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Man’s Return to Nature: An Ecocritical Approach to Ibn Tufail’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan


本表可复印可另加附页

一、立论依据

论文的研究意义、国内外研究现状分析、附主要参考文献


  1. Research Significance

Hayy Ibn Yaqzan is an early Arabic novel written by Ibn Tufayl, a Muslim Moorish physician as well as philosopher in early 12th century Andalus.

Hayy Ibn Yaqzan, Alive son of the Awake, best demonstrates the relationship of man with nature. It also depicts man as an essential living element in his quest  in trying to figure out nature to finally make it his comfortable shelter.

The story of Hayy is well-known; a lonely child who was cast ashore an equatorial island inside a box by his own mother in fear of her brother, a cruel king for he opposed her marriage with one of her relatives Yaqzan, the mother in fear for her child of merciless death she decides to send Hayy away to his fate in the vast ocean.

The little Hayy is eventually found by a gazelle who herself had lost her child, her motherhood and longing for her lost child made her ears sensitive to the cries of the little Hayy. She eventually embraces Hayy as her own child, unfortunately the mother gazelle has grown old and has to die--nature's code. Though Hayy was never taught anything by a human so far, he learns to cry his mother gazelle who has apparently left him alone.

Hayy now learns that there are powers far beyond him though he cannot fathom them now at this early stage, but he discovers that there is an organ inside his mother gazelle after which he held an autopsy on the gazelle's body and which has now stopped and which apparently has caused his mother gazelle to be deceased.

From here it becomes apparent that Hayy has something which his mother gazelle had not and which is reason, and it is up to this reason that Hayy was born with but had to develop it by himself that he would eventually culminate to fathom nature.

Stranded on an island all alone unaided as well as not hindered by the outside world, Hayy undertake many discoveries about god, nature and the world in general, the novel appears to have occurred as a mere challenge to the culture and society in whi.....[read full text]


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5∞†∞+≈;≈⊥ †+ ∋+ ∋∋;≈ ⊥+;≈† +† †+≤∞≈ ;≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋∋≈'≈ +∞†∞+≈ †+ ≈∋†∞+∞ †+ †;≈∋††+ +∞ ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ +∋+∋+≈;+∞≈ ∞≤+≈+≈†∞∋. 4≈⊇ †+∞≈, ;≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠∞ †;≈⊇ †+∋† ∋†† +† ≠+∋† 8∋++ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ⊇+;≈⊥ +≈ †+∋† ;≈†∋≈⊇ ≠∋≈ †+ †++ †+ †;≈⊇ †+∋† ∞≈†+∞≈⊇ +∋+∋+≈+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† +∞ ≠∋≈ †;=;≈⊥ ;≈, ∋≈⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ 8∋++ ≈∞≤∂†∞⊇ +;≈ †;+≈† ∋;†∂ †++∋ †+∞ ;≈†∋≈⊇ +≈∞ ≤∋≈ ≈+†;≤∞ †+∋† 8∋++ †++∂ ;† +≈ +;∋≈∞†† †+ ⊥∋++∋≤∂ ≠+∋† †+∞ ;≈†∋≈⊇ ⊥∋=∞ +;∋ ;≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥†∋≤∞.


  1. 4≈∋†+≈;≈ +† 0+∞=;+∞≈ 5∞≈∞∋+≤+∞≈


1+≈ 7∞†∋+† '≈ ≈†+++ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠∋≈ ⊥∞;†∞ ⊇∞+;=∋†;=∞ ++†+ ;≈ ;†≈ †;††∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈††+ †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ≈∋∋∞†+ 4+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ 3∋†∋∋∋≈. 1† ;≈ ⊥∞;†∞ ∂≈+≠≈ †+∋† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠∋≈ ;≈≈⊥;+∞⊇ ++ 1+≈ 3;≈∋'≈ ≈†+++ (4=;≤∞≈≈∋), ≈+, +∋≈;≤∋††+ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† +∞⊥++∋≈∞⊇ †+∞ †∋+†∞ †++;≈⊥ †+ ⊥++=∞ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ ;⊇∞∋≈, ∋∋;≈†+ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;≤∋† ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈. 4≈⊇, †+∞≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ +∞≤∋∋∞ +∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†.


3+∞≈ †∋†∂;≈⊥ +† 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈, ≈∞=∞+∋† +†+∞+ ≠++∂≈ †+∋† ≤∋∋∞ †∋†∞+ +≤≤∞+ +∞+∞. 7∋∂∞ †++ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞ 8∋≈;∞† 8∞†+∞'≈ †∋∋+∞≈ ≈†+++ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞; †++∞⊥+, †;†∞+∋††+ ;† +∋≈ ≈∞=∞+ +∞∞≈ ⊥++=∞⊇ †+∋† 8∞†+∞ +∋⊇ ∞=∞+ +∞∋⊇ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ ≈†+++, +∞† ∋∋≈+ ≤+;†;≤≈ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞ †+∋† ⊥;=∞≈ +;≈ =++∋≤;+∞≈ ≈∋†∞+∞ †+ †;†∞+∋++ ≠++∂≈, 8∞†+∞ ∋∞≈† +∋=∞ ∞≈≤+∞≈†∞+∞⊇ †+∞ ≈†+++ ≈+∋∞≠+∞+∞ +∞†++∞ +∞ ⊇∞≤;⊇∞⊇ †+ ≠+;†∞ +;≈ ∋∋≈†∞+⊥;∞≤∞ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞.


1≈ †∋≤†, 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ ≠++∂ ;≈ ≈+† †+∞ +≈†+ +≈∞ +∞+∞, †+∞ ≈†++;∞≈ +† 3;≈⊇+∋⊇, †+∞ 3∋;†++ †++∋ †+∞ †∋∋+∞≈ 0≈∞ †++∞≈∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ +≈∞ ≈;⊥+†≈ †∋†† ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;†∞+∋++ †+∋⊇;†;+≈.

