPherson, 2017

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Before reading the roman „The Tortilla Curtain“ by Tom Coraghessan Boyle I thought, that it is a roman about Mexican people and their habits. But after i had read the short summary on the backside of this book i knew that it isn‛t only about Mexican people. It seemed to be about a conflict
Tortilla Curtain - José Navidad José Navidads character is accepted by neither Americans nor Mexicans in the course of the story. Is this a result of his own actions, or are his actions a result of this lack of acceptance? José Navidad is a very ambivalent character. In T. C. Boyles novel The Tortilla

Immigrant Identities in U.S. American Literature:

Stephen Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets and

T.C.

Boyle’s The Tortilla Curtain


Table of Contents

1 Introduction 3

2 Multicultural America? The Concepts of Ethnicity and Identity in the American Context 4

2.1 Identity: Us vs.

Them 4

2.2 Ethnicity and Race 6

2.3 Americanness 6

2.4 Otherness 10

2.5 Immigration and Immigrant Identities in Literary History 13

3 Stephen Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 15

3.1 Maggie’s Otherness 16

3.2 Violence, Fear and Poverty as Fixed Components of Life 19

4 T.

C. Boyle’s The Tortilla Curtain 23

4.1 Emphasis on Ethnicity as Otherness in T.C. Boyle 24

4.2 Violence and Fear, Borders and Boundaries, Territory and Intrusion 27

5 From ‘Melting Pot’ to Multicultural America? 30

5.1 Hypocrisy and False Morals 30

5.2 Prejudice and Racism 34

5.3 Deconstruction of the American Dream 37

6 Conclusion 40

7 Works Cited 42



Immigrant Identities in U.S.

American Literature:

Stephen Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets and

T.C.

Boyle’s The Tortilla Curtain



  1. Introduction

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame.

With conquering limps astride from land to land

Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand

A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame

Is the imprisoned lightening, and her name

Mother of Exiles.

From her beacon-handed

Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command

The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame

“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she

With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,

I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”



Emma Lazarus’s Poem at the Foot of the Statue of Liberty, 1883 (in Gjerde 312)



The United States of America has been and still is often regarded as A Nation of Immigrants (Kennedy).

Emma Lazarus’ poem and her “Mother of Exiles [who] glows world-wide welcome” (in Gjerde 312) has many times been taken as the nation’s motto. But is this welcoming attitude to the “huddled masses yearning to breathe free” (Lazarus in Gjerde 312) really a long-standing American trait? A.....[read full text]

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7+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋;∋≈ ∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†+;≈⊥ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈≈ +† ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈† ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ ;≈ †≠+ ≠++∂≈ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ≠+;≤+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∞⊇ ≈∞∋+†+ ⊥+∞≤;≈∞†+ +≈∞ +∞≈⊇+∞⊇ +∞∋+≈ ∋⊥∋+†: 3†∞⊥+∞≈ 0+∋≈∞’≈ 4∋⊥⊥;∞: 4 6;+† +† †+∞ 3†+∞∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ 7.0.

3++†∞’≈ 7+∞ 7++†;††∋ 0∞+†∋;≈, ∋≈∂;≈⊥ ≠+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †+∞ ≈;∋;†∋+;†;∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ≠+∞+∞ †;∞ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈? 4† †;+≈† ⊥†∋≈≤∞, †+∞ ≈∞†∞≤†∞⊇ ≈+=∞†≈ ⊇+ ≈+† ≈∞∞∋ †+ +∋=∞ ∋∞≤+ ;≈ ≤+∋∋+≈. 0+∋≈∞’≈ ≈+++† ≈+=∞† +† 1893 ⊇∞∋†≈ ≠;†+ ∋≈ ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈† †∋∋;†+ +† 1+;≈+ ⊇∞≈≤∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ≈†∞∋≈ +† 4∞≠ 5++∂, 3++†∞’≈ 1995 ≠++∂ ;≈ ≈∞† ;≈ †+∞ +∞†≈∂;+†≈ +† 7+≈ 4≈⊥∞†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ++;≈⊥≈ †+⊥∞†+∞+ †≠+ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ ≠++ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† +∞ ∋++∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†: ∞≈∋∞†+++;=∞⊇ ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈†≈ †++∋ 4∞≠;≤+ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≠∞∋††++ ≠+;†∞ †∋∋;†+.

