What is Cloning? Presentation in English - Englisch Referat Contents 1 Introduction – What does cloning mean? 1 2 Difference between Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning? 2 3 Why do scientists want to clone embryos for research? 3 4 Religious arguments against cloning. 4 5 Benefits of human cloning. 5 6 Stem cell therapy. 6 1 Introduction – What does cloning mean? The First Question should be „What do we mean by human cloning?“ A definition: Human cloning is the production of a genetic copy of another human organism. Cloning involves…
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Assessment Task: 2
Research Question/Title: Is cloning technology beneficial to today’s society?
Referencing Style: APA
Is cloning technology beneficial to today’s society?
Cloning technology is an engineering technique to create “a cell or individual that is genetically identical to another cell or individual” (Nash, 2002, p. 279). Since the emergence of the first cloned sheep, Dolly in 1996, cloning has been highly debated among scholars, scientists and doctors all over the world (Sevanthinathan, 2007).
The discussion among scientists focuses on whether cloning a human is practicable in order to help childless couples (Pickrell, 2001). Physicians who support cloning technology mainly highlight the applications of it in terms of organ transplantation (Koh & Atala, 2004).
Veterinarians who uphold cloning technology believe that it can rescue endangered species, while people who oppose it question the ethical controversy arising from human cloning and doubt whether it should be allowed (Hare, 2003).This essay focuses on cloning human, therapeutic and animal cloning despite there have been disputes from human cloning.
By briefly discussing the advantages of cloning technology from medical, ecological and economic perspectives, it supports the view that cloning technology is beneficial to today’s society.
From the medical perspective, one of the benefits of cloning technology is that it can help for organ replacement for patients whose organs are impaired. Chan (2002) asserts that only very few patients obtain organs for transplantation and the average waiting time for organs has been too long.
Tong, Koo and Cheng (2010) maintain that there is a decrease in organ donors in Hong Kong. According to Hong Kong Hospital Authority (2014), the number of organs donated only satisfies 19% of patients who are waiting for transplantation.This shows that donor organs which are available for transplantationare severely insufficient and it is urgent to develop ways to solve this problem.
Cloning technology provides an alternative for patients to have organ replacement. With the help of animal cloning, cloning technology can produce more animals’ organs for xenotransplantation (Hare, 2003), which is defined as “the transplantation of living organs, tissues, or cells from one species to another”.
It leads to many animals, for example, wooly mammoth, white-striped bongo and gaur that are endangered or even extinct (Stewart, 2001). Stewart considers cloning as the sole way to reanimate vanished species such as bucardo, which became extinct in 1999. She also believes that it is hardly possible for some endangered animals like pandas to breed in captivity.
Cloning technology can create new animals at a faster pace. Loi et al. (2001) successfully cloned a wild endangered animal, mouflon and observed that there was no apparent abnormality in it. This success supports cloning technology can enlarge seriously endangered species in the world.
Another example of cloning rare mammals was the cloned gaur, but it only had a short lifetime (Vogel, 2001). Although there is little success in cloning scarce creatures, continuous attempts and advanced cloning technology can genetically duplicate and save animals in danger of extinction.
Consequently, the biodiversity and food chain can be maintained at a higher level by mea.....
It can also save rare species and increase the food supply in the world. Consequently, scientists and experts are advised to proceed with the investigation and attempts of cloning. This can make cloning technology become more advanced and reliable use. Although reasonable evidence of cloned food is safe has been presented in the limited number of individual studies in academic journals and reports, further and more comprehensive research is needed in the future to determine the number of species and foods produced from cloning and specify them which are harmless to eat.
Due to the considerable disagreements about human cloning, it is necessary to have further discussion in the future to confer the ethical issues caused by human cloning such as whether it is ethically correct.