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Lexicology - Exams questions

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LEXICOLOGY EXAM QUESTIONS

1. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics.

Word as an object of lexicology.

2. External and internal structure of a word. Formal and semantic unity of a word.

3. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic levels of studying a word.

Studying words synchronically and diachronically.

4. Etymology as a branch of linguistics. The differentiation of the present-day English vocabulary.

Native words.

5. The earliest group of English borrowings.

6. The Germanic element of the English vocabulary.

Scandinavian borrowings.

7. The Norman French borrowings.

8. The Renaissance Period borrowings.

Borrowings of the 17-20th centuries.

9. International words. Etymological doublets. Assimilation.

10. Classification of morphemes from the semantic point of view.

11. Classification of morphemes from the structural point of view.

12. Word-formation.

The main types of word-formation in English.

13. Affixation. Suffixes. Prefixes.

14. Classification of affixes from the etymological point of view.

Semantics of affixes.

15. Conversion as a type of word-formation. Parts of speech affected by conversion.

16. Composition (compounding).

Structural types of compounds.

17. Shortening. Types of shortening. Stylistic characteristics of shortened words. Back-formation.

18. Semasiology.

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19. 4+≈+≈∞∋+. 0+†+≈∞∋+.

20. 7+⊥∞≈ +† ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ≤+∋⊥+≈∞≈†≈ ≠;†+;≈ ∋ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ +† ∋ ≠++⊇.

21. 5∞∋≈+≈≈ +† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈†≈ +† ≈∞≠ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥≈.

7;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∋∞†∋⊥+++.

22. 8+∋+≈+∋≈. 7+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† †++∋∋† ≤†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ++∋+≈+∋≈.

23. 3+≈+≈+∋≈.

3+≈+≈+∋;≤ ⊇+∋;≈∋≈†. 0†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ≈+≈+≈+∋≈ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 4≤∋⊇∞∋;≤;∋≈ 2.2.2;≈+⊥+∋⊇+=.

24. 4≈†+≈+∋≈. 0†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ∋≈†+≈+∋≈. 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ +† ∋≈†+≈+∋≈ ∋∋+≈⊥ ⊥∋+†≈ +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+.

25. 0++∋≈∞+†+⊥+ ∋≈ ∋ ++∋≈≤+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈.

0++∋≈∞+†+⊥;≤∋† ∞≈;†≈, ;⊇;+∋≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞∞ ≠++⊇-⊥++∞⊥≈.

26. 2.2.2;≈+⊥+∋⊇+=’≈ ≈+≈†∞∋ +† ⊥++∋≈∞+†+⊥;≤∋† ∞≈;†≈ ≤†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈.

27. 7+∞ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∋† ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞ +† ⊥++∋≈∞+†+⊥;≤∋† ∞≈;†≈ ≤†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈.

28. 0++=∞++≈, ≈∋+;≈⊥≈, ∋⊥+++;≈†;≤ †∋∋;†;∋+ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈≈.

3+≈†∞∋≈ †++ ⊥++=∞++≈ ≤†∋≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈.

29. 5∞∋≈+≈≈ †++ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ =+≤∋+∞†∋++. 6∞≈≤†;+≈∋† ≈†+†∞.

30. 3∋≈;≤ =+≤∋+∞†∋++.

4∞∞†+∋† ≠++⊇≈.

31. 6++∋∋† †∋+∞+ +† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ =+≤∋+∞†∋++. 7∞∋+≈∞⊇ ≠++⊇≈.

32. 4+≤+∋;≈∋≈, +;≈†++;≤∋† ≠++⊇≈.

3⊥+∞+∞≈ +† ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈.

33. 0+∞†;≤ ≠++⊇≈. 7∞+∋≈. 4∞+†+⊥;≈∋≈.

34. 1≈†++∋∋† †∋.....

0+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ †∞∋†∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥+∞+∞≈ +† ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈.

