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Modern and Contemporary American Literature

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UNIT 1: A NATION’S COMING OF AGE

PRESENTATION: CLUES OF THE PERIOD


The United States at the turn of the century

Beginning of 20th C > rejected former beliefs and values and searched for new ones.

US had been engaged in a Civil War > initiated significant social and economic changes > nation was still to undergo profound transformation in their public and private affairs.

Important intellectual landscape of 19th C:

  • Darwin’s On the origin of Species and The Descent of Man

  • Marx’s Das Kapital.

  • Freud’s The interpretation of dreams

  • Einstein’s General theory of Relativity.

    His scheme of time, space and matter quickly took ground among intellectuals and artists alike.

  • Frazer’s The golden Bough: A study in Magic and Religion > religious and folkloric systems held by several civilizations.

    Religious beliefs as cultural phenomena

  • Freud and Frazer stressed the irrational.

  • Postulates of Enlightenment interrogated and progressively abandoned (particularly those which perceived world through reason, capable of achieving universal / eternal truths through science and gnosis)

  • Authoritative voices and institutions characterized the pre-Modernist age

    • Rejected the authority of the imperfect establishments

    • Set out to replace lost references.

    • Modernists authors understood the subject as fragmented in the psyche, and deconstructed its deceptive wholeness of being.

    • They challenged notion of life as a line

  • Industrialization and technology transformed life (American railway system, 1st skyscraper, Henry Ford + assembly line, 1st movie theatre .)

    • Mass society under way

    • Life became faster > Automobiles provided Americans mythical power and freedom, instead of entrapping them like the machines represented in late 19th century works.

  • Turn of the century = consolidation of a nation.

    • Intellectual’s affirmation of an American culture.

      • V.

        W. Brook’s book American Coming of Age can be considered a new “American scholar” address to his generation, similar to Ralph Waldo Emerson’s in the previous century.

  • Disappearing frontier in its double role: as economic factor and as myth.

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  • 19†+ 0 &⊥†; ≈∋†;+≈ ;∋∋∞+≈∞⊇ ;≈ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∋†;=∋†;+≈ + ∋∞≤+∋≈;=∋†;+≈ &⊥†; †++∞∋†∞≈∞⊇ ⊥∋≈†++∋† ;∋∋⊥∞ †+∋† †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈ +∋⊇ ∋++∞† †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈.

  • 4+†+ +† †+∞ †++≈†;∞+ ∋+†;≤∞†∋†∞⊇ ;≈ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+-≤†∋≈≈-∞†+≈;≤ †∞+∋≈ &⊥†; ∋∋≈≤∞†;≈∞, ∋;⊇⊇†∞-≤†∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;†∞

    • 0++⊥+∞≈≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈⊥∞∞≈† +† +;⊥+†≈ †++ ≠+∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋;≈++;†+ ⊥++∞⊥≈.

  • 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 8+∞∋∋ ⊥∋+∋††∞† ;≈ †∋≈†∋≈+ +† +⊥∞≈ †∋≈⊇ + +∋+∋+≈;+∞≈ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ +∞∋∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†∞+∞.

  • 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ +† 20†+0 ≠+∞†⊇ ∋;++++ ⊇;≈;≈†∞⊥+∋†;+≈ +† ≈∞≤+ †∋≈†∋≈+ + ∞††++†≈ †+ ≤+⊥∞ ≠;†+ ;†≈ ⊇;≈∋⊥⊥∞∋+∋≈≤∞.

  • 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† ≈∋†;+≈∋† ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈ = ;≈+†∋†;+≈ †++∋ 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠++†⊇ ∋††∋;+≈

    • 0≈†;† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈’≈ ;≈=+†=∞∋∞≈† ;≈ 331 ;≈ 1917.

      • 1≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† +∞;≈ †+∞≈⊇ ≤+∞≈†∞+⊥∋+† ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++≈;≤∋† +∞;≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥†∋≤∞≈.

      • 3∋+ ;≈†∞≈≈;†;∞⊇ ++++++ + †∋≤∂ +† ≤+≈†;⊇∞≈≤∞ ;≈ ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†∋≈∋++∋†;=∞≈.