8+≠∞=∞+, ∋≈ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ ≠;†† †++ †+ ≈++≠ †+∋† ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ +† ∋≈⊇ ≈†+∞⊥⊥†∞≈ ≠;†+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+, †+∞ ⊇+∞∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥∞≈ +† ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ ≠;†+ ≠+;≤+ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ⊥+∞∞†∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ‘≈∋†;=∞≈’ +∞∋∋;≈ ≈;∋;†∋+ ;≈ †;†∞+∋++ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈≈ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+;≈ †;∋∞, ∋†≈+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ +;≈†++;≤∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;+†+⊥;≤∋† +∋≤∂⊥++∞≈⊇≈ ∋† †+∞ †;∋∞≈ +† ≠+;†;≈⊥. 4∞†+++’≈ ⊥+≈;†;+≈∋†;†+ ≈+∋†† +∞ +∞⊥∋+⊇∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ †;†∞+∋++ +∞∋†;†;∞≈ +† †+∞ ∋≤≤∞⊥†∋≈≤∞ +† †+∞ ;⊇∞∋† +† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋≈ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈ +† ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈†≈ ≠;†† +∞ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞⊇.

7+∞ ∋++=∞ +∞††;≈∞⊇ ++{∞≤†;=∞≈ ≠;†† +∞ ∋∞† ++ †;+≈††+ ∞≠∋∋;≈;≈⊥ †+∞ †+∞++;∞≈ +∞+;≈⊇ ≈+∋∞ ∂∞+ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ +† ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈† ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ 0.3.4., ∋;∋;≈⊥ ∋† +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ ++;∞††+ †+∞ ⊥+≈;†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈;+≈≈ +† †+∞ ≤+≈†∞≠†≈ +† 0+∋≈∞ ∋≈⊇ 3++†∞.

7+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ⊥∋+† +† †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+, ≤+∋⊥†∞+ 3 ∋≈⊇ 4, ≠;†† +∞ ≈†∞⊇+;≈⊥ 4∋⊥⊥;∞ ∋≈⊇ 7+∞ 7++†;††∋ 0∞+†∋;≈ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞†+, †+≤∞≈;≈⊥ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ +≈ †+∞ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈≈ +† †+∞ ⊥++†∋⊥+≈;≈†≈’ +†+∞+≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ‘+∞∋†;†;∞≈’ +† †+∞;+ †;=∞≈. 1≈ †+∞ †;††+ ≤+∋⊥†∞+ †+∞+ ∋+∞ +++∞⊥+† †+⊥∞†+∞+, ∞≠∋∋;≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋∞†+++≈’ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈≈, +∞††++∂≈ ∋≈⊇, ;† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞, +⊥;≈;+≈≈ +≈ ;≈≈∞∞≈ ≈†++≈⊥†+ ≤+≈≈∞≤†∞⊇ †+ ;∋∋;⊥+∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ∋ †;†∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≠ ≤+∞≈†++: †+∞ ‘≤†∋≈+;≈⊥’ +† =∋†∞∞≈, ≈†∞+∞+†+⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞{∞⊇;≤∞≈, ≈+∋∞†;∋∞≈ +∋≤;≈∋, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊇∞≤+≈≈†+∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 8+∞∋∋, ≈†;†† +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ⊥∞††;≈⊥ †++≤∞ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋ †+ †++∞;⊥≈∞+≈.



