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Internet an new Media

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Internet and new Media


Introducing the Internet

The Internet is a global network of networks.


A Global Network of Networks

  • The internet is a loose, international collection of networks

  • Millions of computers are connected to each another via cables and radio waves

  • Public backbones connect all the local together


Internet Statistics

  • The number of people online worldwide is thought to be around 2.1 billion

  • Around 30.5% of the world’s population

  • The number of internet users is increasing by around 7 % year-on-year


Host

  • The number of hosts (computers) connected to the internet stands at around 850 million and increase about 10.5 %


Traffic

  • Internet traffic – the amount of bytes transferred

  • Is increasing by roughly 40 – 50 % every year

  • Google has reportedly now seen over a trillion unique URLs


Broadband Subscribers

  • Fixed broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants Austria 2,003,905

  • Wireless broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1,741,246


Mobile is coming

  • Sales of new smartphones overtook sales of new PCs

  • 40 % of all tweets now are created on mobile devices

  • Not just apps: increase use of mobile web browser to access mobile web sites

  • Gartner predicts smartphones will overtake PCs as the most common web access device in 2013


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Measured Download Speeds

  • 20 million broadband speed tests around the world every month

  • They raw data can be download or explored with Google’s Publish Data Explorer


In Austria

  • 6 million people aged 14 and older have access to the internet in Austria

  • 3.4 million hosts in the “at” domain

  • willhaben.at”, “derstandard.at” and autoscout24.at” are the most popular web sites in Austria


Internet FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

So, the Internet is Run by Google, Right?

  • No

  • Google, is one of the big commercial players, along with facebook, Amazon, ebay, Microsoft, Apple, …

  • Multiple platforms: Windows, Unix, Mac, WebTV, smartphone, …


The Internet and the Web are the Same Thing, Right?

  • No

  • The web (WWW) is the popular face of the internet: billions of web sites, each comprising on or more web pages

  • The web is just one of many services running over the internet

  • Others services: email, newsgroups, video streaming, voice calls, …


What is a Web Site?

  • Is a set of web pages representing someone or something


What is a Home Page?

  1. The page which appears when a web browser is started or the browser’s Home button is pressed. You can choose any web pages as your browser’s home page

  2. The “front page! Of a web site. The page which is displayed when you visit “wien.at”


What is an Internet Service Provider (ISP)?

  • Company which connects your computer to the rest of the internet

  • Are often telephone or cable television companies

  • Telekom, A1


What is a Local Area Network (LAN)?

  • Kind of network typically found within companies or organisations:

  • Based on Ethernet of ATM technology

  • Also uses internet protocols


Host, Server

  • Computer which is open to external online access over the internet

  • A host has typically its own name


Server

  • A program which runs continuously on a host, listening for requests on a specific port


Port


Client

  • Is a program locally by a user, such as a web browser

Server

Request


TCP/IP

Response

Client


What are Firewalls?

  • Is a barrier between a LAN and the outside world.

  • Firewall can monitor and block connections into and out from the LAN


What are Intranets and Extranets?

Intranet: private internal network, usually behind a firewall, which runs IP and internet services

Extranet: specifically grants access to parts of the intranet to business partner or specific external users for login, privat, only with password


What is a Proxy Server?

Forwards requests to their destination and passes responses back to the originator


Newsgroup


Usenet News

  • Is users’ network, is the internet’s prime discussion area:

  • It comprises some 85,000 discussion groups or newsgroups dedicated to a specific topic,

  • Articles or messages are posted to these newsgroups by people using appropriate newsreader client software

  • Articles are then broadcast from news server to news server

  • Some newsgroups are only local to the specific region or organisation and are not broadcast widely

  • The set of freely available newsgroups in known as Usenet


    A huge resource of discussion

    • With over two billion people online, it is potentially possible to get access to the wold exerts in every field