      • 0∞∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ +∞∋∋≈ ≤∋⊥∋≤;†+ †+ ++⊥∋≈;=∞ / ⊇;+∞≤† †;†∞ †+++∞⊥+ +∞∋≈+≈.

      • 4∋+≠;≈∋ ≤∋∋∞ †+ †+∞ †++≈† ;≈ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 1930≈; 6+∞∞⊇;∋≈ ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥+ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈;=∞†+ +∞≤∋∋∞ +;⊥+†+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ∋≈⊇ 0∋†++†;≤;≈∋ +∞≤∋∋∞ ∋≈ ∋⊥† +⊥†;+≈ †++ +†+∞+≈.

    • 8;≈≈+†∞†;+≈ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋’≈ ≈∞≈≈∞ +† ;†≈∞†† ++≈∞+=∞⊇ ;≈ 5∞∋†;≈† ∋≈⊇ 5∞⊥;+≈∋†;≈† †+∞≈⊇≈ +† 19†+ 0 †;†∞+∋†∞+∞.

    • 4∋†∞+;∋†;≈∋ ⊇∞†;∞⊇ 1∞††∞+≈+≈;∋≈ ;⊇∞∋† (∋⊥+∋+;∋≈, 4∋∞+;≤∋-∋≈-∋-=;+⊥;≈-†∋≈⊇ ∞†+⊥;∋)

    • 7+∞ ∞≤+≈+∋;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ ≠∋≈ ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ +∋⊇;≤∋††+.

    7;†∞+∋++ 4+⊇∞+≈;≈∋(≈) ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋

    • 3∞≈≈∞ +† †+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈†+ + ≈∞∞⊇ †++ ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† +∞†;∞† ≤+≈≤∞+≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ ⊥∞∞≈†≈

      • 8++∋∞⊇ ≈∞∋+≤+ †++ ≈∞≈≈∞ + †+⊥;≤ ;≈ †+∞ †∋≤∞ +† ∋ ≤+∋+†;≤ ⊥∞+≤∞⊥†;+≈ +† ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞.

    • 7+∞ ∋+⊇∞+≈ ∋;≈⊇ ≈+† +++≈ ≠;†+ 20†+ 0 &⊥†; +∞† ≠;†+ ∞≈⊇ +† +∞†;⊥;+≈ ∋≈ ++⊥∋≈;≤ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ +† +∞∋∋≈ ∞≠;≈†∞≈≤∞.

      • 8∞∋∋≈ +∋†;+≈∋†;†+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ;†≈∞†† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋++∞≈⊇, ≤+∋††∞≈⊥;≈⊥ 19†+ 0 ∋++∋†;≈∋ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋†;†+.

      • 7+∋† ≤+;†;≤∋† ∋⊥∞ +† +∞=;≈;+≈ ≠∋≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ 4+⊇∞+≈;≈∋ &⊥†; 1† +∞≈+∋⊥∞⊇ ∋++∋† =∋†∞∞≈ .....

  • 7+∞ +;+†+ +† 4+⊇∞+≈;≈∋ &⊥†; +⊥∞≈;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 7+≈⊇+≈ 0+≈†-;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈;≈∋ 9≠+;+;†;+≈ ;≈ 1910 ++ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† 331 ;≈ 1914.

    • 3⊥;+;† +† 4+⊇∞+≈;≈∋ ∞≈⊇∞+ ≠∋+ ;≈ 9∞++⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ †∋†∞ 19†+ 0.

    • 9∋∞+⊥∞≈≤∞ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ∋+⊇∞+≈;≈∋ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†∞⊇ †+ 4∞≠ 5++∂ ≤∞+;≈† ∋≈⊇ 0+≈†;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈;≈†;≤ ∞≠+;+;†;+≈ +† 1913.

      • 4+†;≈†≈ ;≈†∞+++⊥∋†∞⊇ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇ †++∞⊥+†≈ ∋≈⊇ †++∋≈ ;≈ †+∞;+ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ †;∞†⊇≈

        • 7†++⊇ 3+;⊥+†’≈ ∋+≤+;†∞≤†∞+∋† ⊇∞≈;⊥≈≈

        • 4∋+†∞+’≈ ≤+∋⊥+≈;†;+≈≈

        • 0;≤∋≈≈+’≈ ≤∞+;≈† ≤+∞∋†;+≈≈

        • 4+∋≈†++≈⊥’≈ +++†+∋≈.

