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Is cloning technology beneficial to today’s society?

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Class: ELC1014S13SEM005

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Research Question/Title: Is cloning technology beneficial to today’s society?

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Is cloning technology beneficial to today’s society?


Cloning technology is an engineering technique to create “a cell or individual that is genetically identical to another cell or individual” (Nash, 2002, p. 279). Since the emergence of the first cloned sheep, Dolly in 1996, cloning has been highly debated among scholars, scientists and doctors all over the world (Sevanthinathan, 2007).

The discussion among scientists focuses on whether cloning a human is practicable in order to help childless couples (Pickrell, 2001). Physicians who support cloning technology mainly highlight the applications of it in terms of organ transplantation (Koh & Atala, 2004).

Veterinarians who uphold cloning technology believe that it can rescue endangered species, while people who oppose it question the ethical controversy arising from human cloning and doubt whether it should be allowed (Hare, 2003).This essay focuses on cloning human, therapeutic and animal cloning despite there have been disputes from human cloning.

By briefly discussing the advantages of cloning technology from medical, ecological and economic perspectives, it supports the view that cloning technology is beneficial to today’s society.


From the medical perspective, one of the benefits of cloning technology is that it can help for organ replacement for patients whose organs are impaired. Chan (2002) asserts that only very few patients obtain organs for transplantation and the average waiting time for organs has been too long.

Tong, Koo and Cheng (2010) maintain that there is a decrease in organ donors in Hong Kong. According to Hong Kong Hospital Authority (2014), the number of organs donated only satisfies 19% of patients who are waiting for transplantation. This shows that donor organs which are available for transplantation are severely insufficient and it is urgent to develop ways .....[read full text]

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0†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ⊥++=;⊇∞≈ ∋≈ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ †++ ⊥∋†;∞≈†≈ †+ +∋=∞ ++⊥∋≈ +∞⊥†∋≤∞∋∞≈†. 3;†+ †+∞ +∞†⊥ +† ∋≈;∋∋† ≤†+≈;≈⊥, ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≤∋≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ ∋++∞ ∋≈;∋∋†≈’ ++⊥∋≈≈ †++ ≠∞≈+†+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∋†;+≈ (8∋+∞, 2003), ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ ∋≈ “†+∞ †+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∋†;+≈ +† †;=;≈⊥ ++⊥∋≈≈, †;≈≈∞∞≈, ++ ≤∞††≈ †++∋ +≈∞ ≈⊥∞≤;∞≈ †+ ∋≈+†+∞+”.

3+∋∞ ⊥∋†;∞≈†≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∞⊇ ≤+;∋⊥∋≈=∞∞≈ ∂;⊇≈∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+=;=∞⊇ †++ ≈;≈∞ ∋+≈†+≈ (3+≈∞=∋, 6+†∂≈ ∋≈⊇ 0+∋⊥∋∋≈, 2001, ⊥. 1). 9∋;≈∞+ (2002) ⊇;≈≤+=∞+≈ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ⊥;⊥≈ +∞†⊥ †+ ≈∞+∋+∞≈† ++⊥∋≈ +∞{∞≤†;+≈ ≠+;≤+ ⊥+∞∋††+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞≈ †+∞ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈ +∋†∞ +† ≠∞≈+†+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∋†;+≈ †++∋ ⊥;⊥≈ †+ +∞∋∋≈≈.

4⊥∋+† †++∋ ∋≈;∋∋† ≤†+≈;≈⊥, †+∞+∋⊥∞∞†;≤ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ≤∋≈ ⊇∞⊥†;≤∋†∞ +∞∋∋≈ ++⊥∋≈≈ †++ †+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∋†;+≈. 9++ ∋≈⊇ 4†∋†∋ (2004) ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞††+ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ≈+∋∞ ++⊥∋≈≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≤∋+⊇;∋≤ ∋∞≈≤†∞ ∋≈⊇ ∂;⊇≈∞+≈ †++∋ †+∞+∋⊥∞∞†;≤ ≤†+≈;≈⊥. 7+∞ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ++⊥∋≈≈ ≠∞+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ ;∋∋∞≈∞-≤+∋⊥∋†;+†∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤∋††+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ∋≈ †+∋† +† ++⊥∋≈ +∞≤∞;=∞+≈ †+∋† +;⊥+∞+ ≤+∋≈≤∞ +† ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞† ++⊥∋≈ †+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∋†;+≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ++†∋;≈∞⊇.

