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Social Problems 100 examination questions and answers   Chapter 1 1.The statement that reality is often less a matter of what people do than of how people define the behavior reflects which approach? A) social conflict approach B) structural functional approach C) symbolic interaction approach D) social exchange approach 2.Using which of the following methods does a researcher observe people while joining in their everyday activities? A) survey B) experiment C) participant observation D) secondary analysis 3.Which theoretical approach sees society as a system of many interrelated parts? A) structural functional approach B) social institutional approach C) social conflict approach D) symbolic interaction approach 4.Which of the following theories states that the reality of any particular situation depends on how people define it? A) labeling theory B) learn..

Q1)What are the general purposes of textile coloration?

Color is one of the most significant factors in the appeal and marketability of textile products.

Textile coloration is used to enhance the aesthetics and beautification.


Q2)Briefly describe how to complete an exhaust dyeing process?


Exhaust dyeing is a kind of batchwise dyeing. It dyes in rope form by using Overflow/Jet Dyeing Machine or dyes in open width form by using beam dyeing machine.


First, choose a dyeing machine based on the fabric dyeing form.

We should remember the fabric wight before dyeing which is going to be dyed and then calculate dyestuff weight on weight of fabric weight in percentage. Also, we have to calculate the water amount based both the fabric and machine to get the liquor ratio. In dyeing process, salt, soda ash and dyestuff are needed. Putting leveling agent or not is optional. Those chemicals help us to dye to color into the fabric and fix the color.

We have to calculate the chemicals we used. After finished all the calculation, we can put fabric and all chemicals into the dye bath to start the dyeing.


During the dyeing process, we should control the pH of dyeing solution. And keep temperature about 60 degree and the dyeing time around 60 to 120 minutes to make sure the fabric can dye evenly.


Q3)Explain the meanings of the following terms: affinity, dye substantivity, compatibility of dye, dyeing exhaustion, liquor ratio, pick-up ratio, continuous pad dyeing, yarn package dyeing, surfactant, vat dyes.


Affinity :

It is a natural attraction.

The tendency of chemical attraction or force between dye and textile that cause them to combine. Or we think it is the dye absorbing capacity of textile fibres, yarn, fabrics.


Dye substantivity :

The affinity of a .....[read full text]

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0+∋⊥∋†;+;†;†+ +† ⊇+∞ :

8+∞ +∋=∞ †+∞ ≈;∋;†∋+ ⊥++⊥∞+†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈;∋;†∋+ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ +∞+∋=;++, ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ †+≈∞-+≈-†+≈∞ +∞;†⊇-∞⊥ ⊥++⊥∞+†;∞≈, ∞⊥∞∋† +++∞≈†≈∞≈≈ †+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈, ∋≈⊇ ≈+ +†+≤∂;≈⊥ ∞††∞≤† +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞∋.

7+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋†;+†∞ ⊇+∞≈ ≠;†+ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋+∞ ;⊇∞∋† †++ ∞≈∞ ;≈ ≤+†++ ∋;≠†∞+∞≈, ≈;≈≤∞ ≤+†++ ;≈ ∋∋†≤+∞⊇ ≠;†+3 ⊇+∞≈ ;≈ ∞≈∞∋†.


8+∞;≈⊥ ∞≠+∋∞≈†;+≈ :

1† ∋†≈+ ≤∋≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ +∋†≤+≠;≈∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥.

1† ;≈ †+∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ †+∋† †∞≠†;†∞ ∋+≈+++;≈⊥ ⊇+∞ ;≈ ≈+†∞†;+≈ ∞≈†;† +∞∋≤+∞≈ ∞⊥∞;†;++;∞∋ ∋≈⊇ †;≠∋†;+≈ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞⊇


7;⊥∞++ +∋†;+ :

7+∞ +∋†;+ +† †+∞ ≠∞;⊥+† +† †+∞ ⊇++ ∋∋†∞+;∋† +∞;≈⊥ ⊇+∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ≠∋†∞+ ≠∞;⊥+† +† ∋≈ ∞≠+∋∞≈† ⊇+∞ +∋†+.


0;≤∂-∞⊥ +∋†;+ :

7+∞ +∋†;+ +† †+∞ ≠∞;⊥+† +† †+∞ ⊇+∞ ≈+†∞†;+≈ ∋+≈+++∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ †∋++;≤ ∋††∞+ ≈⊥∞∞∞=∞⊇ ++ ⊥∋⊇⊇†∞+≈ †+ †+∞ ≠∞;⊥+† +† ⊇++.