1≈ ∋ †∋+ ∋++∞ ≈≤∋†∞ +† ∋≈†;⊥∞;†+, ≠∞ †;≈⊇ 0†∋†+'≈ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ †+ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋ +† ≈+†;†∞⊇∞ ∋≈†+≈;≈+;≈⊥†+ ≈;∋;†∋+ †+ †+∞ ≤∋≈∞ +.....


4≈ ≈+∋∞ ∋∋+ ∋+⊥∞∞ †+∋† †++∋  ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥;≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞+∋=;++;≈†≈' ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ †+∞ ⊥+≈≈;+;†;†+ +† ∋ †∞+∋† ≤+;†⊇ ≈∞+=;=;≈⊥ ∋†† ∋†+≈∞ +≈ ∋ ⊇∞≈∞+†∞⊇ ;≈†∋≈⊇ ≈∞∞∋≈ ⊥∞;†∞ †∋+ †++∋ +∞∋≈+≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ;† ;≈ ≤†∋;∋∞⊇ †+∋† ≈∞≤+ †∋+†∞≈ ∋+∞ +≈†+ ∋∞∋≈† †++ †∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈†∞+†∋;≈∋∞≈†.

3∞†, ∞=∞≈ ;† ≠∞ †∋∂∞ ≈∞≤+ ≤†∋;∋≈ ;≈†+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈, ;† +∞∋∋;≈≈ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† †+∞ ∞††∞≤† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ +∋≈ +++∞⊥+† ∞⊥+≈ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ ≠+;†;≈⊥≈, ∋≈⊇ 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∋∞≈†;+≈ +∞+∞ †≠+ ∋∋;≈ ≠++∂≈, †+∋† ;≈ 8∞†+∞'≈ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞ ∋≈⊇ 5∞⊇+∋+⊇ 9;⊥†;≈⊥'≈ 4+≠⊥†; (;≈ 7+∞ 1∞≈⊥†∞ 3++∂, 1894).


3†∋+†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ 1∞∋≈-1∋≤⊥∞∞≈ 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞, †+;≈ †∋∋+∞≈ 6∞≈∞=∋≈ †+;≈∂∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+∞+ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∋∞≈;≤;∋≈. 1≈ +;≈ ≈+∋∞≠+∋† ⊥∋+∋††∞† †∋†∞, É∋;†∞, ++ 0≈ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ (1762), 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞≈:


0≈⊇∞+ ∞≠;≈†;≈⊥ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ∋ ∋∋≈ †∞†† †+ +;∋≈∞†† †++∋ +;+†+ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ∋++∞ +† ∋ ∋+≈≈†∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ +∞≈†. 0+∞{∞⊇;≤∞, ∋∞†+++;†+, ≈∞≤∞≈≈;†+, ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, ∋†† †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ;≈†+ ≠+;≤+ ≠∞ ∋+∞ ⊥†∞≈⊥∞⊇, ≠+∞†⊇ ≈†;††∞ ≈∋†∞+∞ ;≈ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞† ≈+†+;≈⊥ ;≈ +∞+ ⊥†∋≤∞. 3+∞ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ †;∂∞ ∋ ≈∋⊥†;≈⊥ ≤+∋≈≤∞ ≈+≠≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∋;⊇≈† +† †+∞ +;⊥+≠∋+, +∞≈† +;†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+;†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≈++≈ ≤+∞≈+∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊥∋≈≈∞+≈-++. ( 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞, 1762).


论文的研究意=、国内外研究现状分析、附=要参考文献

  1. 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 3;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈≤∞

8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞∋+†+ 4+∋+;≤ ≈+=∞† ≠+;††∞≈ ++ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†, ∋ 4∞≈†;∋ 4+++;≈+ ⊥++≈;≤;∋≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+∞+ ;≈ ∞∋+†+ 12†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ 4≈⊇∋†∞≈.

8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈, 4†;=∞ ≈+≈ +† †+∞ 4≠∋∂∞, +∞≈† ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†∞≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +† ∋∋≈ ≠;†+ ≈∋†∞+∞. 1† ∋†≈+ ⊇∞⊥;≤†≈ ∋∋≈ ∋≈ ∋≈ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† †;=;≈⊥ ∞†∞∋∞≈† ;≈ +;≈ ⊥∞∞≈†  ;≈ †++;≈⊥ †+ †;⊥∞+∞ +∞† ≈∋†∞+∞ †+ †;≈∋††+ ∋∋∂∞ ;† +;≈ ≤+∋†++†∋+†∞ ≈+∞††∞+.