    What Usenet is not

    1. Usenet is not about delivering news

    2. Usenet is not an organisation

    3. Usenet is not a democracy

    4. Usenet is not fair

    5. Usenet is not a right

    6. Usenet is not a public utility

    7. Usenet is not an advertising medium

    8. Usenet is not the internet


    What a newsgroup is

    • Is like a public note board, but on the internet

  • Most newsgroups have some rules or conventions about what may or may not be posted

  • You have no idea who might be reading your postings, unless they themselves also post

  • It is possible to read any message in any group for as long as it remains on your news provider’s server

  • This might be a few days or several month, depending on your news provider’s policy for that newsgroup


    Choosing a news reader

    • Is the client software which accesses a news server, allowing you to view and post to newsgroups


    The Usenet Topic Hierarchy

    • Newsgroups are divided into topics using a simple hierarchical naming system, read from left to right


    Getting Access to Newsgroups

    • Your internet service provider or university will typically provide access to a news server


    Configuring your news reader

  • Name: who should appear as the sender of the mail

    Email Address: where the message you send will appear to come from

    Reply-to Address: where private replies to your posting should be sent


    Using a real name

    • Some users like to post under a pseudonym rather than their real name

    • The quality of discussion tends to suffer when people post anonomously


    Using a real email address

    Since spammers regularly harvest all the email addresses from Usenet postings, some users prefer to post using a masked or fictitious email address:

    • Masking: means doctoring your email address in an obvious way so as to fool bulk mailing software

    • The problem is that masking breaks the rules of Usenet and breaks


    Finding and subscribing to newsgroups

    Your news server probably in the order of 20,000 groups:

  • You have to subscribe and read some of the postings to find out

  • You can also run a keyword search at Goggle Groups


    Reading Messages

    • Selecting a newsgroup name will generally start downloading the headers of current messages in that group

    • Selecting a message header will generally download its body into a separate window or panel

    • Some news readers support both downloading of message headers and bodies for offline reading of news


    Message threads

    • When a newsgroup message raises a new topic, it is said to start a new thread

    • News group reader allow you to sort messages my threads, allowing you to follow the progress of a discussion

    • If you follow a group regularly, it is sometimes more convenient to sort messages by date instead, so you always see what is new


  • Posting a newsgroup message is like sending an email

    • Start a new thread, or

    • Follow up an existing thread


    Plain Text

    • A sequence of displayable textual characters and control codes


    Plain text files

    • Is a sequence of characters contained in a fie

    • The file extension .txt is often used for plain text files


    Plain text editors

    • PSPad

    • Crimson Editor

    • Notepad

    • RText

    • BBedit


    Word Processor

    • Perform additional functions like layout, justification, and typesetting


    Post in Plain Text not HTML

    • Posting anything other than plain text to standard newsgroups is offensive

    • Set your news client to send plain text messages by default


    Prepare a posting in a plain text editor first

    • For a long posting, a good strategy is to compose your posting in a plain text editor first

    • When you are ready, copy and paste the posting into your newsreader for sending


    • Binaries files are files such as images, sounds, word processor output and software packages


    Sending a test post

    • Do not rush into posting to real, active newsgroups

    • Try posting to “alt.test” or “tu-graz.test” first


    Kill files

    • If you dislike a certain person on Usenet, you can “kill” their postings

    • Add their email address to your news reader’s “kill file”, or use the Filters


    Construct a good subject line for new threads

    When starting a new thread, construct a good subject heading:

    • One line summary of the content of your message or question


    Attribution when quoting

    • Make sure you preserve the attributions saying who wrote each of the quoted snippets

    • The attribution string should not be longer than one line, so it does not wrap

    • The name of the author plus their email address is best


    • All news readers let you add a personal signature a few lines long at the bottom of your postings

    • Your signature might typically include your name, email, and home page address, and is often rounded off with a witty comment or saying


    Good writing style

    • Use asterisks for light emphasis

    • Only use all upper case when you are shouting



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