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Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - KFU

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MASS MEDIA IN BRITAIN


Inhalt

BRITISH PRINT MEDIA. 2

1.   Newspapers 3

2.   Quality Press 4

3.   Middle-Market 5

4.   Tabloids 5

5.   Magazines 6

ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN. 7

6.   TV. 7

7.   Soaps: 8

8.   Reality TV: 8

   9.    Radio. 9

                                 


MEDIA FREEDOM IN THE UK

Freedom of expression is protected under:

·         1998 Human Rights Act which enacted into UK law the European Convention on Human Rights

·         2005 Freedom of Information Act, the 1998 Act also introduced privacy as a statutory right.


The British press is unrestricted by censorship or state control. It is considered to be an instrument and criticising government and decision-makers. It has considerable influence in public affairs and therefore is sometimes called the „Fourth Estate“.

The „Press Council“ was set up to safeguard the freedom of the press and to maintain the highest professional standards. Unlike most other European countries the British press receives no subsdies and relatively few tax and postal concessions.


If a newspaper or magazine prints wrong or damaging information about an individual, it may be sued for lible. In such cases the editor, publishers, printer of the print matter, as well as the author, may all be held responsible.


BRITISH PRINT MEDIA

Britain is a nation of avid newspaper readers. More than 16 million people buy a copy of a morning paper and countless Britons spend part of every Sunday with the latest issue of their favourite Sunday paper.


→ 99% of the adult (male and female) population is literate

→ The British press is amongst the largest and oldest in the World.


1.    Newspapers

→ Earliest known newspaper of British origin: „The Oxford Gazette“ (1665)

→ Total sales: 11.25 m for weekly newspapers; 12 m for Sunday titles

Britain's newspaper market is very differentiated. In addition to the national Sunday papers (The Sunday Times, Sunday Telegraph, News of the World, etc.) there are five national quality dailies and seven national popular dailies (=tabloids).


→ 3 formats:

Broadsheet

Its the largest of the various newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically 22 inches or more). The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a single sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material, from ballads to political satire.

For example: The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Telegraph, Financia.....[read full text]

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The Guardian

The daily newspaper which is owned by the Guardian Media Group was founded in the 19th century. Primary it is known for its left of centre political stance.


The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph is not only distributed throughout the United Kingdom but also internationally.

Its political stance is rather conservative in modern times.


3.    Middle-Market

Daily Express

Its a conservative British newspaper.


Controversial themes:

→ “Diana Express”

The Daily Express has a reputation for consistently printing conspiracy theories based on the death of Princess Diana as front-page news.

Even on 7 July 2006, the anniversary of the London bombings (used by most other newspapers to publish commemorations) the front-page was given over to Diana.


→ “Madeleine Express”

In the second half of 2007 the Daily Express gave a large amount of coverage to missing child Madeleine McCann. From 3 August 2007, the Express dedicated at least part of the next 100 front-pages to Madeleine in a run that lasted until 10 November 2007. Of the 100, 82 of these were the main headline (often stylised by “MADELEINE” in red block capitals, plus a picture of the child).


4.    Tabloids

A tabloid is a smaller newspaper format that focuses on local-interest stories and entertainment, often distributed free of charge ( often in a smaller, tabloid-sized newspaper format); or to a newspaper that exaggerate crime stories, gossip columns, the deeply personal live of celebrities and sport stars, and other so-cal.....

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→ Two-third of are “business and professional” titles, the rest are “consumer” magazines

→ 8,800-10,000 titles covering most topics
Famous examples include Private Eye, Hello!, The Spectator, the Radio Times and NME


ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN

→ Wide range: 60 m households (70% of all UK homes) have multichannel TV sets, 40.2 m Internet users


6.   TV

→ Commercial TV begun in the  UK in 1955, with the launch of IPTV

→ 940 television broadcasts stations, 400 different TV channels on offer – audience fragmentation hence a common feature


Major British TV channels:


BBC

The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), which is used to have a complete monopoly of radio and television broadcasting, has always been financed by annual payments. Tough under government control, the BBC has full autonomy in choosing the content of its programmes and in running its own affairs.

Broadcasting dominated by a strong public service broadcaster which is supported by a universal compulsory television license free
BBC operates 14 different television channels (including 8 digital channels and 6 nation-wide channels), an interactive TV set-up and a datacast operation (Ceefax)
In all, attracts about a third of the total TV audience.


ITV

stands for Independent Television. ITV consists of 15 regional television companies. Split into three commercial television national stations – Channel 3 (digital), Channel 4 (analogue), .....

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7.   Soaps:

Home-grown soap operas have long topped the TV ratings, two of the most popular British soaps are:

EastEnders: Depicts the ups and downs of life in east London's Albert Square. It's produced by BBC.

Coronation Street: Depicts northern-English working-class life. It's produced by ITV.


8.   Reality TV:

Programmes which catapult ordinary people into the public eye are enjoying a wave of popularity; popular shows include: Britain's Got Talent (Susan Boyle, Paul Potts),

Big Brother,  X Factor (Leona Lewis), Farmer Wants A Wife


Radio

Broadcasted on AM, FM & digital platform, divided into public sector and commercial radio Public Sector Radio: BBC: operates more than 40 stations that comprise 50% of all radio listening in the UK Channels include: 5 national radio stations; 5 digital-only stations; the BBC World Service; regional stations in Scotland, Wales, Northern and 30 ot.....


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