0+≈†;≈∞+∞≈ ⊥∋⊇ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ :

7+∞ ⊥+∞;⊥∞ ++ ∞≈-⊇+∞⊇ ⊥;∞≤∞ †∋++;≤ ⊥∋≈≈∞≈ †+++∞⊥+ ∋ ⊇+∞ +∋†+ †+ ∋+≈+++ ⊇+∞≈†∞††.

7+∞≈ †+∞ †∋++;≤ ;≈ ≈⊥∞∞∞=∞⊇ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥∋⊇⊇;≈⊥ ++††∞+≈ †+ +∞∋+=∞ ∞≠†+∋ ⊇+∞ ≈+†∞†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≈∞+∞ ∞=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈† ⊇+∞;≈⊥. 0+∋+;≈;≈⊥ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋∋≤+;≈∞, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≈†∞∋∋;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≠∋≈+;≈⊥, ;≈†+ ∋ ≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞ †+ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞ †+∞ .....


5∋+≈ ⊥∋≤∂∋⊥∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ :

8+∞;≈⊥ +∋+≈≈ ≠+;≤+ ≠+∋⊥⊥∞⊇ +≈ ≤+≈∞≈ ++ ⊥∋≤∂∋⊥∞≈


3∞+†∋≤†∋≈† :

1† ;≈ ≤+∋⊥+∞≈⊇≈ †+∋† †+≠∞+ †+∞ ≈∞+†∋≤∞ †∞≈≈;+≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †≠+ †;⊥∞;⊇≈ ++ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∋ †;⊥∞;⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈+†;⊇.

3∞+†∋≤†∋≈† ∋∋+ ∋≤† ∋≈ ⊇∞†∞+⊥∞≈†≈, ≠∞††;≈⊥ ∋⊥∞≈†≈, ∞∋∞†≈;†;∞+≈, †+∋∋;≈⊥ ∋⊥∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈⊥∞+≈∋≈†≈.


Vat dyes :

It is given form the recipient in which dye reduction and dissolving is performed before dyeing.


Q4)Explain the difference between dyestuff and pigment.


Dyestuff is a colored substance.

It can color a certain type of textile materials and the colored textile materials have a certain degree of color fastness. It has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied and most dyes are water soluble. It carried out in an aqueous solution. Chemicals required to regulate the dyeing process. A fixation agent or mordant might be required to improve the fastness of the dye on the fibre.


A pigment is a water insoluble colorant and has no affinity to the substrate to w.....

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0;⊥∋∞≈† ;≈ +∞†⊇ +≈ †+∞ ≈∞+†∋≤∞ +† ∋ †∋++;≤ ++ ∋ +;≈⊇;≈⊥ ∋⊥∞≈†. 1† ≠;⊇∞†+ ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ ;≈ ⊥+;≈†;≈⊥, ∋++∞ †++ +†∞≈⊇≈. 7+∞ †∞≠∞+ ≈∞≈†∋;≈∋+;†;†+ ;≈≈∞∞≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇ †+ ⊇+∞≈. 7+∞ ≤+†++ ≈†+∞≈⊥†+ ;≈ †+≠∞+ ≠+∞≈ ∋++∞ ⊥;⊥∋∞≈†≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;† ;≈ ⊥+++ +∋≈⊇†∞.



05)8∞≈≤+;+∞ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ †∞∋†∞+∞≈ +† +∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞.


5∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞ ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ +;⊥+ ≠∞† †∋≈†≈∞≈≈ ⊇∞∞ †+ ≤+=∋†∞≈† ++≈⊇;≈⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †;+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+∞≈, ∞∋≈;†+ ⊇+∞⊇ +≈ †;+∞+≈.

7+∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∞∋≈+. 7+∞ ⊥+;≤∞ +† +∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞ ;≈ ∋+⊇∞+∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†-∞††∞≤†;=∞. 1† +∋≈ ∋ ≠;⊇∞ +∋≈⊥∞ +† ≈+∋⊇∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≤+†+⊥;≤∋††+ ≤+∋⊥∋†;+†∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ +∞+∋=;++. 5∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞ ∋†≈+ +∋≈ ≠;⊇∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈. 4+≈† †++ ∋†† ≤∞††∞†+≈∞ ⊥++⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞†∞≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ +≈ ≠++†, ≈;†∂ ∋≈⊇ +∋++≈.


8+≠∞=∞+, +∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞ +∋≈ †+≠ ∋††;≈;†+ †+ ≤∞††∞†+≈∞, †+∞+∞†++∞ †∋+⊥∞ ∋∋+∞≈†≈ +† ≈∋†† ∋+∞ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †+ †++≤∞ †+∞ ⊇+∞ ∋⊇≈++⊥†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;††∞≈;+≈.