  1. 4∞††;≤∞††∞+∋† 4∋∞+;≤∋? 7+∞ 0+≈≤∞⊥†≈ +† 9†+≈;≤;†+ ∋≈⊇ 1⊇∞≈†;†+ ;≈ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 0+≈†∞≠†

7+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞+ +∞†+≠ ∋;∋≈ ∋† ⊥++=;⊇;≈⊥ ∋ =∞++ ++;∞† +=∞+=;∞≠ +† ≤∞+†∋;≈ ∂∞+ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ;∋∋;⊥+∋†;+≈: ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ +† ;⊇∞≈†;†+, ∞†+≈;≤;†+ ∋≈⊇ +∋≤∞, 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ 0†+∞+≈∞≈≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† ;≈ .....

It will become clear in the following, but it shall nonetheless be stated at this point already: These concepts can neither be clearly defined nor strictly differentiated, and what will be presented here is only the smallest glimpse of what could be and has been said about these concepts, their meanings being subject to frequent changes in discourse.



    1. Identity: Us vs.

      Them

The question of identity, of who we are and what makes us ‘us’ has been raised time and time again and still is debated by various persons and scholars belonging to many different disciplines. Identity as a construct is hard to grasp and almost impossible to define (Huntington 21). In the following the aim is not to clearly state what identity, in general, American or immigrant, is, but some ideas concerning identity shall be given to enable a better analysis of the concept in the literary representations discussed here.

As a starting point, Samuel Huntington defines identity as “an individual’s or a group’s sense of self.

It is a product of self-consciousness, that I or we possess distinct qualities as an entity that differentiates me from you and us from them” (21).1 He farther mentions that an individual may define and redefine multiple identities within certain groups, but that identities of groups are usually more stable. He understands identities to be constructed and “imagined selves” (Huntington 22), that are situational, meaning that the aspects of his or her identity a person stresses most may change depending on the situation (Huntington 24).

For example in an economic context, a person might highlight his or her position and field of occupation, but when traveling, that same person might identify his- or herself rather with her region or country of residence. Possible sources of identity can be of ascriptive (age, gender, race), cultural (ethnicity, language, civilization), territorial (city, state, country, continent), political (party, ideology), economic (profession, class) or social (friends, team, status) nature (Huntington 27).

Furthermore, he describes identities as “defined by the self but […] [also as] the product of the interaction between the self and others [since] [h]ow others perceive an individual or group affects the self-definition of that individual or group” (Huntington 23). The ‘Us vs. Them’ mentality is stressed in connection with the psychological views of Sigmund Freud (qtd. in Huntington 25),2 claiming that distinction from ‘the other’, at times even from an enemy to be of great import.....

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1≈ †+∞ ⊥;=∞≈ ≤+≈†∞≠†, ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+;≈⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ‘∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞∋’ ;≈ ∋++∞+=∞+ ∋ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ +† ∞†+≈;≤, +∋≤;∋† ∋≈⊇ ≤∞††∞+∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈.

1≈ ≤+≈†++∋;†+ ≠;†+ ≠+∋† ≠∋≈ +∞††;≈∞⊇ ∋++=∞, ;† ≈∞∞∋≈ ≈∋†∞+∋†, †+∋† ∋≈ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† ++ ⊥++∞⊥ ≠;†+;≈ ∋ ≈∞≠ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ≠+∞†⊇ +∋=∞ †+ +∞⊇∞†;≈∞ +≈∞’≈ ≈∞††-=;∞≠≈ ≠;†+;≈, +∞++≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†;+≈ †+ †+∋† ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞, ∋≈ ≠;†† †+∞+. 3†∞∋+† 8∋†† ++≠∞=∞+ ⊥+;≈†≈ +∞† †+∋† “[;]⊇∞≈†;†+ ;≈ ≈+† ∋≈ †+∋≈≈⊥∋+∞≈† ++ ∞≈⊥+++†∞∋∋†;≤ ∋≈ ≠∞ †+;≈∂” (222), ∋≈⊇ †+∋† ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ≤∞††∞+∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†+ “;≈ ∋ ∋∋††∞+ +† ‘+∞≤+∋;≈⊥’ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ‘+∞;≈⊥’.