7+∞+∞ ≠;†† +∞ +;≈;≈⊥ +∞⊥†;≤∋†∞⊇ ++⊥∋≈≈ †+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∞⊇ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞††+ ≠;†+ †+∞ ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞∋∞≈† +† †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+. 7+∞+∞†++∞, ∞≈;≈⊥ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †+ +∞⊥†;≤∋†∞ ++⊥∋≈≈ ≤∋≈ ≈+++†∞≈ †+∞ ≠∋;†;≈⊥ †;∋∞ †++&≈+≈⊥;++⊥∋≈ +∞⊥†∋≤∞∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ +∞⊇∞≤∞ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ⊇∞∋†+≈ ⊇∞∞ †+ ;≈≈∞††;≤;∞≈.....


4≈+†+∞+ ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞ +† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †++∋ †+∞ ∋∞⊇;≤∋† ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ ;≈ ∋≈≈;≈†∋≈≤∞ †++ ≤+;†⊇†∞≈≈ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ †+ +∋=∞ +∋+;∞≈.

3+∋∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ ≤∋≈≈+† +∋=∞ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞;+ ≈†∞+;†;†+. 0†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ ∋ ≠∋+ †+ ⊇∞†∞∋† †+∞;+ ;≈†∞+†;†;†+ ++ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ +∞∋∋≈, ≈⊥∞+∋≈ ++ ∞⊥⊥≈. 3+∋∞ ≈≤;∞≈†;≈†≈ ∋+∞ ⊥†∋≈≈;≈⊥ †+ ≤†+≈∞ †+∞ †;+≈† +∞∋∋≈ †+ +∞†⊥ ≤+;†⊇†∞≈≈ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈. 7+∞+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ∋≈ †+∞ †∋≈† †++≈†;∞+ †++ ;≈†∞+†;†∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ †+ +∋=∞ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋++∞≈⊇ 600 ≈†∞+;†∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ ≠∋;†;≈⊥ †++ ⊥+≈≈∞≈≈;≈⊥ †+∞;+ +≠≈ ≈+≈≈ ++ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+≈.

7+∞+ ≠+∞†⊇ +≈†+ †++ +∞∋∋≈ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †++ +∋++∞≈ +∞≈+∋≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;=∞≈ †+ ∞†;∋;≈∋†∞ †+∞ ⊇+∞+† †+∋† ∋∋≈+ ≤†+≈∞⊇ +∞∋∋≈≈ ≠;†† +∞ †++∋∞⊇ (0;≤∂+∞††, 2001). 1≈ ≈⊥;†∞ +† †∋+⊥∞ ∞†+;≤∋† ≤+≈†++=∞+≈+ ∋++∞† +∞∋∋≈ ≤†+≈;≈⊥, ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≤∋≈ ≈†;†† +∞†⊥ ≤+;†⊇†∞≈≈ ∋∞≈ ++ ≠+∋∞≈ ++ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ≈⊥∞+∋≈ ++ ∞⊥⊥≈. 1≈†∞+†;†∞ ∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠+∋∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∋=∞ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ≈⊥∞+∋≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∞⊥⊥≈ †++ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†;+≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞†+. 0+∞≈††;≤+∞+ (2001) ∋††;+∋≈ †+∋† ≈†∞+;†∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∋=∞ ;⊇∞≈†;≤∋† +∞⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ +⊥⊥++†∞≈;†;∞≈ †+ †∞+†;†∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +††≈⊥+;≈⊥ ≠++ +≠≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ⊥∞≈∞≈.