      • 1† +;⊥+†;⊥+†∞⊇ +⊥∞≈≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†;≈∞;†+ +† †;†∞.

        • 4+† +∞=+††∞⊇ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† 19†+ 0 ≤+∋∋;†∋∞≈† †+ ∋;∋∞≈;≈, +∞⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ +† +∞∋†;†+ ∋≈ ∋≤≤∞+∋†∞†+ ∋≈ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞.

        • 2;≤†++;∋≈ ⊇;≤++†+∋;∞≈ (⊥++⊇/+∋⊇, ∋∋≈/≠+∋∋≈, ≤;=;†;=∞⊇/≈∋=∋⊥∞) + ⊥+†∋+;=∋†;+≈ / +;∞+∋+≤+;=∋†;+≈ +† ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ ≠∞+∞ +=∞+≤+∋∞ &⊥†; ≈∞∋+≤+ †++ ∞≠⊥∋≈≈;+≈ +† ≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †++ †+∞ +∞∞≈;+≈ +† ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ ≈⊥+∞+∞≈ +† ⊥∞+≤∞⊥†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+†;+≈.

      • 9∋⊥+∋≈;=∞ ∋†;∞≈∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈≤+ +† ∋+⊇∞+≈ †;†∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† †++∋≈ +† †+;≈∂;≈⊥, †;=;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥.

  • Also efforts to mirror psychological processes of the human mind.

  • Literary modernism > authors and literary works operating with:

    • Necessity to investigate new forms and styles to convey the interrogative mood of the era.

      Prose and poetry install some freshness among the signs of decadence.

    • Stress fragmented forms / discontinuity to mirror dissolution of beliefs in institutions, Newtonian science, history.

    • Settings and plots evoke collective or individual past

    • Reevaluation + reinterpretation of myths > sense of order and meaning to an increasingly meaningless existence

    • Characters in isolation / alienation > lack previous American literary characters' energetic drive.

      Unmoti.....

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  • 9∋⊥+∋≈;≈ +≈ †+∞ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† +=∞+ †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+†;≤ ⊇+∋∋;≈≈.

  • 3∞∋+≤+ †++ ;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈;≈∋ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+{∞≤†;=;†+ †∋=++;≈⊥ ∋∞††;⊥†∞ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞≈.

  • 4††∞≈†;+≈ †+ ≈∞≠ ≈+≤;∋† ≤+≈≤∞+≈≈ (⊇∞∋∋≈⊇∞⊇ ++ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ⊇∞∋+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ =∋+;∞†+ + ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ⊥+≠∞+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ +∋≤∞≈, ≈∞≠∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈)

  • 7+∞ ∋+†;≈†≈ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ∋≤† +† ⊥∞+≤∞;=;≈⊥ †+∞ ++{∞≤† ≠;†+ ∋ =;∞≠ †+ +∞=∞∋† ;†≈ ;≈†+;≈≈;≤ =∋†∞∞.

    • 0+∞†++ +† 7.3.

      9†;+† ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ “;∋⊥∞+≈+≈∋†” &⊥†; ∞∋+†;+≈∋† ⊇∞†∋≤+∋∞≈† †++∋ †+∞ ++{∞≤† ;† ⊥+∞≈∞≈†≈

    • 9+≈∞≈† 8∞∋;≈⊥≠∋+’≈ ≈†+†∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ∋≈ ++{∞≤†;=∞

  • 7+∞ “0;†+ ∞⊥+≈ †+∞ +;††” ≈+∋++†;=∞⊇ ∋ ⊥+∞⊇+∋;≈∋≈† ⊥†∋≤∞ +† =;+†∞∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈, ∞≈⊇∞+ 6+⊇’≈ ⊥+∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++=;⊇∞≈≤∞.

    • 8+≠∞=∞+, 7.3.

      9†;+†’≈ “7+∞ ≠∋≈†∞†∋≈⊇” &⊥†; ≈∞≠ ≈⊥∋†;∋† ;∋∋⊥∞ †+∋† ≈∞;†∞⊇ ⊇+∋;≈∋†;≈⊥ †∞∞†;≈⊥ +† +∞;≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈∞∋⊥†;+≈.