4⊇⊇;†;+≈ +† ∋†∂∋†; ;≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †+ ≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ ⊇+∞≈ †+ +∞∋≤† ≠;†+ †+∞ †;++∞.


06)3+;†∞ ⊇+≠≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞≈ +† †+∞ †≠+ ∋+≈† ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ≤+∞∋;≤∋†≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† +∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ .....


7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †≠+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ≤+∞∋;≤∋†≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† +∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ∞†∞≤†++†+†∞ ∋≈⊇ †;≠∋†;+≈ ∋†∂∋†;.


9†∞≤†++†+†∞ ≤∋≈ ∞≈∞ ≤+∋∋+≈ ≈∋†† ++ 6†∋∞+∞+’≈ ≈∋††.

1† +∞⊇∞≤∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ≤+∋+⊥∞≈ +≈ †+∞ †;++∞, †+ +=∞+≤+∋∞ †+∞ ∞†∞≤†++≈†∋†;≤ +∞⊥∞†≈;=∞ †++≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈∞ †;++∞ ≈∞+†∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+∞ ∋≈;+≈≈. 6;≠∋†;+≈ ∋†∂∋†; ≤∋≈ ∞≈∞ ≈+⊇∋ ∋≈+, 0∋∞≈†;≤ ≈+⊇∋ ++ 3+⊇;∞∋ +;≤∋+++≈∋†∞.


5∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞≈ +∞∋≤† ≠;†+ ≤∞††+≈ †;++∞ +∞⊥∞;+;≈⊥ ∋†∂∋†; ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈ †+ †+∞ ≤∋+++ +∞† †+∞ †;≠∋†;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈.

Alkali is added to excite the dye to link with fibers with covalent bonding to it enhances wet fastness.


Q7)Describe the electrolyte and alkali effects in the reactive dyeing process.


Electrolyte is used to overcome the electrostatic repulsive force betweenez fibre surface and dye ions.

The electrolyte effect is produced in the reactive dyeing process. There is the electrostatic repulsion between cellulose fibre surface and dye ions. When cotton fibre is in an aqueous solution, the fibre surface has negative charge. Reactive dyes, as well as other soluble dyes for cotton, carry negative charges because of slush ate group SO3- on their molecules for solubility.

Therefore, we need to add quantity of electrolyte, sodium chloride or sodium .....

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5∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞≈ +∞∋≤† ≠;†+ ≤∞††+≈ †;+∞+≈ +∞⊥∞;+;≈⊥ ∋†∂∋†; ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈ †+ †+∞ ≤∋+++ +∞† †+∞ †;≠∋†;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈. 7+∞+∞†++∞, ∋†∂∋†; ;≈ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ ∞≠≤;†∞ †+∞ ⊇+∞ †+ †;≈∂ ≠;†+ †+∞ †;++∞ ≠;†+ ≤+=∋†∞≈† ++≈⊇;≈⊥ †+ ;† ∞≈+∋≈≤∞≈ ≠∞† †∋≈†≈∞≈≈.

6++ +∋†≤+≠;≈∞ ∞≠+∋∞≈†;+≈, †+∞ ⊇+∞ +∋†+ ⊥8 +∋≈⊥∞ †++∋ 10.5 †+ 11. 1† ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ 4∋2003, 4∋800 ++ †+∞;+ ≤+∋+;≈∋†;+≈. 7+∞ ∋†∂∋†; ≈∞†∞≤†;+≈ +∞†∋†∞≈ †+ ⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ∋∞†++⊇. 7+∞ †;≠∋†;+≈ +∋†∞ +† ⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ∞=∞≈†≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤+≈†++††∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊇+≈;≈⊥ +∋†∞ +† ∋†∂∋†;.


08)3+;†∞ ⊇+≠≈ †+∞ ⊥8 +∋≈⊥∞ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †++ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ≤+††+≈ ≠;†+ +∞∋≤†;=∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥.


7+∞ ⊥8 ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞≈ †+∞ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≤∞††∞≈∋†∞ ∋≈;+≈ (≤∞††∞†+≈∞-0–) +≈ †+∞ †;++∞, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ++⊇++≠+† ;+≈ (-08) ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇+∞+∋†+ ∋≈⊇ +≈ †+∞ †;++∞.


6∞≈∞+∋††+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ⊥8 ;≈ †+∞ †;≠∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ≤∋≈ ∋≤≤∞†∞+∋†∞ †+∞ +∞∋≤†;+≈ +∋†∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊇+∞ ∋≈⊇ †;++∞.

