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Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction

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Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction

QQ20180220-090307@2x.pngTable 1:


QQ20180220-090232@2x.pngTable 2:

all the calculation is shown on the table


Table 3: QQ20180220-090251@2x.png

molar volume = volume gas/n = 0.0048L / 0.00022mol = 21.818l/mol


QQ20180220-162245@2x.pngTable 4:

uncertainty = 0.01 / 0.02 × 100% = 50%

average uncertainty = (50% + 50% + 50%) / 3=50%


Table 5:

QQ20180220-090503@2x.pngaverage molar volume = (21.818 + 21.411 + 21.667) L/mol / 3 =21.6320 L/mol

uncertainties from repeats = maximum – minimum = 21.818 - 21.411 = 0.407

percentage of uncertainties = 0.407 / 21.6320 × 100% = 1.881%

Table 1 shows all the raw data that collecting in the lab. The last column: p×V is calculated for the following calculation. During this experiment, there’s obvious outlier which happens in Table 1 and causes the following calculations all wrong.

Compare to group of 3cm and 5cm Mg, the group of 4cm Mg has wrong data for the volume of H2 measured, which steady in about 10mL (0.01L). But have disproportionate mass and pressure. For group of 5cm Mg, although the errors are not so obvious, the volumes of H2 may have some problems in measuring since the volumes are relative low compare to other groups and finally cause the average value of molar volume of H2 is not close to the theoretical value that about 22.7mol/L.


For Table 2, R is a constant that using in the calculation directly. T is the room temperature in form of Kelvin. p×V uses the previous calculated data. According to the formula pV=nRT, n=.

To make sure the following calculations are as previse as possible, I make the n has 6 significance digit, which one more time than the usual one. For Table 3, the significance digits are all more than common ones. I use 5 significance digit here since the final ones are relative high which means that less significance digit can also shows .....[read full text]


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1≈ 7∋+†∞ 4, †+∞ †+†∋† ⊥∞+≤∞≈†∋⊥∞ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈†+ ;≈ 32.458%, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ +∞†∋†;=∞ +;⊥+ ∋≈⊇ ≈++≠≈ †+∞ ∋∞∋≈∞+∞ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈† ;≈ ≈+† ∋≤≤∞+∋†∞. 8+≠∞=∞+, ≈;≈≤∞ 32.458% ;≈ †+∞ ∋⊇⊇≈ +† ∋†† ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ % ∞++++≈: 28.24%, 4.21% ∋≈⊇ 0.008254%, ∋≈⊇ ;† ≤∋≈ +∞ ≈+†;≤∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ∞++++ ;≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ 28.24%, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈ +† 4⊥ ∋∞∋≈∞+∞⊇.

7+∞ +;⊥+ ;≈∋≤≤∞+∋≤+ +† †+∞ ∋∋≈≈ +† 4⊥ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋††+ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≈∋∋†† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈ +† 4⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈†+, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ;≈ ⊥++∞⊥ +† 1, 2 ∋≈⊇ 3. 0≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ +∋≈⊇, †+∞ +†+∞+ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈†;∞≈, †;∂∞ 4.21% ∋≈⊇ 0.008254% ∋+∞ +∞∋††+ ≈∋∋††, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† +;⊥+ ∋≤≤∞+∋≤+ +† †+∞≈∞ ⊇∋†∋.


1≈ †+∞ 7∋+†∞ 5, †+∞ ⊥∞+≤∞≈†∋⊥∞ ∞++++ †++ †+∞ 6 ∋∋≈;⊥∞†∋†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ 1.881%, 2.716%, 6.394%, 3.515% ∋≈⊇ 0.166%. 7+∞ ∞++++≈ +∋=∞ ≈+∋∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ +∞† ∋†† +† †+∞∋ ∋+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞ †+≠. +†+∞+, ≈+∋∞ ∋+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≠+;†∞ ≈+∋∞ ∋+∞ ⊥∞;†∞ ;≈≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≠;†+ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ≈∞∋+∞+ †;∂∞ 10.49%.

8∞∞ †+ †+∞ +∞††;≈∞+, †+∞ ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ∋+†∋+ =+†∞∋∞ ;≈ +≈†+ 20.452 7/∋+†. 7+∞ +=∞+∋†† ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ∋+†∋+ =+†∞∋∞ ∞≠≤∞⊥† †+∞ +∞††;∞+ ;≈ 20.6437/∋+†, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ≤†+≈∞ †+ †+∞ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† =∋†∞∞ 22.77/∋+†. 7+∞ +∞∋≈+≈ †+∋† †+∞ †;≈∋† +≈∞ ;≈ ≈†;†† †+≠∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† ;≈ †+∋† †+∞ ⊥++∞⊥ +† 5 ≤∋ 4⊥ ∋∋+ ∋†≈+ +∋=∞ ≈+∋∞ ∞++++≈ ;≈ ∋∞∋≈∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ =+†∞∋∞ +† 82, +∞† †+∞ ∞++++ ;≈ ≈+† ≈+ ++=;+∞≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞ †+ †+∞ ⊇∋†.....