1† +∞†+≈⊥≈ †+ †+∞ †∞†∞+∞ ∋≈ ∋∞≤+ ∋≈ †+ †+∞ ⊥∋≈†. 1† ;≈ ≈+† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ≠+;≤+ ∋†+∞∋⊇+ ∞≠;≈†≈ […]. 0∞††∞+∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ ≤+∋∞ †++∋ ≈+∋∞≠+∞+∞, +∋=∞ +;≈†++;∞≈. 3∞† †;∂∞ ∞=∞++†+;≈⊥ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ +;≈†++;≤∋†, †+∞+ ∞≈⊇∞+⊥+ ≤+≈≈†∋≈† †+∋≈≈†++∋∋†;+≈” (225).3



    1. 9†+≈;≤;†+ ∋≈⊇ 5∋≤∞

1∞≈† †;∂∞ 8∋†† ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ †+∋† (≤∞††∞+∋†) ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ;≈ ∋†≠∋+≈ ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥, ≈+ ⊇+∞≈ 4∋+;†+≈ 8∋††∞+ †++ ∞†+≈;≤;†+ ∋≈⊇ +∋≤∞.

3+∞ ∋+⊥∞∞≈ †+∋† ∞†+≈;≤;†+, ∋†≈+ ∋ ≈+≤;∋† ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†, ≤+≈≈;≈†≈ +† “†∞∋†∞+∞≈ +† ∋ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ≤∞††∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋ +∞∋† ++ ⊥∞†∋†;=∞ ≤+∋∋+≈ ∋≈≤∞≈†++. […] [3∞†] ;≈ ≈+† ∋ ⊥+;∋++⊇;∋† +∞∋∋≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ +∞† +∋†+∞+ ∞†+≈;≤ ⊥++∞⊥≈ ∋+∞ ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈†;≈∞∋† ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† +∞;≈=∞≈†;+≈ ;≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ †+ ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ +;≈†++;≤∋† ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+;††;≈⊥ +∞∋†;†;∞≈ ++†+ ;≈†∞+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ∞≠†∞+≈∋†” (8∋††∞+ 162).

5∋≤∞, ;≈ ;†≈∞†† ∋ +∋†+∞+ ⊥+++†∞∋∋†;≤ †∞+∋, ;≈ ∋†≈+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ∋≈ ≈+≤;∋††+ ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†∞⊇, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ “†+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ≈+ †+≈⊥∞+ (∋≈⊇ ∋∋+ +∋=∞ ≈∞=∞+ +∞∞≈) ⊥∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ †;≠∞⊇ +∋≤;∋† ∞≈†;†;∞≈” (162). 4+∞† 1⊥≈∋†;∞= ∋⊥+∞∞≈, ≈∋+;≈⊥ †+∋† “≈+ +;+†+⊥;≈† +∋≈ ∞=∞+ +∞∞≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∋ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†+++ ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈ +† ‘+∋≤∞’ […] [+∞≈≤∞] [†]+∞ +≈†+ †+⊥;≤∋† ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈ ;≈ †+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ ∋∞∋+∞+≈ +† ⊇;††∞+∞≈† +∋≤∞≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ .....

8∞≈⊥;†∞ †+;≈, 8∋††∞+ ≈†∋†∞≈ †+∋† †+∞ “+∞∋†;†;∞≈ +† +∋≤∞ ⊥∞+≈;≈† ∋≈ ⊥+≠∞+†∞† ≤+≈≈†∋≈†≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇+≈∋∋;≤≈ +† ∞=∞++⊇∋+ †;†∞ ;≈ †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 3†∋†∞≈ […] [∋≈] [+]∋≤∞ […] ≈†;†† ∋∋††∞+≈, ≈+∋⊥;≈⊥ ⊥∞+≤∞⊥†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ +∞+∋=;++≈ ∋† ∋†† †∞=∞†≈ +† ≈+≤;∞†+” (162). 3+∞ †∋+†+∞+ ∋∞≈†;+≈≈ †+∋† †+∞ ≤†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈† ⊥++∞⊥ ++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋≈ ∋ +∋≤∞ ++ ∋≈ ∞†+≈;≤ ⊥++∞⊥ ;≈ ≈∞+{∞≤† †+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞, ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇;≈⊥ +≈ +;≈†++;≤∋† ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ (8∋††∞+ 163).