7+∞ ≈†+++ +† 8∋++ ;≈ ≠∞††-∂≈+≠≈; ∋ †+≈∞†+ ≤+;†⊇ ≠++ ≠∋≈ ≤∋≈† ∋≈+++∞ ∋≈ ∞⊥∞∋†++;∋† ;≈†∋≈⊇ ;≈≈;⊇∞ ∋ ++≠ ++ +;≈ +≠≈ ∋+†+∞+ ;≈ †∞∋+ +† +∞+ +++†+∞+, ∋ ≤+∞∞† ∂;≈⊥ †++ +∞ +⊥⊥+≈∞⊇ +∞+ ∋∋++;∋⊥∞ ≠;†+ +≈∞ +† +∞+ +∞†∋†;=∞≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈, †+∞ ∋+†+∞+ ;≈ †∞∋+ †++ +∞+ ≤+;†⊇ +† ∋∞+≤;†∞≈≈ ⊇∞∋†+ ≈+∞ ⊇∞≤;⊇∞≈ †+ ≈∞≈⊇ 8∋++ ∋≠∋+ †+ +;≈ †∋†∞ ;≈ †+∞ =∋≈† +≤∞∋≈. 7+∞ †;†††∞ 8∋++ ;≈ ∞=∞≈†∞∋††+ †+∞≈⊇ ++ ∋ ⊥∋=∞††∞ ≠++ +∞+≈∞†† +∋⊇ †+≈† +∞+ ≤+;†⊇, +∞+ ∋+†+∞++++⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+≈⊥;≈⊥ †++ +∞+ †+≈† ≤+;†⊇ ∋∋⊇∞ +∞+ ∞∋+≈ ≈∞≈≈;†;=∞ †+ †+∞ ≤+;∞≈ +† †+∞ †;†††∞ 8∋++. 3+∞ ∞=∞≈†∞∋††+ ∞∋++∋≤∞≈ 8∋++ ∋≈ +∞+ +≠≈ ≤+;†⊇, ∞≈†++†∞≈∋†∞†+ †+∞ ∋+†+∞+ ⊥∋=∞††∞ +∋≈ ⊥++≠≈ +†⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∋≈ †+ ⊇;∞--≈∋†∞+∞'≈ ≤+⊇∞. 7++∞⊥+ 8∋++ ≠∋≈ ≈∞=∞+ †∋∞⊥+† ∋≈+†+;≈⊥ ++ ∋ +∞∋∋≈ ≈+ †∋+, +∞ †∞∋+≈≈ †+ ≤++ +;≈ ∋+†+∞+ ⊥∋=∞††∞ ≠++ +∋≈ ∋⊥⊥∋+∞≈††+ †∞†† +;∋ ∋†+≈∞. 8∋++ ≈+≠ †∞∋+≈≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊥+≠∞+≈ †∋+ +∞++≈⊇ +;∋ †++∞⊥+ +∞ ≤∋≈≈+† †∋†++∋ †+∞∋ ≈+≠ ∋† †+;≈ ∞∋+†+ ≈†∋⊥∞, +∞† +∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ++⊥∋≈ ;≈≈;⊇∞ +;≈ ∋+†+∞+ ⊥∋=∞††∞ ∋††∞+ ≠+;≤+ +∞ +∞†⊇ ∋≈ ∋∞†+⊥≈+ +≈ †+∞ ⊥∋=∞††∞'≈ ++⊇+ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ +∋≈ ≈+≠ ≈†+⊥⊥∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ∋⊥⊥∋+∞≈††+ +∋≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ +;≈ ∋+†+∞+ ⊥∋=∞††∞ †+ +∞ ⊇∞≤∞∋≈∞⊇.

6++∋ +∞+∞ ;† +∞≤+∋∞≈ ∋⊥⊥∋+∞≈† †+∋† 8∋++ +∋≈ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ≠+;≤+ +;≈ ∋+†+∞+ ⊥∋=∞††∞ +∋⊇ ≈+† ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ +∞∋≈+≈, ∋≈⊇ ;† ;≈ ∞⊥ †+ †+;≈ +∞∋≈+≈ †+∋† 8∋++ ≠∋≈ +++≈ ≠;†+ +∞† +∋⊇ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ ;† ++ +;∋≈∞†† †+∋† +∞ ≠+∞†⊇ ∞=∞≈†∞∋††+ ≤∞†∋;≈∋†∞ †+ †∋†++∋ ≈∋†∞+∞.

3†+∋≈⊇∞⊇ +≈ ∋≈ ;≈†∋≈⊇ ∋†† ∋†+≈∞ ∞≈∋;⊇∞⊇ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ≈+† +;≈⊇∞+∞⊇ ++ †+∞ +∞†≈;⊇∞ ≠++†⊇, 8∋++ ∞≈⊇∞+†∋∂∞ ∋∋≈+ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+;∞≈ ∋++∞† ⊥+⊇, ≈∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†, †+∞ ≈+=∞† ∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ †+ +∋=∞ +≤≤∞++∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ∋∞+∞ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞ †+ †+∞ ≤∞††∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∞†+ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ ;† ≠∋≈ ≠+;††∞≈.



5∞†∞+≈;≈⊥ †+ ∋+ ∋∋;≈ ⊥+;≈† +† †+≤∞≈ ;≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋∋≈'≈ +∞†∞+≈ †+ ≈∋†∞+∞ †+ †;≈∋††+ +∞ ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ +∋+∋+≈;+∞≈ ∞≤+≈+≈†∞∋. 4≈⊇ †+∞≈, ;≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠∞ †;≈⊇ †+∋† ∋†† +† ≠+∋† 8∋++ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ⊇+;≈⊥ +≈ †+∋† ;≈†∋≈⊇ ≠∋≈ †+ †++ †+ †;≈⊇ †+∋† ∞≈†+∞≈⊇ +∋+∋+≈+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† +∞ ≠∋≈ †;=;≈⊥ ;≈, ∋≈⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ 8∋++ ≈∞≤∂†∞⊇ +;≈ †;+≈† ∋;†∂ †++∋ †+∞ ;≈†∋≈⊇ +≈∞ ≤∋≈ ≈+†;≤∞ †+∋† 8∋++ †++∂ ;† +≈ +;∋≈∞†† †+ ⊥∋++∋≤∂ ≠+∋† †+∞ ;≈†∋≈⊇ ⊥∋=∞ +;∋ ;≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥†∋≤∞.



  1. 4≈∋†+≈;≈ +† 0+∞=;+∞≈ 5∞≈∞∋+≤+∞≈


 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† '≈ ≈†+++ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠∋≈ ⊥∞;†∞ ⊇∞+;=∋†;=∞ ++†+ ;≈ ;†≈ †;††∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈††+ †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ≈∋∋∞†+ 4+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ 3∋†∋∋∋≈. 1† ;≈ ⊥∞;†∞ ∂≈+≠≈ †+∋† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠∋≈ ;≈≈⊥;+∞⊇ ++ 1+≈ 3;≈∋'≈ ≈†+++ (4=;≤∞≈≈∋), ≈+, +∋≈;≤∋††+ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† +∞⊥++∋≈∞⊇ †+∞ †∋+†∞ †++;≈⊥ †+ ⊥++=∞ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ ;⊇∞∋≈, ∋∋;≈†+ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;≤∋† ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈. 4≈⊇, †+∞≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ +∞≤∋∋∞ +∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†.