1 ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† ∞≈≈∞+∞ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋≈ ;≈ †+;≈ ≈†∋⊥∞.


4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ †++∋∞†∋: 0∞+≤∞≈†∋⊥∞ 9++++ = [(7+∞∞ 2∋†∞∞ - 9≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†∋† 2∋†∞∞) / 7+∞∞ 2∋†∞∞] ≠ 100%, ;≈ †+;≈ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈, ⊥∞+≤∞≈†∋⊥∞ ∞++++ = [(22.7 - 20.643) / 22.7] ≠ 100% ≈ 9.06%, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∞ ∞++++ ;≈ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ≈∋∋††. 1† ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ;≈≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ∞++++ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∞†≤+∋∞ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋††+ ≤+++∞≤†, ∋≈⊇ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ∋≤≤∞+∋†∞.  


In this investigation, the aim is to determine the molar volume of H2. According to Avogadro’s hypothesis that equal volumes of all gases contain equal numbers of molecules under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. So, if I can determine the mass of Mg, I can get the number of moles of Magnesium and the number of moles of H2. The chemical formula is:

Mg + 2HCl MgCl2+ H2


From the calculation, we could know that the experimental value of the molar volume of H2 is 20.643 L/mol, which is relatively smaller compare to the theoretical value 22.7 L/mol. If I delete one suspected group of data again, the data will closer to the theoretical value. The average sum uncertainty in this experiment is only 10.819%, which means that the general outcome is accurate.


In this investigation, the Molar Volume of H2 is measured by a different method than the Task sheet provided. I determine the mass of Mg, the volume and the pressure of H2 and the temperature, which are necessary for the ideal gas law. All the necessary data are .....

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1≈ 7∋+†∞ 3, †+∞ ∋+†∋+ =+†∞∋∞ +† ++⊇++⊥∞≈ ⊥∋≈ ;≈ ++†∋;≈∞⊇ ++ ≤+≈=∞+†;≈⊥ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋† ⊥∋≈ †∋≠ ;≈†+ ≈= . 7+∞ ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ∋+†∋+ =+†∞∋∞ +† 82 ;≈ 20.643 7/∋+† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ ∋;⊥+† +∞ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∞++++≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈†;∞≈ +≤≤∞++∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈† †;∂∞ †+∞ ∞≈≤∋⊥;≈⊥ +† 82 ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞⊇∞+∞.


7+∞ ≈+≈†∞∋∋†;≤ ∞++++ +† †+∞ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈ ;≈ 32.458% ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈†, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ≈∞∞⊇≈ †+ +∞ ;∋⊥++=∞∋∞≈†≈ †++ †+∞ ≈∞††;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈. 3;≈≤∞ †+;≈ ⊥+∞∋† ∞++++ ;≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋††+ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈ +† 4⊥, ≠∞ ≤∋≈ ∞≈∞ +∞∋=;∞+ 4⊥ †+ +∞⊇∞≤∞ †+∞ ∞++++ †;∂∞ 50%. 6++ †+∞ +†+∞+ †≠+, †+∞+ ∋+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞ ≈∋∋†† ∋≈⊇ ∋∋+ ≈+† ∋††∞≤† †+∞ +=∞+∋†† ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†.


0=∞+∋††, †+;≈ †∋+ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞† ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈ ∋++∞† †;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋+†∋+ =+†∞∋∞ +† ⊥∋≈ (≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ †++ 82) ∋† 370. 4≈⊇ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†∋† =∋†∞∞ ≠∞ ⊥+† ;≈ +∞†∋†;=∞ ≤†+≈∞ †+ †+∞ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† =∋†∞∞ +† 22.77/∋+†.


4†† †+∞ ≈†∞⊥≈ +† †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†∞+≈ ∋+∞ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† †+∞ ≠++†∞ ≤†∋≈≈ ≠;†† ≈+† +∋=∞ ∋;≈†∋∂∞≈ ;≈ ≠++≈⊥ +⊥∞+∋†;+≈≈ †+∋† †∞∋⊇ †+ ≠++≈⊥ ⊇∋†∋. 6++ †+;≈ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈, †+∞+∞’+∞ 5 ∋∋≈;⊥∞†∋†;+≈≈ ≠;†+ ∋≈ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ +† 1.0≤∋ ∞=∞++ ∋∋≈;⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ 3 †+;∋†≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ ∋ ∋++∞ ∋≤≤∞+∋†∞ ⊇∋†∋ †∋+†∞ †+∋† +∞†⊥ ∞≈ +∋=.....


1≈ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† †+∞ †∋+, †+∞+∞’≈ +≈∞ ≈†∞⊥ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ‘⊇++⊥ †+∞ 4⊥ ;≈†+ †+∞ ≤+≈;≤∋† ††∋≈∂ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞;≤∂†+ ≤+=∞+ ∞⊥ †+∞ ≠++†∞ ++ †+∞ +∞++∞+ ≈†+⊥⊥∞+’, ++≠∞=∞+, †+;≈ ≈†∞⊥ ∋∋+ ≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ ;∋⊥+∞≤;≈∞ +† †+∞ ⊇∋†∋ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ ≈;≈≤∞ ;† ≠;†† †∋∂∞ ∋ ⊥∞+;+⊇ +† †;∋∞ †+ ≤†+≈∞ †+∞ +∞++∞+ ≈†+⊥⊥∞+. 4≈⊇ †+∞ 4⊥ ≠;†† +∞∋≤† ≠;†+ 80† ≠+∞≈ †+∞+ †+∞≤+ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+.

