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Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - KFU

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28.09.2014 Manipulation of the Mass Media Welcome, Ladies and Gentleman, Raise your arms if you think that the mass media informs you about necessary topics correctly and sufficiently. We are all aware of the fact that we are not the ones who decide which information is published in a newspaper or which news will be shown on the TV. We are only consumers from the beginning of the development of the mass media and there is nothing wrong with it. Right? – Wrong! Today we are addicted towards information whether it´s for school or for a job. Consequently, we are addicted to the media. Imagine that there is a person who censors the information we could get to hide bad news or unpalatable truth about him. This is a big problem because your own opinion is affected in a strong way and mostly you don’t even notice this. You want some examples? The best example is North-Korea with Kim Jong Un who forbids it to mention anything about him or his way of running this country. Those that do not follow his rules, risk a very high punishment – in some cases they have to pay for it with their life. Another example is Erdogan who governs Turkey. He closed YouTube so the public would have “no chance” to conceive a different opinion as he wants. Another example is Erdogan who governs Turkey. He closed YouTube so the public would have “no chance” to conceive a different opinion as he wants. You maybe think now “Why should I care about North-Korea

MASS MEDIA IN BRITAIN


Inhalt

BRITISH PRINT MEDIA. 2

1.   Newspapers 3

2.   Quality Press 4

3.   Middle-Market 5

4.   Tabloids 5

5.   Magazines 6

ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN. 7

6.   TV. 7

7.   Soaps: 8

8.   Reality TV: 8

   9.    Radio. 9

                                 


MEDIA FREEDOM IN THE UK

Freedom of expression is protected under:

·         1998 Human Rights Act which enacted into UK law the European Convention on Human Rights

·         2005 Freedom of Information Act, the 1998 Act also introduced privacy as a statutory right.


The British press is unrestricted by censorship or state control. It is considered to be an instrument and criticising government and decision-makers. It has considerable influence in public affairs and therefore is sometimes called the „Fourth Estate“.

The „Press Council“ was set up to safeguard the freedom of the press and to maintain the highest professional standards. Unlike most other European countries the British press receives no subsdies and relatively few tax and postal concessions.


If a newspaper or magazine prints wrong or damaging information about an individual, it may be sued for lible. In such cases the editor, publishers, printer of the print matter, as well as the author, may all be held responsible.


BRITISH PRINT MEDIA

Britain is a nation of avid newspaper readers. More than 16 million people buy a copy of a morning paper and countless Britons spend part of every Sunday with the latest issue of their favourite Sunday paper.


→ 99% of the adult (male and female) population is literate

→ The British press is amongst the largest and oldest in the World.


1.    Newspapers

→ Earliest known newspaper of British origin: „The Oxford Gazette“ (1665)

→ Total sales: 11.25 m for weekly newspapers; 12 m for Sunday titles

Britain's newspaper market is very differentiated. In addition to the national Sunday papers (The Sunday Times, Sunday Telegraph, News of the World, etc.) there are five national quality dailies and seven national popular da.....[read full text]


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The Times

The Times was firstly published in 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of News International.

The newspaper was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 partly in an attempt to appeal to younger readers.


The Guardian

The daily newspaper which is owned by the Guardian Media Group was founded in the 19th century. Primary it is known for its left of centre political stance.


The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph is not only distributed throughout the United Kingdom but also internationally.

Its political stance is rather conservative in modern times.


3.    Middle-Market

Daily Express

Its a conservative British newspaper.


Controversial themes:

→ “Diana Express”

The Daily Express has a reputation for consistently printing conspiracy theories based on the death of Princess Diana as front-page news.

Even on 7 July 2006, the anniversary of the London bombings (used by most other newspapers to publish commemorations) the front-page was given over to Diana.


.....

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Other tabloids are for example Daily Mirror and The People.


There are also regional newspapers like The Scotsman or Eastbourne Herald.


5.    Magazines

→ Large and expanding sector

→ Two-third of are “business and professional” titles, the rest are “consumer” magazines

→ 8,800-10,000 titles covering most topics
Famous examples include Private Eye, Hello!, The Spectator, the Radio Times and NME


ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN

→ Wide range: 60 m households (70% of all UK homes) have multichannel TV sets, 40.2 m Internet users


6.   TV

→ Commercial TV begun in the  UK in 1955, with the launch of IPTV

→ 940 television broadcasts stations, 400 different TV channels on offer – audience fragmentation hence a common feature


Major British TV channels:


BBC

The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), which is used to have a complete monopoly of radio and television broadcasting, has always been financed by annual payments. Tough under government control, the BBC has full autonomy in choosing the content of its programmes and in running its own affairs.

Broadcasting dominated by a strong public service broadcaster which is supported by a universal compulsory television license free
BBC operates 14 different television channels (including 8 digital channels and 6 nation-wide channels), an interactive TV set-up and a datacast operation (Ceefax)
In all, attracts about a third .....

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Its programmes are typical of private TV stations: panel games, family and variety shows, children's features, sitcoms, animated cartoons, westerns and thrillers (often imported Us series), sport and music; in short, for the most part light entertainment.


7.   Soaps:

Home-grown soap operas have long topped the TV ratings, two of the most popular British soaps are:

EastEnders: Depicts the ups and downs of life in east London's Albert Square. It's produced by BBC.

Coronation Street: Depicts northern-English working-class life. It's produced by ITV.


8.   Reality TV:

Programmes which catapult ordinary people into the public eye are enjoying a wave of popularity; popular shows include: Britain's Got Talent (Susan Boyle, Paul Potts),

Big Brother,  X Factor (Leona Lewis), Farmer Wants A Wife


Radio

Broadcasted on AM, FM & digital platform, divided into public sector and commercial radio Public Sector Radio: BBC: operates more than 40 stations that comprise 50% of all radio listening in the UK Channels include: 5 national radio stations; 5 digital-only stations; the BBC World Service; regional stations in Scotland, Wales, Northern and 30 other local stations.


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