Alternative Sources of Energy Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. I’d like to tell you something about the topic alternative sources of energy. Definition: First I want to give you a short definition about alternative sources of energy. Alternative energy is energy that is neither based on fossil fuels nor on the splitting of atoms. It is usually a renewable source of energy that could be used should fossil fuels run out. I want now like to turn to the question: Why do we need alternatives. To answer that question, we need to start by discussing fossil fuels-what they are and the advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels. Within this context, the pressing need for alternatives becomes quite clear. Most fossil fuels are formed from the remains of long-dead creatures and plants. Buried over the course of hundreds of millions of years, these carbon-based deposits have been converted by heat and pressure over time into such combustible substances as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil etc. I would now like to say a few words about the advantages of fossil fuels. · A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location. · Fossil fuels are very easy to find. · When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective. · Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task. · Power stations that make use of
= ELC1A01 Science fiction as a reflection on humanity Story planning sheet Aim: This story planning sheet is to help you plan your short story and make sure that you haven’t missed out anything important. You should submit it with your first draft for the Writing Requirement. Highlight the items below that apply to your story: The philosophy in the story is about: Human nature: family, politics, drama; A good life: agreement with nature / pleasurable sensations / live modestly in the limits of your desires / freedom and fate / skepticism Modernism: Descartes rules and maxims / scientific method / social contract / empiricism / sovereignty of the people and their right to pass laws / desire vs. reason The sub-genre is: Hard SF / Soft SF / Robots / Interstellar travel / Time travel / Superpowers / Bodily transformation / Parallel universe / Alien Invasion / Immortality / Apocalyptic / Post-apocalypti­c world / Godlike aliens The plot is: Overcoming the monster / Rags to riches / Quest / Voyage and return / Comedy / Tragedy / Rebirth / Rebellion Against ‘The One’ / The Mystery The society is: theological / mythological / self-sufficient / inter-dependent / agricultural / scientific / inter-stellar / military / industrial / trading / tribal / slave-based / feudal / capitalist / socialist / communist / globalised / colonial / dictatorial / multi-cultural / hyper-diffused (from a single original society) / over-populated
Life on other planets
About 4.6 billions years ago, Earth started to form and about 3.8 billion years ago, life began on Earth as single celled organisms.
Life have alway existed and evolved from its origin to today. If life can form on Earth, then is there life on other planets? As scientists, astronomers and astrobiologists are in the search for life, current discoveries found that many planets could sustain life and that there are also signs of life on other planets, but as of right now, no life has been discovered.
Although there are currently no discovery of extraterrestrial life (life outside of Earth) on other planets, studies show that life may have previously and may currently exists on other planets.
To begin, as of right now the search for life still continues. According to a chemistry article, it states, “To date though, no evidence of life – ancient or otherwise – has been found (Nina, 2018).” To explain, as of right now no life has been found.
The closest galaxy to the Milky Way galaxy is Andromeda, which is 2,538,000 light years away (Scudder, 2013). Since there isn’t any vehicle, machine, or any rocket that can travel at the speed of light, there isn’t anyway, that we can get there (Scudder, 2013). Even if a vehicle would travel at the speed of light, then it would take over 2, 000, 000 years to get there (Scudder, 2013).
That means, as far as we are concerned, traveling to other galaxies and exploring them is out of reach.The farthest object that was ever sent out by humans, is a little outside of our solar system (Rothstein, 2015). Because right now no objects that humans have made have been out of our solar system, this limits to finding life through exploration to only our solar system (Rothstein, 2015). The farthest that any human have gone outside of Earth to the moon during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972 (Rothstein, 2015).
Due to the fact that the farthest we had ever traveled is to the moon, that means we have never been able to explore other planets and this hinders our ability to find life (Rothstein, 2015). Telescopes have been used to observe other planets outside of our solar system, but these telescopes can only detect planets based on the shadows they cast (Seti, 2013).
They can’t take pictures, meaning that there is no way one can even examine the surface of planets to detect life (Seti, 2013). In other words, since we don’t have the technology needed to closely examine planets outside of our solar system, the possibility of finding life out there is significantly reduced (Seti, 2013).
To continue, now knowing that astronauts and scientist are limited to our solar system in the search for life, which planets are habitable? For Mercury, it is uninhabitable because it is either way too hot or cold to sustain life, reaching temperatures of 427 degrees celsius and as low as negative 180 degrees celsius (“Life on Mercury.” 2015).
Additionally, it has no atmosphere that protects it from the harsh sun radiation, which has a detrimental effect on life and can prevent life from existing on its surfaces (“Life on Mercury.” 2015). As for Venus, it contains 99 percent CO2, and because that carbon dioxide absorbs sunlight, the temperatures on Venus reach up to 600 degrees Celsius, making it far too hot to sustain life (UCS.....[read full text]
On August 2016, Proxima b, a rocky planet in another solar system was discovered. It has a little more mass than Earth and can sustain liquid water on its surface (Kettley, 2017). On February 17 of 2017, another solar system with 7 Earth-sized planets were found revolving around a star (Nina, 2018). At least three of these planets were in an area where liquid water of be on their surface without evaporating or freezing (Nina, 2018).
On October of 2017, Astronomers uncovered 20 new and potentially habitable planets (Kettley, 2017). One of these major discoveries (of the potentially habitable planets) include planet KOI-7923.01 (Kettley, 2017). KOI-7923.01 is a little smaller than Earth and take 395 days to orbit (Kettley, 2017). It is a cold tundra and is warm enough to sustain water (Kettley, 2017).
All these planets possible may contain life especially since they are all habitable, but with our current technology, no life have been found on these planets.
Observations from NASA’s Kepler space telescope shows that just about every star in the universe holds planets (Wall, 2015). Out of these planets, many of them are h.....
As more and more matter collides with the nucleus, the temperature of the cloud will continue to rise (Sagan, 2015). After millions of years, the temperature of the center of the cloud will reach about 15 million degrees (Sagan, 2015). At this temperature, the center of the cloud will form a star (Sagan, 2015). If the cloud is still moving at a decently fast pace, the star will separate into a star system or a group of stars (Sagan. 2015).
With the formation of these stars, there are still large dust clouds that are rotating around the star (Sagan, 2015). In denser areas of the cloud, nearby matter is attracted and planets start to form in these denser regions (Sagan, 2015). During the formation of planets, heavier elements sink to the center of the planet, leaving hydrogen and helium as the atmosphere surrounding the planet (Sagan, 2015).
Some planets don’t have atmosphere since the star’s radiation pressure blows away this atmosphere (Sagan, 2015). Other times, planets are able to retain their atmosphere (Sagan, 2015). Since the planets formed consists of mostly hydrogen, it must also contain hydrogen compounds (Sagan, 2015). The most abundant are hydrogen compounds of carbon, nitrogen, and .....