35. 0+††+⊥∞;∋†;≈∋≈. 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇, ≈+≈-≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ =+≤∋+∞†∋++.

36. 3†∋≈⊥.

0++†∞≈≈;+≈∋†;≈∋≈.

37. 1∋+⊥+≈;≈∋≈. 2∞†⊥∋+;≈∋≈.

38. 8;∋†∞≤†.

6++∞⊥≈ +† ⊇;∋†∞≤†≈ ;≈ †+∞ 3+;†;≈+ 1≈†∞≈.

39. 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ =+≤∋+∞†∋++, ⊥++≈∞≈≤;∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋∋∋∋+.

40. 0∋≈∋⊇;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+.

4∞≈†+∋†;∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+.

41. 7∞≠;≤+⊥+∋⊥++. 8;≤†;+≈∋++. 7+∞ ∞∋+†;∞≈† ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈.

42. 7+∞ †;+≈† ⊥+;≈†∞⊇ ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈.

43. 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈ +† †+∞ 17-20†+ ≤∞≈†∞+;∞≈.

44. 7+⊥∞≈ +† ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈.

1. 7∞≠;≤+†+⊥+ ∋≈ ∋ ++∋≈≤+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈.

3++⊇ ∋≈ ∋≈ ++{∞≤† +† †∞≠;≤+†+⊥+.

7+∞ †∞+∋ ≤+∋∞≈ †++∋ 6+∞∞∂ = «†∞≠;≤» (≠++⊇) + «†+⊥+≈» (≈†∞⊇+, †∞∋+≈;≈⊥)

7∞≠;≤+†+⊥+ ;≈ ∋ ++∋≈≤+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈ †+∋† ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ ≠++⊇≈ ++ †∞≠;≤∋† ∞≈;†≈ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

The main task is to study and to make systematic description of vocabulary referring to its origin, development and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units and morphemes which make up words.

Vocabulary is the system of words and word groups (словосполучення) the language possess.

Word is the unit of lexical level.

  • is the main unit of human communication.

  • it is a group of sounds.

  • physi.....

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  • †+∞ ++{∞≤† +† †∞≠;≤+†+⊥+

  • †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∞≈;† +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞

  • †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ∞≈;† +† ∋++⊥++†+⊥;≤∋† †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∋∋††∞≈† ∞≈;† +† ≈+≈†∋≤†;≤∋† †∞=∞†.

    3++⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++∞⊥ ≈+∞≈⊇≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ ⊇∞†;≈;†∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥.

    3++⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∞≈;† ∞≈∞⊇ †++ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞≈ +† +∞∋∋≈ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈, +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ ∋ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ≈+∞≈⊇≈, +∋=;≈⊥ ∋ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥, ≈∞+{∞≤† †+ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ †++∋∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ∞≈;†+.

    2. 9≠†∞+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+≈∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ +† ∋ ≠++⊇.

    6++∋∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ∞≈;†+ +† ∋ ≠++⊇.

    3++⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≈;† +† †∞≠;≤∋† †∞=∞†.

    • ;≈ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∞≈;† +† +∞∋∋≈ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈.

    • ;† ;≈ ∋ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ≈+∞≈⊇≈.

    • ⊥++≈;≤∋† ++{∞≤†

    • †+∞ ++{∞≤† +† †∞≠;≤+†+⊥+

    • †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∞≈;† +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞

    • †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ∞≈;† +† ∋++⊥++†+⊥;≤∋† †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∋∋††∞≈† ∞≈;† +† ≈+≈†∋≤†;≤∋† †∞=∞†.

    3++⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++∞⊥ ≈+∞≈⊇≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ ⊇∞†;≈;†∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥.

    3++⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∞≈;† ∞≈∞⊇ †++ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞≈ +† +∞∋∋≈ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈, +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ ∋ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ≈+∞≈⊇≈, +∋=;≈⊥ ∋ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥, ≈∞+{∞≤† †+ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ †++∋∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ∞≈;†+.