8∞ ∋†≈+ +∞†;∞=∞≈ †+∋† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ≈⊥∞+∋≈ ++ ∞⊥⊥≈ ∋∋+ ∞=∞≈†∞∋††+ +∞ +∞≤+⊥≈;=∞⊇ ∋≈ =∋†;⊇ ∋≈ ;† ∋≈≈;≈†≈ +∋++∞≈ ∋∋†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋∋†∞≈ †+ ⊥;=∞ +;+†+ ≠;†+ ≈+ ≈⊥∞+∋ ++ ∞⊥⊥ ⊇+≈++≈. 8∞≈≤∞, ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≤∋≈ ⊥;=∞ ++⊥∞ †+ ;≈†∞+†;†∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ †+ +∋=∞ +∋+;∞≈.


6++∋ †+∞ ∞≤+†+⊥;≤∋† ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞, ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≤∋≈ +∞≈≤∞∞ ∞≈⊇∋≈⊥∞+∞⊇ ≈⊥∞≤;∞≈.

4≈ ≈+∋∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ⊇;≈+∞⊥∋+⊇ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+∞ ≈+† ∋≠∋+∞ +† †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;+≈ +† ;†, †+∞+ ≤∋≈∞∋††+ ∞†;†;=∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †+ ++†;†∞+∋†∞ +†+∞+ ≈⊥∞≤;∞≈. 1† †∞∋⊇≈ †+ ∋∋≈+ ∋≈;∋∋†≈, †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, ≠++†+ ∋∋∋∋+†+, ≠+;†∞-≈†+;⊥∞⊇ ++≈⊥+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋∞+ †+∋† ∋+∞ ∞≈⊇∋≈⊥∞+∞⊇ ++ ∞=∞≈ ∞≠†;≈≤† (3†∞≠∋+†, 2001).

Stewart considers cloning as the sole way to reanimate vanished species such as bucardo, which became extinct in 1999. She also believes that it is hardly possible for some endangered animals like pandas to breed in captivity. Cloning technology can create new animals at a faster pace. Loi et al. (2001) successfully cloned a wild endangered animal, mouflon and observed that there was no apparent abnormality in it.

This success supports cloning technology can enlarge seriously endangered species in the world. Another example of cloning rare mammals was the cloned gaur, but it only had a short lifetime (Vogel, 2001). Although there is little success in cloning scarce creatures, continuous attempts and advanced cloning technology can genetically duplicate and save animals in .....

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0+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+, †+∞ +;+⊇;=∞+≈;†+ ∋≈⊇ †++⊇ ≤+∋;≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈∞⊇ ∋† ∋ +;⊥+∞+ †∞=∞† ++ ∋∞∋≈≈ +† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+.


1∋⊥++=;≈⊥ †++⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥†+ ;≈ ∋ ⊥++ +† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †++∋ ∞≤+≈+∋;≤ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞. 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 6†++∋† 8∋+=∞≈† 1≈;†;∋†;=∞ (2014), †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋∋+ †∋≤∞ †++⊇ ≈+++†∋⊥∞ ++ 2050. 4 ≈+†∞†;+≈ †++ †+;≈ ⊥+++†∞∋ ;≈ †++⊇ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈;∋∋† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †++ †++⊇ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∞≈†;∋;†∞⊇ †++⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥†+.

5∋≈⊥ ∞† ∋†. (2007) +∞=∞∋†∞⊇ †+∋† ++∞⊥+†+ 1200-1500 ≤+≠≈ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ ++ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∋∞∋† ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋;++ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ ≠∞+∞ +++∞⊥+† ;≈†+ †+∞ †++⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥†+. 4∋≈+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞†+ ∋≈⊇ ∞⊇;+;†;†+ +† ≤†+≈∞⊇ †++⊇ ++ †++⊇ †++∋ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ∋≈;∋∋†≈. 8+∞⊇∞+;≈∞ (2008) ∋+⊥∞∞≈ †+∋† ∋∞∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ †++⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋;†∂ †++∋ ≤†+≈∋† ∋≈;∋∋†≈ ∋+∞ ∋++∞† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ∋≈ +∞∋† ∋≈;∋∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ †++⊇ ≈∋†∞†+ ⊥+++†∞.....