3+∞≈ †∋†∂;≈⊥ +† 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈, ≈∞=∞+∋† +†+∞+ ≠++∂≈ †+∋† ≤∋∋∞ †∋†∞+ +≤≤∞+ +∞+∞. 7∋∂∞ †++ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞ 8∋≈;∞† 8∞†+∞'≈ †∋∋+∞≈ ≈†+++ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞; †++∞⊥+, †;†∞+∋††+ ;† +∋≈ ≈∞=∞+ +∞∞≈ ⊥++=∞⊇ †+∋† 8∞†+∞ +∋⊇ ∞=∞+ +∞∋⊇ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ ≈†+++, +∞† ∋∋≈+ ≤+;†;≤≈ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞ †+∋† ⊥;=∞≈ +;≈ =++∋≤;+∞≈ ≈∋†∞+∞ †+ †;†∞+∋++ ≠++∂≈, 8∞†+∞ ∋∞≈† +∋=∞ ∞≈≤+∞≈†∞+∞⊇ †+∞ ≈†+++ ≈+∋∞≠+∞+∞ +∞†++∞ +∞ ⊇∞≤;⊇∞⊇ †+ ≠+;†∞ +;≈ ∋∋≈†∞+⊥;∞≤∞ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞.


1≈ †∋≤†, 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ ≠++∂ ;≈ ≈+† †+∞ +≈†+ +≈∞ +∞+∞, †+∞ ≈†++;∞≈ +† 3;≈⊇+∋⊇, †+∞ 3∋;†++ †++∋ †+∞ †∋∋+∞≈ 0≈∞ †++∞≈∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ +≈∞ ≈;⊥+†≈ †∋†† ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;†∞+∋++ †+∋⊇;†;+≈.

1≈ ∋ †∋+ ∋++∞ ≈≤∋†∞ +† ∋≈†;⊥∞;†+, ≠∞ †;≈⊇ 0†∋†+'≈ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ †+ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋ +† ≈+†;†∞⊇∞ ∋≈†+≈;≈+;≈⊥†+ ≈;∋;†∋+ †+ †+∞ ≤∋≈∞ +† 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈.


4≈ ≈+∋∞ ∋∋+ ∋+⊥∞∞ †+∋† †++∋  ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥;≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞+∋=;++;≈†≈' ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ †+∞ ⊥+≈≈;+;†;†+ +† ∋ †∞+∋† ≤+;†⊇ ≈∞+=;=;≈⊥ ∋†† ∋†+≈∞ +≈ ∋ ⊇∞≈∞+†∞⊇ ;≈†∋≈⊇ ≈∞∞∋≈ ⊥∞;†∞ †∋+ †++∋ +∞∋≈+≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ;† ;≈ ≤†∋;∋∞⊇ †+∋† ≈∞≤+ †∋+†∞≈ ∋+∞ +≈†+ ∋∞∋≈† †++ †∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈†∞+†∋;≈∋∞≈†. 3∞†, ∞=∞≈ ;† ≠∞ †∋∂∞ ≈∞≤+ ≤†∋;∋≈ ;≈†+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈, ;† +∞∋∋;≈≈ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† †+∞ ∞††∞≤† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ +∋≈ +++∞⊥+† ∞⊥+≈ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ ≠+;†;≈⊥≈, ∋≈⊇ 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∋∞≈†;+≈ +∞+∞ †≠+ ∋∋;≈ ≠++∂≈, †+∋† ;≈ 8∞†+∞'≈ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞ ∋≈⊇ 5∞⊇+∋+⊇ 9;⊥†;≈⊥'≈ 4+≠⊥†; (;≈ 7+∞ 1∞≈⊥†∞ 3++∂, 1894).


3†∋+†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ 1∞∋≈-1∋≤⊥∞∞≈ 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞, †+;≈ †∋∋+∞≈ 6∞≈∞=∋≈ †+;≈∂∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+∞+ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∋∞≈;≤;∋≈. 1≈ +;≈ ≈+∋∞≠+∋† ⊥∋+∋††∞† †∋†∞, É∋;†∞, ++ 0≈ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ (1762), 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞≈:


0≈⊇∞+ ∞≠;≈†;≈⊥ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ∋ ∋∋≈ †∞†† †+ +;∋≈∞†† †++∋ +;+†+ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ∋++∞ +† ∋ ∋+≈≈†∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ +∞≈†. 0+∞{∞⊇;≤∞, ∋∞†+++;†+, ≈∞≤∞≈≈;†+, ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, ∋†† †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ;≈†+ ≠+;≤+ ≠∞ ∋+∞ ⊥†∞≈⊥∞⊇, ≠+∞†⊇ ≈†;††∞ ≈∋†∞+∞ ;≈ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞† ≈+†+;≈⊥ ;≈ +∞+ ⊥†∋≤∞. 3+∞ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ †;∂∞ ∋ ≈∋⊥†;≈⊥ ≤+∋≈≤∞ ≈+≠≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∋;⊇≈† +† †+∞ +;⊥+≠∋+, +∞≈† +;†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+;†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≈++≈ ≤+∞≈+∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊥∋≈≈∞+≈-++. ( 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞, 1762).


