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MASS MEDIA IN BRITAIN


Inhalt

BRITISH PRINT MEDIA. 2

1.   Newspapers 3

2.   Quality Press 4

3.   Middle-Market 5

4.   Tabloids 5

5.   Magazines 6

ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN. 7

6.   TV. 7

7.   Soaps: 8

8.   Reality TV: 8

   9.    Radio. 9

                                 


MEDIA FREEDOM IN THE UK

Freedom of expression is protected under:

·         1998 Human Rights Act which enacted into UK law the European Convention on Human Rights

·         2005 Freedom of Information Act, the 1998 Act also introduced privacy as a statutory right.


The British press is unrestricted by censorship or state control. It is considered to be an instrument and criticising government and decision-makers. It has considerable influence in public affairs and therefore is sometimes called the „Fourth Estate“.

The „Press Council“ was set up to safeguard the freedom of the press and to maintain the highest professional standards. Unlike most other European countries the British press receives no subsdies and relatively few tax and postal concessions.


If a newspaper or magazine prints wrong or damaging information about an individual, it may be sued for lible. In such cases the editor, publishers, printer of the print matter, as well as the author, may all be held responsible.


BRITISH PRINT MEDIA

Britain is a nation of avid newspaper readers. More than 16 million people buy a copy of a morning paper and countless Britons spend part of every Sunday with the latest issue of their .....[read full text]

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→ 99% +† †+∞ ∋⊇∞†† (∋∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋∋†∞) ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ;≈ †;†∞+∋†∞

→ 7+∞ 3+;†;≈+ ⊥+∞≈≈ ;≈ ∋∋+≈⊥≈† †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ∋≈⊇ +†⊇∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ 3++†⊇.


1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+≈

→ 9∋+†;∞≈† ∂≈+≠≈ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ +† 3+;†;≈+ ++;⊥;≈: „7+∞ 0≠†++⊇ 6∋=∞††∞“ (1665)

→ 7+†∋† ≈∋†∞≈: 11.25 ∋ †++ ≠∞∞∂†+ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+≈; 12 ∋ †++ 3∞≈⊇∋+ †;††∞≈

3+;†∋;≈'≈ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋∋+∂∞† ;≈ =∞++ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋†∞⊇. 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈ †+ †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† 3∞≈⊇∋+ ⊥∋⊥∞+≈ (7+∞ 3∞≈⊇∋+ 7;∋∞≈, 3∞≈⊇∋+ 7∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+, 4∞≠≈ +† †+∞ 3++†⊇, ∞†≤.) †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †;=∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ⊥∞∋†;†+ ⊇∋;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞=∞≈ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ⊇∋;†;∞≈ (=†∋+†+;⊇≈).


→ 3 †++∋∋†≈:

3++∋⊇≈+∞∞†

1†≈ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† +† †+∞ =∋+;+∞≈ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ †++∋∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ †+≈⊥ =∞+†;≤∋† ⊥∋⊥∞≈ (†+⊥;≤∋††+ 22 ;≈≤+∞≈ ++ ∋++∞). 7+∞ †∞+∋ ⊇∞+;=∞≈ †++∋ †+⊥∞≈ +† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ⊥+;≈†≈ ∞≈∞∋††+ {∞≈† +† ∋ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ≈+∞∞†, ≈+†⊇ +≈ †+∞ ≈†+∞∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†∋;≈;≈⊥ =∋+;+∞≈ †+⊥∞≈ +† ∋∋†∞+;∋†, †++∋ +∋††∋⊇≈ †+ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ≈∋†;+∞.

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞: 7+∞ 8∋;†+ 7∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+, 7+∞ 3∞≈⊇∋+ 7∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+, 6;≈∋≈≤;∋† 7;∋∞.....


3∞+†;≈∞+

∋†≈+ ∂≈+≠≈ ∋≈ “∋;⊇;”, ;≈ ≈†;⊥+††+ †∋††∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋+⊥;≈∋††+ ≠;⊇∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ †∋+†+;⊇ †++∋∋†, ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≈∋+++≠∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≈+++†∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ +++∋⊇≈+∞∞† †++∋∋†.

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞: 7+∞ 6∞∋+⊇;∋≈, 7+∞ 0+≈∞+=∞+


Compact/tabloid format

A compact newspaper is a broadsheet-quality newspaper printed in a tabloid format. The term came into use in its current use when The Independent began producing a smaller format edition for London's commuters, designed to be easier to read when using mass transit.

For example: The Independent, The Times


2.    Quality Press

The quality newspapers, which are serious in content and approach and large in size, appeal chiefly to the educated classes. These papers try to maintain a balance between the freedom of the press and the public's “right to know” on the one hand and the journalistic code of ethics and the individual's right to privacy on the other.


.....

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7+∞ 7;∋∞≈ ≠∋≈ †;+≈††+ ⊥∞+†;≈+∞⊇ ;≈ 1785 ≠+∞≈ ;† ≠∋≈ ∂≈+≠≈ ∋≈ 7+∞ 8∋;†+ 0≈;=∞+≈∋† 5∞⊥;≈†∞+. 7+∞ 7;∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ≈;≈†∞+ ⊥∋⊥∞+ 7+∞ 3∞≈⊇∋+ 7;∋∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊥∞+†;≈+∞⊇ ++ 7;∋∞≈ 4∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+≈ 7;∋;†∞⊇, ∋ ≈∞+≈;⊇;∋++ +† 4∞≠≈ 1≈†∞+≈∋†;+≈∋†.

7+∞ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ ≠∋≈ ⊥+;≈†∞⊇ ;≈ +++∋⊇≈+∞∞† †++∋∋† †++ 219 +∞∋+≈, +∞† ≈≠;†≤+∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋⊥∋≤† ≈;=∞ ;≈ 2004 ⊥∋+††+ ;≈ ∋≈ ∋††∞∋⊥† †+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ ++∞≈⊥∞+ +∞∋⊇∞+≈.