8∞ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†∞⊇ †++⊇≈†∞††≈ †++∋ ≤†+≈∞⊇ ∋≈;∋∋†≈ †;∂∞ ≤+≠≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥;⊥≈ ∋+∞ ≠;†+;≈ †+∞ ≈++∋∋† +∋≈⊥∞, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇ †+ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† †++⊇. 6++⊇ ∋≈⊇ 8+∞⊥ 4⊇∋;≈;≈†+∋†;+≈ ∋≈≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ †+∋† †++⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ †++∋ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈;⊥∞∞≈ ;≈ ∋≈ ≈∋†∞ ∋≈ †++⊇ ++†∋;≈∞⊇ †++∋ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ =∞≈⊇∞⊇ (4;††∞+, 2008). 7+;≈ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ †+∋† ≤†+≈∞⊇ †++⊇ ;≈ ≈∋†∞ †+ ∞∋†.

3;†+ †+∞ ∋;∋ +† ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ †+∞ †++⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥†+ ++ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †++⊇, ≈≤;∞≈†;≈†≈ ≈++∞†⊇ ∋∋≠;∋;=∞ †+∞ ≈∋†∞†+ +† ≤†+≈∞⊇ †++⊇ ++ ∞≈;≈⊥ ;≈≈+=∋†;=∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;∞≈ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∋=∞ ∋++∞ ≤+≈†;⊇∞≈≤∞ †+ +∞+ ++ ≈∞††. 7+∞≈, ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≤∋≈ +∞≈+†=∞ †+∞ †∋≤∂ +† †++⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞ †++⊇≈ ∋++∞ ≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈† ∋≈⊇ †∞≈≈ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞.


3∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ∋+⊥∞∋∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∋†∞∋†;+≈≈ ∋++=∞, ;† ;≈ ≤+≈≤†∞⊇∞⊇ †+∋† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ +∞≈∞†;≤;∋† †+ †+⊇∋+’≈ ≈+≤;∞†+. 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ∞=;⊇∞≈≤∞ †+ ≈++≠ †+∋† ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≤∋≈ +∞†⊥ ⊥∋†;∞≈†≈ ≠++≈∞ ++⊥∋≈≈ ∋+∞ ;∋⊥∋;+∞⊇ †+ +∋=∞ ++⊥∋≈ †+∋≈≈⊥†∋≈†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈≈;≈† ;≈†∞+†;†∞ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ †+ +∋=∞ +††≈⊥+;≈⊥.

1† ≤∋≈ ∋†≈+ ≈∋=∞ +∋+∞ ≈⊥∞≤;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ †+∞ †++⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥†+ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇. 0+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+, ≈≤;∞≈†;≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠⊥∞+†≈ ∋+∞ ∋⊇=;≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥++≤∞∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋††∞∋⊥†≈ +† ≤†+≈;≈⊥. 7+;≈ ≤∋≈ ∋∋∂∞ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋++∞ ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∞†;∋+†∞ ∞≈∞. 4††++∞⊥+ +∞∋≈+≈∋+†∞ ∞=;⊇∞≈≤∞ +† ≤†+≈∞⊇ †++⊇ ;≈ ≈∋†∞ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;∋;†∞⊇ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ ;≈ ∋≤∋⊇∞∋;≤ {+∞+≈∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊥++†≈, †∞+†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞ ≤+∋⊥+∞+∞≈≈;=∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ;≈ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †∞†∞+∞ †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≈⊥∞≤;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †++⊇≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ †++∋ ≤†+≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥∞≤;†+ †+∞∋ ≠+;≤.....

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