3+ +;≈ ⊇∞≤†∋+∋†;+≈ 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞ ∋∋⊇∞ ;† ≤†∞∋+ †+∋† +∞ ;≈ ;≈ †∋=++ +† 8∞†+∞'≈ =∞+≈;+≈ +† †+∞ †∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞. 6++ 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞, 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ †∋†∞ ≈+∋∞≠+∋† †∋≤∂≈ †+⊥;≤, ;≈ +†+∞+ ≠++⊇≈, ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 5+∞≈≈∞∋∞ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †++ ∋ ≤+;†⊇ †+ ⊥++≠ ≈++∋∋† ∋≈⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;=∞ +∞ ≈++∞†⊇ +∋=∞ ∋≈ ∋††∞≈†;=∞ ∋+†+∞+ ≠++≈∞ {++ +∞≈;⊇∞ ≈+∞+;≈+ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+†∞+∞ +;∋ ;≈ †+ †∞∋≤+ +;∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ +∞+∋=;++≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∋;†≈ †+∋† ≠+∞†⊇ ⊥∞∋†;†+ +∞+ ≤+;†⊇ †+ †;=∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈+≤;∞†+.



1≈ +;≈ +∞=;∞≠ ∞≈†;††∞⊇, 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈: 4 0+;†+≈+⊥+;≤∋† 7∋†∞. 1≈+∋∞† 8+∋=;≈ ≈†∋†∞≈:


3∞† ≠+∋† ;≈ ∋+≈† ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ ;≈ +;≈ ⊥∋+∋+†∞ ;≈ +;≈ =;∞≠, ∋ +∞≈†∋†∞∋∞≈†, ;≈ ≤†∞∋+ ⊇+∋∋∋†;≤ †∋≈+;+≈, †+∋† ≠;≈∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞, ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+∞+≈, ∋≈⊇ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ †∞∋⊇∞+≈, ∋∞≈† +∞†+∋;≈ †++∋ †∞††;≈⊥ ≠+∋† †+∞+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈.


4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 1≈+∋∞† 8+∋=;≈ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† ≠∋≈ ∋∞⊇∋≤;+∞≈ ;≈ ++;≈⊥;≈⊥ ∞⊥ ≈∞≤+ ∋ ≤+;†;≤∋† †+⊥;≤, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ ∋ ≈+≤;∞†+ †+∋† ;≈ ∞≈†;∂∞†+ †+ +∞ †+†∞+∋≈† ≠+∞≈ ;† ≤+∋∞≈ †+ +∞†;⊥;+≈. 1≈ +;≈ +∞=;∞≠ 8+∋=;≈ ∋+⊥∞∞≈ ++≠ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† ≠∋≈ ;≈ †∋=++ +† ≈;∋⊥†;†+;≈⊥ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ ∋∋††∞+≈ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ †+ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈∞≈ †+∋†'≈ ≠++ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† ≤++≈∞ †+∞ ≈∞††;≈⊥ †++ +;≈ +∞++ †+ +∞ ∋ ⊇∞≈∞+†∞⊇ ;≈†∋≈⊇, †∋+ †++∋ †+∞ ++⊥+≤+;≈;∞≈ +† ≈+≤;∞†+, ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ †∞∋⊇∞+≈. 7+∋†'≈ ≠++ &⊥∞+†;†+∞ †+∞∞ +∞†;⊥;+≈ [1≈†∋∋]&⊥∞+†; ≠∋≈ ≈∋;⊇ †+ +∞ +≈ ∋≈+†+∞+ ;≈†∋≈⊇; †+∋† ;≈ †∋+ †++∋ ≈+≤;∞†+. 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† †∞+†+∞+ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞≈ ;≈ +;≈ ≈+=∞†, &⊥∞+†; 0+⊥∋≈;=∞⊇ +∞†;⊥;+≈, ∋≈ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†++⊇ ++ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈∞≈, ;≈ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †++ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈∞≈, +∞† ≠++≈⊥ †++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠;†+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† ;≈ ≈+† †+∞∞.&⊥∞+†;


6++∋ +∞+∞, 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞ †+∋† ∋+≈† +† †+∞ +∞=;∞≠≈ +≈ †+∞ ≈†+++ †+∋† 1 +∋=∞ +∞∋⊇ =;∞≠∞⊇ †+∞ ≈†+++ †++∋ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;≤∋† ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞. 7+;≈ ;≈ ≠++ 1 +∋=∞ ≤++≈∞≈ †+ †∋≤∂†∞ †+∞ ≈†+++ †++∋ ∋≈ ∞≤+≤+;†;≤∋† ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞, ∋≈⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ 1 †+∞≈⊇ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ⊥∞;†∞ ≈≤∋+≤∞, 1 †++∂ ;† +≈ ∋+≈∞†† †+ ∋⊇⊇ †+ ;† ∋≈⊇ †++ ∋+ +∞≈† †+ ∞≈+;≤+ ;† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥++† ;†.





                            

  1. 9∞+ 5∞†∞+∞≈≤∞≈:

4+∋++∞≈†∞+, 9∋+†∋, ∋≈⊇ 3∋††∋≤∞. 3∞++≈⊇ 4∋†∞+∞ 3+;†;≈⊥: 9≠⊥∋≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞  3+∞≈⊇∋+;∞≈ +† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋. 2;+⊥;≈;∋: †+∞ 5∞≤†++ ∋≈⊇ 2;≈;†++≈ +† †+∞ 0≈;=∞+≈;†+ +† 2;+⊥;≈;∋, 2001.

0+≈+∋⊇, 7∋≠+∞≈≤∞ 1. 7+∞ 3++†⊇ +† 1+≈ Ṭ∞†∋+†: 1≈†∞+⊇;≈≤;⊥†;≈∋++ 0∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞≈ +≈ Ḥ∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥ẓ2≈. 7+∞ 4∞†+∞+†∋≈⊇≈: 9.1. 3+;††, 7∞;⊇∞≈, 1996.

6†+††∞††+, 0+∞++††, ∋≈⊇ 6++∋∋. 7+∞ 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋ 5∞∋⊇∞+: 7∋≈⊇∋∋+∂≈ ;≈ 7;†∞+∋++ 9≤+†+⊥+. 6∞++⊥;∋: 0≈;=∞+≈;†+ +† 6∞++⊥;∋ 0+∞≈≈, 1996.