6++ +∋†≤+≠;≈∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ∋∞†++⊇, †+∞ ⊇+∞+∋†+ ⊥8 ;≈ +∞≤+∋∋∞≈⊇∞⊇ †+ +∞ ≤+≈†++††∞⊇ +∋≈⊥;≈⊥ †++∋ 10.5 †+ 11. 9=∞≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ †+≠ +∞∋≤†;=;†+ ⊇+∞≈, ∋ ⊥8 ∞≠≤∞∞⊇;≈⊥ 11 ;≈ ≈†;†† ≈+† ∋⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞ ≈;≈≤∞ ∋≈ ∞≈⊇∞†+ +;⊥+ ⊥8 ≠;†† ∞≈+∋≈≤∞ ⊇+∞ ++⊇++†+≈;≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊇∞≤∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ∞††;≤;∞≈≤+ ;≈ †∞+∋≈ +† .....



010)7;≈† ∋†† †+∞ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞ +∞;≈⊥ ∋∋≤+;≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥∞≤;†+ †+∞;+ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈.


1)0∋⊇⊇∞+ :

7+∞ †∋++;≤ ;≈ ⊥∋≈≈∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ ∋ †++∞⊥+ ≠;†+ ⊇+∞ ≈+†∞†;+≈ †+ ∋+≈+++ ⊇+∞.

7+∞≈ ;† ;≈ ⊥∋≈≈∞⊇ 2 +∞∋=+ ++††∞+≈ ≠+;≤+ †++≤∞ †+∞ ⊇+∞ ;≈†+ †+∞ ≤†+†+ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥∞∞∞=∞ +∞† †+∞ ∞≠≤∞≈≈ ⊇+∞.


2)Package Dyeing Machine :

It uses to dye yarn. The dye liquor is forced passing through the package yarn cone from inside to outside and outside to inside by regularly changing the dye liquor direction.

Dye liquor goes on circulating throughout yarn packages and tank till all the dye is used up or fully exhausted.


3)Hank Dyeing Machine

The yarns are loosely arranged in Skeins or hanks. Hung the hank yarns over a rung and immersed in a dye bath in a large container.

Mostly used for bulky acrylic, wool yarns, plastic yarn or mercerized yarn.


4)Rope form/Overflow Dyeing Machine/Jet Dyeing Machine/(Jig Dyeing Machine) :

Fabric is transported in machine by bath the lift reel driving force and the liqui.....

8+∞ ∞≠+∋∞≈† ;≈ ∋∋;≈†+ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ ⊇+∞ †;⊥∞++ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ≠;†+ †∋++;≤ ;≈ ≈+==†∞.


5)6∋+∋∞≈† 8+∞;≈⊥ 4∋≤+;≈∞

1† ≤∋≈ +∞ ≠;⊇∞†+ ∞≈∞⊇ †++ †+∞ ⊥+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋††∞+ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ +† ≠++†∞≈ ≈≠∞∋†∞+, ≤†+†+∞≈, ∋≤++†;≤ †;++∞ ≤†+†+;≈⊥, ⊥†+=∞≈, ≈+≤∂≈ ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ +∞∋⊇+ †∋++;≤.

9⊥∞;⊥⊥∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≈†+∋⊥†∞≈≈ ≈⊥∞∞⊇ +∞⊥∞†∋†++, †+∞ ⊥†∋†∞ ≈⊥∞∞⊇ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋⊇{∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ +∞⊥∞;+∞∋∞≈† +† ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋++;≤≈.


011)3+;†∞ ⊇+≠≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞≈ +† ∋=∋;†∋+†∞ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ∋∋≤+;≈∞≈ †++ ⊇+∞;≈⊥ ∞∋≤+ +† †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ †∞≠†;†∞ ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈:


∋)∞†∋≈†;≤ +∋+≈

8∋≈∂ 8+∞;≈⊥ 4∋≤+;≈∞


+)⊥∞+∞ ≤+††+≈ ∂≈;††∞⊇ †∋++;≤

0∋⊇⊇∞+

0∋≤∂∋⊥∞ 8+∞;≈⊥ 4∋≤+;≈∞


≤)⊥∞+∞ ⊥+†+∞≈†∞+ ≠+=∞≈ †∋++;≤

8∋≈∂ 8+∞;≈⊥ 4∋≤+;≈∞

1∞† 8+∞;≈⊥ 4∋≤+;≈∞


⊇)≤+††+≈/⊥+†+∞≈†∞+ +†∞≈⊇∞⊇ ≠+=∞≈ †∋++;≤

1;⊥ 8+∞;≈⊥ .....


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