7+∞ 6∞∋+⊇;∋≈

7+∞ ⊇∋;†+ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ +≠≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ 6∞∋+⊇;∋≈ 4∞⊇;∋ 6++∞⊥ ≠∋≈ †+∞≈⊇∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ 19†+ ≤∞≈†∞++. 0+;∋∋++ ;† ;≈ ∂≈+≠≈ †++ ;†≈ †∞†† +† ≤∞≈†+∞ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ≈†∋≈≤∞.


7+∞ 8∋;†+ 7∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+

7+∞ 8∋;†+ 7∞†∞⊥+∋⊥+ ;≈ ≈+† +≈†+ ⊇;≈†+;+∞†∞⊇ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 9;≈⊥⊇+∋ +∞† ∋†≈+ ;≈†∞+≈∋†;+≈∋††+.

1†≈ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ≈†∋≈≤∞ ;≈ +∋†+∞+ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ ;≈ ∋+⊇∞+≈ †;∋∞≈.


3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4;⊇⊇†∞-4∋+∂∞†

8∋;†+ 9≠⊥+∞≈≈

1†≈ ∋ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ 3+;†;≈+ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+.


0+≈†++=∞+≈;∋† †+∞∋∞≈:

→ “8;∋≈∋ 9≠⊥+∞≈≈”

7+∞ 8∋;†+ 9≠⊥+∞≈≈ +∋≈ ∋ +∞⊥∞†∋†;+≈ †++ ≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈††+ ⊥+;≈†;≈⊥ ≤+≈≈⊥;+∋≤+ †+∞++;∞≈ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ⊇∞∋†+ +† 0+;≈≤∞≈≈ 8;∋≈∋ ∋≈ †++≈†-⊥∋⊥∞ ≈∞≠≈.

9=∞≈ +≈ 7 1∞†+ 2006, †+∞ ∋≈≈;=∞+≈∋++ +† †+∞ 7+≈⊇+≈ ++∋+;≈⊥≈ (∞≈∞⊇ ++ ∋+≈† +†+∞+ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+≈ †+ ⊥∞+†;≈+ ≤+∋∋∞∋++∋†;+≈≈) †+∞ †++≈†-⊥∋⊥∞ ≠∋≈ ⊥.....


→ “4∋⊇∞†∞;≈∞ 9≠⊥+∞≈≈”

1≈ †+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ +∋†† +† 2007 †+∞ 8∋;†+ 9≠⊥+∞≈≈ ⊥∋=∞ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† ≤+=∞+∋⊥∞ †+ ∋;≈≈;≈⊥ ≤+;†⊇ 4∋⊇∞†∞;≈∞ 4≤0∋≈≈. 6++∋ 3 4∞⊥∞≈† 2007, †+∞ 9≠⊥+∞≈≈ ⊇∞⊇;≤∋†∞⊇ ∋† †∞∋≈† ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ ≈∞≠† 100 †++≈†-⊥∋⊥∞≈ †+ 4∋⊇∞†∞;≈∞ ;≈ ∋ +∞≈ †+∋† †∋≈†∞⊇ ∞≈†;† 10 4+=∞∋+∞+ 2007. 0† †+∞ 100, 82 +† †+∞≈∞ ≠∞+∞ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ +∞∋⊇†;≈∞ (+††∞≈ ≈†+†;≈∞⊇ ++ “448979149” ;≈ +∞⊇ +†+≤∂ ≤∋⊥;†∋†≈, ⊥†∞≈ ∋ ⊥;≤†∞+∞ +† †+∞ ≤+;†⊇).


4.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7∋+†+;⊇≈

4 †∋+†+;⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≈∋∋††∞+ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ †++∋∋† †+∋† †+≤∞≈∞≈ +≈ †+≤∋†-;≈†∞+∞≈† ≈†++;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈†∞+†∋;≈∋∞≈†, +††∞≈ ⊇;≈†+;+∞†∞⊇ †+∞∞ +† ≤+∋+⊥∞ ( +††∞≈ ;≈ ∋ ≈∋∋††∞+, †∋+†+;⊇-≈;=∞⊇ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ †++∋∋†); ++ †+ ∋ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ †+∋† ∞≠∋⊥⊥∞+∋†∞ ≤+;∋∞ ≈†++;∞≈, ⊥+≈≈;⊥ ≤+†∞∋≈≈, †+∞ ⊇∞∞⊥†+ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† †;=∞ +† ≤∞†∞++;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥++† ≈†∋+≈, ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ≈+-≤∋††∞⊇ “{∞≈∂ †++⊇ ≈∞≠≈”.

7+ +∞∋∋;≈ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†;=∞, †∋+†+;⊇≈ +††∞≈ ∞≈†;≤∞ +∞∋⊇∞+≈ ≠;†+ ≈++≤∂;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≈≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈†++;∞≈, †∞+;⊇ ⊇∞†∋;†≈ +† ≈≤∋≈⊇∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+;∋∞≈, ⊥;≈-∞⊥≈ ∞†≤., ≠+;≤+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈≈ ≠++ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ≈+∋∞†;∋∞≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ †+∞ “⊥∞††∞+ ⊥+∞≈≈” ++ “+∞††+≠ ⊥+∞≈≈”.


7+∞ 3∞≈

7+;≈ ⊇∋;†+ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ +∋≈ †+∞ +;⊥+∞≈† ≤;+≤∞†∋†;+≈ +† ∋≈+ ⊇∋;†+ 9≈⊥†;≈+-†∋≈⊥∞∋⊥.....

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