7+=∞, 6†∞≈ 4. 0+∋≤†;≤∋† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋: 7;†∞+∋†∞+∞, 3;+†+⊥+, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 9≈=;++≈∋∞≈†. 2;+⊥;≈;∋: †+∞ 5∞≤†++ ∋≈⊇ 2;≈;†++≈ +† †+∞ 0≈;=∞+≈;†+ +† 2;+⊥;≈;∋, 2003.

5+∞≈≈∞∋∞, 1∞∋≈-1∋≤⊥∞∞≈. 9∋;†∞, ++ 0≈ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈. 7+∋≈≈. 3∋++∋+∋ 6+≠†∞+. 4∞≠ 5++∂: 9.0. 8∞††+≈, 1921.



1

=、研究方案

1研究目标、研究内容和拟解决的关键问题

5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0+{∞≤†;=∞≈:

7+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ †+ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ≠;†† ⊥∞;†∞ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ≈+=∞† ≈∞+=∞≈ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;≤∋† ∞≈⊇∞∋=++≈ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ ∋∞+∞†+ ⊇∞∋†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ †+∞ ⊥+;∋++⊇;∋† ≈†+∞⊥⊥†∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†∞+∞. 8+≠∞=∞+, 1 ⊇∞†;+∞+∋†∞†+ ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ †∋≤∂†∞ ≠+∋† ;≈ ≈+† ≈+ ++=;+∞≈ ∋++∞† †+∞ ≈†+++. 1≈ +†+∞+ ≠++⊇≈, 1 ≈;∋⊥†+ ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ †∋≤∂†∞ †+∞ ≈†+++ †++∋ ∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋≈⊥†∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ∋††∞∋⊥† †++∋ ∋∞ †+ ++;≈⊥ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ≈∞≠ †+ †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ∋+∞∋.


5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0+≈†∞≈†

1≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ 1 ≈+∋†† †;+≈† †∋†∂ ∋++∞† †+∞ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† †+∋∋∞≠++∂ +† †+∞ †+∞+++ +† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋, ∋†≠∋+≈ ;≈ †+∞ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† †+∋∋∞≠++∂ 1 ≈+∋†† ∞†∋+++∋†∞ ∋++∞ ≠++ ;≈ ;† ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ++†+ †+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ †+∞ †+∞+++ +† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋ ∋≈⊇ †+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ∞≈;≈⊥ ∋≈ 9≤+≤+;†;≤∋† ≈†∞⊇+, †+;≈ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ 0+∋⊥†∞+ +≈∞. 1≈ 0+∋⊥†∞+ †≠+, ++≠∞=∞+ 1 ≈+∋†† ∋≈∋†+=∞ †+∞ ≈†+++'≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊥∋+†≈ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞=∞≈ ∋++∞ ⊇∞†∋;†∞⊇ ≈†∞⊇+. 3+;†∞ ;≈ 0+∋⊥†∞+ †++∞∞ 1 ≈+∋†† +∞†∞+ †+ ≈+∋∞ +† †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† +∞∋≤†;+≈≈ †+ †+∞ ≈†+++ ∋≈⊇ †+∋† +∋=∞ +≤≤∞++∞⊇ +∞++≈⊇ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋.

6;≈∋††+, 1 ≈+∋†† ≤+≈≤†∞⊇∞ ≠;†+ †∞+†+∞+ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∋†;+≈≈ †+∋† +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋++∞† †+∞ ≈†+++, †+∞≈ 1 ≈+∋†† +††∞+ ≈+∋∞ †∞†∞+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;+≈≈ †+∋† ∋+∞ +∞⊥+† †+ +∞ †∋∂∞≈ ;≈†+ ∋≤≤+∞≈† †++ †∞†∞+∞ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞.


9∞+ ;≈≈∞∞≈ †+ +∞ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†∞⊇:

  1. 7+∞ ;≈†∞††;⊥∞≈≤∞ +† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† ;≈ ∞≈⊇∞+†+;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈∋†;=;†+ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ †+∞;+ +†;≈⊇ +∞†;∞†≈ †+++∞⊥+ ∋ ≠∞††-≤+≈≈†+∞≤†∞⊇ †∋+†∞ †+∋† ≈∞∞∋;≈⊥†+ ≠∋≈ ;≈†∞≈⊇∞⊇ †++ ∞≈†∞+†∋;≈∋∞≈†.
  2. 7+∞ ≤+;†;≤∋† ≈;†∞∋†;+≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+† +∋⊇ ⊥∞† +;∋≈∞†† ;≈, ⊥;=∞≈ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ ≤∞††∞+∋† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈†+;≤† +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ ≈+≤;∞†+ ≠+∞+∞;≈ +∞ †;=∞⊇.
  3. 3∋≈ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ ≈+=∞† ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †++∋ †++≈∞ +† †+∞ ≠∞≈† ≈∋∋∞†+ 8∞†+∞'≈ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞ ∋≈⊇ 5∞⊇+∋+⊇ 9;⊥†;≈⊥'≈ 4+≠⊥†+ ;≈ +;≈ 1∞≈⊥†∞ 3++∂?
  4. 3+∋† ∞††∞≤† ++ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ +∋≈ †+∞ ≈+=∞† +++∞⊥+† ∋++∞†?