    2 †+⊥∞≈ +† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞:

    • ∞≠†∞+≈∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ ;≈ ∋++⊥++†+⊥;≤∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ +† †+.....

  • 1 †+∞ ≠++⊇ ;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈≈ †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ ∋++⊥+∞∋∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+∞⊇: †+∞ ⊥+∞†;≠ –;∋, †+∞ +++† ⊥+∞≈≈, †+∞ ≈+∞≈-†++∋;≈⊥ ≈∞††;≠ –;+≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ≈∞††;≠ +† ⊥†∞+∋†;†+ –≈;

  • ;≈†∞+≈∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ ;≈ †+∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≠++⊇ ++ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞.7+∞ ∋+∞∋ +† †∞≠;≤+†+⊥+ ≈⊥∞≤;∋†;=;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ +† †+∞ ≠++⊇ ;≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤≈.

    4≈+†+∞+ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∋† ∋≈⊥∞≤† +† †+∞ ≠++⊇ ;≈ ;†≈ ∞≈;†+.

    7+∞ ≠++⊇ ;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ †++∋∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ∞≈;†+.

    7+∞ †++∋∋† ∞≈;†+ +† †+∞ ≠++⊇ ∋∋+ +∞ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈∞⊇ ++ ;†≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ †++∋ †+∞ ≠++⊇ ⊥++∞⊥ ≠;†+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈.

    4 ≠++⊇ +∞†+≈⊥≈ †+ +≈∞ ⊥∋+† +† ≈⊥∞∞≤+, †∞††;††≈ +≈∞ ≈+≈†∋≤†;≤ †∞≈≤†;+≈ ∞†∞∋∞≈† +† †+∞ ≠++⊇ ⊥++∞⊥ +∋≈ ;†≈ +≠≈ ∋++⊥++†+⊥;≤∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈+≈†∋≤†;≤ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈. 6++∋∋† ∞≈;†+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† ++∞ ≤∋≈ ⊇;=;⊇∞ ∋ ≠++⊇ ;≈†+ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ ⊥∋+†≈. 4 ≠++⊇ ;≈ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ;†≈ ⊥∋+∋⊇;⊥∋ ∋≈ ∋ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ≠++†∞. 4 +†∋≤∂+;+⊇ (;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ ∞≈;†+, ⊥+≈≈∞≈≈∞≈ ∋ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† †+∋∋;≈⊥: +†∋≤∂+;+⊇/≈.

    7+∞ †;+≈† ≤+≈≈†;†∞∞≈† +†∋≤∂ ;≈ ≈+† ≈∞+{∞≤† †+ ∋≈+ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈)∋≈⊇ ∋ +†∋≤∂ +;+⊇ (∞∋≤+ ≤+≈≈†;†∞∞≈† ≤∋≈ ∋⊥∞;+∞ ⊥+∋∋∋∋†;≤∋† †++∋≈ +† ;†≈ +≠≈: †+∞ +†∋≤∂∞≈† +;+⊇≈ 1’=∞ ∞=∞+ ≈∞∞≈).

    7+∞ ≈∞∋∋≈†;≤ ∞≈;†+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† ≠++⊇ ≈†∋≈⊇≈ †++ +≈∞ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† (поняття), ∋ ≠++⊇ ⊥++∞⊥ ≈†∋≈⊇≈ †++ ∋≈ ∋∋≈+ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ ∋≈ ∋∋≈+ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ;≈ ;†≈ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞.

    1≈ †+∞ ≠++⊇-⊥++∞⊥ ∋ +†∋≤∂ +;+⊇ ∞∋≤+ +† †+∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ ≠++⊇≈ ≤+≈=∞+≈ ∋ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†: +;+⊇-∋ ∂;≈⊇ +† †∞∋=;≈⊥ ≤+∞∋†∞+∞, +†∋≤∂-∋ ≤+†+∞+. 7+∞ ≠++⊇ +†∋≤∂+;+⊇ ≤+≈=∞+≈ +≈†+ +≈∞ ≤.....

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