1⊥≈∋†;∞=’≈ 8+≠ †+∞ 1+;≈+ 3∞≤∋∋∞ 3+;†∞ ≈++≠≈ ⊥+∞≤;≈∞†+ †+∋† ⊥+∞≈+∋∞≈+≈, ∞≠∋∋;≈;≈⊥ ++≠ †+∞ 1+;≈+ ≠∞≈† †++∋ +⊥⊥+∞≈≈∞⊇ †+ +⊥⊥+∞≈≈++ ;≈ †+∞ ∞;⊥+†∞∞≈†+ ∋≈⊇ ≈;≈∞†∞∞≈†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ (2), ≠+;≤+ +∞ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ∋∞∋≈ †+∋† “†+∞+ ∋†† +∞≤∋∋∞ +;≤+, ++ ∞=∞≈ ‘∋;⊇⊇†∞ ≤†∋≈≈’” (1⊥≈∋†;∞= 3), ∋≈ 0+∋≈∞’≈ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈ ;≈ 4∋⊥⊥;∞, ≠+;††∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞† ∋† †+∞ †∞+≈ †+ †+∞ †≠∞≈†;∞†+ ≤∞≈†∞++, ≈++≠≈.



    1. 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈∞≈≈

1≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈ +† 8∋††∞+’≈ ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈† †+∋† +∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞†+≈;≤;†+ ∋+∞ ≈†;†† ∋ +∞∋†;†+ ;≈ ∞=∞++⊇∋+ †;†∞ ;≈ †+∞ 03, ++≠ ≤∋≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ +∞ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇, ++≠ †++≈∞ +† †+∞ ‘0†+∞+’, +∞+∞ ∋∋;≈†+ 1+;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 7∋†;≈+?4 1≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†, ⊥++∞⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ≈∋†;+≈’≈ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞≈ ∋+∞ ≈+∋++†;≤ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈≤∞+≈;=∞ ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†;+≈≈ (3+⊇∋∂ ∞† ∋†.) ∋≈⊇ “≤∋≈ +∞ ≤+≈†∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇” (0†≈∞≤∂ 204).

4;≤+∋∞† 0†≈∞≤∂ ≈++≠≈ †+∋† †+;≈ ;≈ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ †+∞∞ †++ †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 3†∋†∞≈ ∋≈ ;† ;≈ ≈∞;†+∞+ “∋ ⊥∋†+;∋ […] ≈++ ∋≈ ∋≈≤;∞≈† ‘++∋∞†∋≈⊇’” (204, ∞∋⊥+∋≈;≈ ;≈ ++;⊥;≈∋†) ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋+;†+ ≤+∞≈† +≈ †+∞ “⊇∞+∋+;†;†+ +† †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈” (204), ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≠++ +∞ ≈∞∞≈ “∋≈≠;∞†+ ∋++∞† ++†⊇;≈⊥ †+⊥∞†+∞+” (205) ∋≈ ∋ †+∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ∞†∞∋∞≈† ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ≤∞††∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ;⊇∞≈†;†+. 7+∞ †∋≤† †+∋† †+∞ 03, †++∋ ;†≈ =∞++ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥, ≤+≈≈;≈†∞⊇ +† ∋ =∞++ ⊇;=∞+≈∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈, ≠++≈∞ ⊇;=∞+≈;†+ ;≈ †+ †+;≈ ⊇∋+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ≈†;††, ∋≈⊇, ;≈ ≤+≈≈∞≤†;+≈ †+ †+∋†, †+∞ ≈†++≈⊥ +∞†;∞† ;≈ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†;≈∋ ≤+∋⊥†;≤∋†∞≈ +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ †++ ≠+∋† ;≈ ≈+∋+∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞†++∞ +;≈⊇∞+≈ †;≈∂;≈⊥ 4∋∞+;≤∋’≈ ⊇;=∞+≈∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ +≈∞ .....

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