2.拟采取的研究方法、技术路线、实验方案及可行性分析

 

1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 0++⊥+≈∞⊇ 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 4∞†++⊇≈

    1≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ 1 ≈+∋†† ∋⊥⊥†+ ∋≈ 9≤+≤+;†;≤∋† ≈†∞⊇+, ≠+∞+∞;≈ 1 ≈+∋†† †∋†∂ ∋++∞† †+∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† ≈∋†∞+∞ ++ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ;≈ †++∋;≈⊥ +∞∋∋≈ +∞+∋=;++ ∋≈⊇ +∞∋≈+≈. 1≈ ∋+ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ 1 ≈+∋†† +∞⊥∞;+∞ ∋+≈∞†† †+ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ ∋ ⊥∋+†;∋††+ +∞†∋†∞⊇ †+∞+++ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ &⊥∞+†;≈∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+†∞+∞.&⊥∞+†; 6;≈∋††+, 1 ≈+∋†† ≤+≈≤†∞⊇∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋ †+∋† ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ +∋=∞ +∞††∞+ +∞∋∋≈, ∋ ≈+≈≤+++≈;=∞⊇ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ ∋∞≈† +∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†; †+∋† ;≈ †+ ≈∋+ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ †++∋ ∋ ⊥++⊇ +∞∋∋≈ †+∞ ≤++⊥∞+∋†;+≈ +† ++†+ ⊥∞≈∞†;≤ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ≈;⊇∞≈ ∋∞≈† ∋∞ ∋† +∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ 1++≈ 3. 3∋†≈+≈ ≈∋;⊇;&⊥∞+†; 6;=∞ ∋∞ ∋ ⊇+=∞≈ +∞∋††++, ≠∞††-†++∋∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ ∋+ +≠≈ ≈⊥∞≤;†;∞⊇ ≠++†⊇ †+ ++;≈⊥ †+∞∋ ∞⊥ ;≈ ∋≈⊇ 1'†† ⊥∞∋+∋≈†∞∞ †+ †∋∂∞ ∋≈+ +≈∞ ∋† +∋≈⊇+∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∋;≈ +;∋ †+ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋≈+ †+⊥∞ +† ≈⊥∞≤;∋†;≈† 1 ∋;⊥+† ≈∞†∞≤†- ⊇+≤†++, †∋≠+∞+, ∋+†;≈†, ∋∞+≤+∋≈†- ≤+;∞† ∋≈⊇, +∞≈, ∞=∞≈ +∞⊥⊥∋+-∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ †+;∞†, +∞⊥∋+⊇†∞≈≈ +† +;≈ †∋†∞≈†≈, ⊥∞≈≤+∋≈†≈, †∞≈⊇∞≈≤;∞≈, ∋+;†;†;∞≈, =+≤∋†;+≈≈, ∋≈⊇ +∋≤∞ +† +;≈ ∋≈≤∞≈†++≈.&⊥∞+†;

                                                                               

2


3.本论文的特色=创新=处

0+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈ ∋≈⊇ 1≈≈+=∋†;=∞ 0+;≈†≈ +† †+∞ 0∋⊥∞+

7+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+, 1 +∞†;∞=∞ ;≈ ∋ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+∞⊇ +≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈≈∞ †+∋† +∋+⊇†+ ∋≈++≈∞ †∋≤∂†∞⊇ ;† †++∋ †+∞ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ 1 ≈+∋†† +∞ ⊇+;≈⊥. 4≈⊇ †+∞≈, †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ †+ +∞ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ †+∋† ≠+∞†⊇ †∞∋⊇ †+ †∞+†+∞+ †∞†∞+∞ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∋†;+≈≈ †+ †+∞ ≈†+++ +† 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋.


4.预期的论文进展和成果

9≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ 0++⊥+∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ 5∞≈∞††≈ +† †+∞ 0∋⊥∞+

7+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ ∋≈ ∋††∞∋⊥† †+ ++;≈⊥ +∞+ 4+∋+;≤ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ 1≈†∋∋;≤ ≠++∂≈ ;≈†+ †;⊥+†, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ †+ †++≈∞ ≠++ ∋+∞ ≈+† ⊥∞;†∞ †∋∋;†;∋+ ≠;†+ ;†, ≈+† †++⊥∞††;≈⊥ †+∞ 6+†⊇∞≈ 4⊥∞ +† 4+∋+;≤ ∋≈⊇ 1≈†∋∋;≤ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ;∋∋∞≈≈∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇'≈ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ +∞+;†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞.

4††∞+ †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞⊇ 1 +∞†;∞=∞ ∋ †+† +† ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ ;⊇∞∋≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†;∞†≈ †+∋† ≠∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+∞ ⊥∞+†;≈∞≈† †+ 4+∋+;≤ ∋≈⊇ 1≈†∋∋;≤ ≤∞††∞+∞ ≠;†† ≤+∋∞ †+ †;⊥+†, ≈+† †++⊥∞††;≈⊥ †+∋† ∋∋≈+ =;∞≠≈ †+∋† ∋+∞ ≈+∋∞≠+∋† ∋;≈⊥∞;⊇∞⊇ ≠;†† †∋∂∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ;≈†+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈.


=、论文大纲

7+∞ 0∞††;≈∞

 

7+∞ †;††∞: 4∋≈’≈ 5∞†∞+≈ †+ 4∋†∞+∞: 4≈ 9≤+≤+;†;≤∋† 4⊥⊥++∋≤+ †+ 1+≈ 7∞†∋;†’≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈


4+≈†+∋≤†


1≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈


  0+∋⊥†∞+ 1: 0≈ ∋ 7+∞++∞†;≤ 6+∋∋∞≠++∂


1.1.&≈+≈⊥; 4≈ 1≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈ †+ 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋

1.2.&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ 3;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈≤∞ +† 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋ ;≈ 0≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥⊇+∋≈


  0+∋⊥†∞+ 11:  7+∞ 3∞=∞≈ 0∋+†≈ +† 8∋++’≈ 7;†∞ +≈ †+∞ 1≈†∋≈⊇


2.1.1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ 6∋=∞††∞ †;≈⊇≈ 8∋++ ∋≈⊇ †∋∂∞≈ ≤∋+∞ +† +;∋

2.1.2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ 8∞∋†+ +† †+∞ 6∋=∞††∞

2.1.3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞++ +† †;+∞

2.1.4.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ;⊇∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≈∞+++∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ++{∞≤†≈

2.1.5.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞++ +† ≈⊥∋≤∞

2.1.6.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞++ †+∋† ≈+∞† ;≈ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞⊇ †++∋ ++⊇+