7+;≈ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ∋∋+ +∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† 82 ∞≈≤∋⊥∞ +∞†++∞ ≠∞ ≤+=∞+ †+∞ +∞++∞+ ≈†+⊥⊥∞+. 6++ †+∞ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ;∋⊥++=∞∋∞≈†≈, ≈∞≠† †;∋∞ ≠+;†∞ ⊇+;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋+, ≠∞ ∋∋+ ⊥∞† †+∞ 4⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈;≤∋† ††∋≈∂ †;+≈††+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈∞ ≈++;≈⊥∞ †+ ∋⊇⊇ 80† ;≈†+ †+∞ ≤+≈†∋;≈∞+. 1≈ †+;≈ ≠∋+, ≠∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞+∞ †+∋† †+∞ 82 ∋∋+ ≈+† ∞≈≤∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋∞≈∞ ∞++++≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇∋†∋ ≤+††∞≤†;≈⊥.


4†≈+, ≠+∞≈ ≠∞ ⊇;⊇ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†, 1 †+∞≈⊇ †+∋† ≠+∞≈ ≠∞ ∋∞∋≈∞+∞⊇ †+∞ =+†∞∋∞ +† 82, ≠∞ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞≈+ †+∞ ⊥;≈†+≈ +† †+∞ ≈++;≈⊥∞ †++ ∋ †;†††∞ +;†, +†+∞+≠;≈∞, †+∞ ≈++;≈⊥∞ ≠;†† ≈+† ⊥+ ∞⊥ ∋≈+∋++∞. 7+;≈ ∋∋+ ≤∋∞≈∞ †≠+ ∂;≈⊇≈ +† ≈;†∞∋†;+≈. 1† †+∞ =+†∞∋∞ +† 4⊥ ;≈ ≈+† ≈+ ∋∞≤+, †;∂∞ †++ ⊥++∞⊥ +† 1 ≤∋ 4⊥.

3+∞≈ ≠∞ ⊥∞≈+ †+∞ ⊥;†+≈, ;† ∋∋+ ⊥+ +∞++≈⊇ †+∞ +∞∋† =+†∞∋∞ +† 82. 1† †+∞ =+†∞∋∞ +† 4⊥ ;≈ ≤†+≈∞ †+ †+∞ +∋≈⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≈++;≈⊥∞, †+;≈ +⊥∞+∋†;+≈ ≠;†† ≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ =+†∞∋∞ ⊥+∞≈ +∞++≈⊇ †+∞ +∋≈⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊇∋†∋ ≠;†† +∞ ≠++≈⊥ †++ †+∞ ≤∋†≤∞†∋†;+≈. 7+ ;∋⊥++=∞ †+;≈ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈, 1 †+;≈∂ †+∞ ∞∋≈;∞≈† ∋∞†++⊇ ;≈ ∞≈;≈⊥ ∋≈+†+∞+ ∞⊥∞;⊥∋∞≈† †+∋† ≤∋≈ ⊇∞†∞≤† †+∞ =+†∞∋∞ +† 82 †+ +∞⊥†∋≤∞ †+∞ ≈++;≈⊥∞.

7+;≈ ≤+∞†⊇ ⊥+∞=∞≈† ≈+∋∞ +† †+∞ ∞++++≈ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†.

8∞+;≈⊥ †+;≈ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†, †+∞ ∂∞+ ∋∞†++⊇ ;≈ ∞≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋∋≈≈, =+†∞∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈≈∞+∞ +† ∋ ∂;≈⊇ +† ⊥∋≈ †+ ⊇∞†∞≤† ;†≈ ∋+†∋+ =+†∞∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++=∞ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋† ⊥∋≈ =+†∞∋∞. 3+ ∞≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈;∋;†∋+ ∋∞†++⊇, ≠∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ⊇+ ≈+∋∞ ∞≠†∞≈≈;+≈. 7;∂∞ ∞≈;≈⊥ 5≈ †+ +∞⊥†∋≤∞ 4⊥. 7+∞ ≤+∞∋;≤∋† †++∋∞†∋ ;≈ 5≈+ 280† 5≈0†2 + 82. 7+;≈ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈† ≤+∞†⊇ ∋†≈+ +∞ ⊇+≈∞ ∋≈ ∋ ∋∞†++⊇ †+ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋≤†;=;†+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 5≈ ∋≈⊇ 4⊥ ++ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈⊥ †+∞ †;∋∞ †+∋† †+∞ +;+++≈ ⊇;≈∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ ;≈ 80†.




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Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction: Table 1 shows all the raw data that collecting in the lab
Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction: But have disproportionate mass and pressure
Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction: p×V uses the previous calculated data
Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction: The errors have some difference between each other but all of them are relative low
Mg+HCl Lab report about rate of reaction: I could not ensure that there are problems in this stage
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