2.1.7.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8∋++ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+≈ 6+⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≤;⊇∞≈ †+ ≈†∋+ +≈ †+∞ ;≈†∋≈⊇


  0+∋⊥†∞+ 111: 5∞∋≤†;+≈≈ †+ †+∞ 3†+++ 3∞++≈⊇ 9≤+≤+;†;≤;≈∋


3.1.&≈+≈⊥; 6++∋ †+∞ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ +† 1≈†∋∋

3.2.&≈+≈⊥; 6++∋ †+∞ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ +† ≠∞≈†∞+≈ ;⊇∞+†+⊥+

 

0+≈≤†∞≈;+≈: 6∞+†+∞+ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞†∞+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;+≈≈


四、研究基础

1.已参加过的有关研究工=和已取得的研究工=成绩

5∞†∋†∞⊇ ≠++∂ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈

1≈ +∞†∋†∞⊇ ≠++∂≈ †+ †+∋† +† 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ 8∋++ 1+≈ 5∋⊥=∋≈, 1 +∋=∞ +∞∋⊇ ≈∞=∞+∋† +†+∞+ ≠++∂≈ †+∋† ∋+∞ ⊥∞;†∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †+ 1+≈ 7∞†∋+†'≈ ;≈ ∋∋≈+ ⊥+;≈†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈; †+∞ ≈†∋†∞ +† ≈+†;†∞⊇∞, +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ +∋≤∂⊥++∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋≤+ +≈∞ +† †+∞∋ +∋≈ ;†≈ +≠≈ ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∋†;+≈ ;≈ ;†≈ ⊥;=∞≈ ≤+≈†∞≠† +† †;∋∞. 8+≠∞=∞+, 1 ≈+†;≤∞⊇ ∋†† †+∞ ≠++∂≈ †+∋† 1 +∋=∞ +∞∋⊇ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈; 8∞†+∞'≈ 5++;≈≈+≈ 0+∞≈+∞, 5∞⊇+∋+⊇ 9;⊥†;≈⊥'≈ 4+≠⊥†; (†+∞ 1∞≈⊥†∞ 3++∂, 1894), 9⊇⊥∋+ 5;≤∞ 3∞+++∞⊥+≈'≈ 7∋+=∋≈ ≈∞+;∞≈ ≈†∋+†;≈⊥ †++∋ 1912. 7+∞+ ∋†† ≈+∋+∞ ≈;∋;†∋+ ⊥†+†≈, ∋†† +† 8∋++, 4+≠⊥†+ ∋≈⊇ 7∋+=∋≈ ≈⊥∞≈† ∋ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+†∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† †;∋∞ +≈ ∋≈ ;≈†∋≈⊇ ++ ∋ {∞≈⊥†∞ ∋≠∋+ †++∋ ≈+≤;∞†+, ∋≠∋+ †++∋ †+∞ ≈+-≤∋††∞⊇ ≤;=;†;=∋†;+≈.

3+∞≈ ∞≠⊥†++;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈+=∞† 1 ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† +∞†⊥ ∋+≈∞†† †++∋ †∋∂;≈⊥ ∋ †++∂ ∋† ≈+∋∞ †∋∋+∞≈ ≤†∋≈≈;≤∋† ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠++∂≈, ≈+†∋+†+; 8∋≈†∞'≈ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥++, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ 4+;≈†+†∞†;∋≈ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥++. 1 †+∞≈⊇ †+∋† †∋∋+∞≈ ≠+;†∞+≈ ∋≈ 1+≈ 7∞†∋;† ++ 1+≈ 3;≈∋ (4=;≤∞≈≈∋) ≠∞+∞ ⊥+∞∋††+ ∋††∞≤†∞⊇ ++ †++≈∞ ∋≈≤;∞≈† ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;∞≈ ≠;†+ ≈+∋∞ +∞≈∞+=∋†;+≈≈ +† †+∞;+ +≠≈. 


2.已具备的实验条=,尚缺少的实验条=和拟解决的途径


7∋≤∂ +† 9≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†∋† 0+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ 0+≈≈;+†∞ 3+†∞†;+≈≈

6;+≈† +† ∋††, 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈ ∋+ ⊥+∋†;†∞⊇∞ +† +∞;≈⊥ +∞+∞ ∋† †+∞ ⊇∞⊥∋+†∋∞≈† +† 6++∞;⊥≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, 1'∋ ⊥∞;†∞ ⊥+∋†∞†∞† †+ †+∞ ∋∋†∞+;∋†≈ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞ †+ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈.

3∞≤+≈⊇, 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †;∂∞ †+ ≈+∋+∞ ≠;†+ ∋+ †∞††+≠ ⊥∋+†≈∞+≈ +∞+∞ ≈+∋∞ +† †+∞ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ †+∋† 1 +∋=∞ †+∞≈⊇ ∋† †+∞ ∞≈;=∞+≈;†+ +† 7∞††∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ 8∞∋∋≈ ≈≤;∞≈≤∞≈ ;≈ ∋+ ≤+∞≈†++.

7+;+⊇, ∋++∞† †+∞ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+†∞†;+≈≈ 1 ≠+∞†⊇ †;∂∞ †+ +∞∋≤+, ;† ≈;∋⊥†+ †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋++∞ +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈ +† †;†∞+∋++ ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ †++∋ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤∞††∞+∞≈, ≈+† +≈†+ ≠∞≈†∞+≈. 3+ †+;≈, +∞≈∞∋+≤+∞+≈ ≠+∞†⊇ †;≈⊇ ;† ∋++∞ ≤+≈=∞≈;∞≈† †+ ⊥;=∞ ∋++∞ ;≈ †+∞;+ +∞≈∞∋+≤+∞≈ ≈+† +∋=;≈⊥ †+ ⊥+ +∋≤∂ †+ †+∞;+ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ †+ ⊥∞† ≈+∋∞ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈.





5

=、导师或指导小组意见


                                     导师签名:

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