      • 1∋∋⊥∞≈ +† ≠∋≈†∞†∋≈⊇≈ +† ⊥++≈;≤∋†, ≈∞≠∞∋†, ++ ∋++∋† ≈∋†∞+∞ =∞++ ≤+∋∋+≈ ;≈ 4+⊇∞+≈;≈† ≠++∂≈.

      • 7+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 4⊇∋∋ ⊥∋;≈†∞††+ †++;≈⊥ †+ ≤+⊥∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ 3∋≈†∞†∋≈⊇

        • 7≠+ ∋∋;≈ †;†∞+∋++ ∋+†+≈ (≈++≠ ++≠ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 4⊇∋∋ ≈∞+=;=∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋≈†∞†∋≈⊇): 3∋++;†† ∋≈⊇ 6∋†≈++.

  • 4+⊇∞+≈;≈† †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ +∞††∞≤†∞⊇ ⊇;≈⊥∞;∞†∞⊇∞ +† †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈: ∋∞≤+∋≈;=∋†;+≈, ∋†;∞≈∋†;+≈, †+≈∞†;≈∞≈≈, ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈†+.

    • 9∋+†+ 20†+ 0 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ≤+≈≤∞+≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† ≈∞+=;=∋† .....

  • 0∞+;+⊇ ≈+† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ +≈∞ ⊇∞†;≈;≈⊥ †∞∋†∞+∞ &⊥†; 2∋+;∞†+ +† ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈

    • 4+⊇∞+≈ ≈⊥;+;† ≈†+∞≈≈∞⊇ ≈∞≤∞≈≈;†+ †+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ + ≤+≈†∞≈†≈ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† +† “†+∞ +∞∋†” &⊥†; ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≈†+†∞≈ +† ⊥∞+≤∞;=;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞≠†+∞∋∞†+ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠ ∋+∋∞≈†.

      • 5+∋∋≈†;≤;≈∋ &⊥†; +∞{∞≤†;+≈ +† +∞∋≈+≈ + ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈∋† ≤∞+†∋;≈†+ ;≈ †∋=++ +† ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†’≈ ≈∞†† ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ ⊥∞+≈;≈†∞⊇ ;≈ 4+⊇∞+≈;≈† ≈∞≈≈;+;†;†+. (3∋††∋≤∞ 3†∞=∞≈≈ &⊥†; +∞∋†;†+ ≤∋∋∞ †+ +∞;≈⊥ ≠+∞≈ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞⊇ ++ ;∋∋⊥;≈∋†;+≈) &⊥†;&⊥†; 1∋∋⊥;≈∋†;+≈ = ⊇∞†;≈;≈⊥ ≤+≈≈†;†∞∞≈† +† 5+∋∋≈†;≤ 4+=∞∋∞≈†.

      • 5∞∋†;≈∋ &⊥†; †++∋ 19†+ 0

      • 8;⊥+ 4+⊇∞+≈;≈∋ &⊥†; 9≠†+∞∋∞ †++∋∋† ;≈≈+=∋†;+≈≈ ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ †∞††∞+≈, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ≈∋++∋†;=∞.

      • 4∋†∞+∋†;≈∋ &⊥†; 9≠†+∞∋∞ 5∞∋†;≈∋&⊥†; ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†∋† ;≈†∞+∞≈†≈ + 0∋†=;≈;≈† ∞≈⊇∞+†∋+∞+ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ≤∞††∞+∞.

        3∞≈≈∞ +† ;∋⊥+;≈+≈∋∞≈† ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋’≈ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈. 0++†+∋+∋† +† +∞∋∋≈ +∞;≈⊥≈ ⊇∞⊥+;=∞⊇ +† †+∞∞ ≠;†† ∋††+≠∞⊇ ∋∞†+++≈ †+ +∞†+∞∋† †++∋ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ ∋++∋† {∞⊇⊥∋∞≈†≈.

  • 4+⊇∞+≈;≈∋ &⊥†; ≈∞≤∞≈≈;†+ †+ ++∞∋∂ ∋≠∋+ ≠;†+ +†⊇ ≈+≤;∋† ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;≈†;≤ =∋†∞∞≈ &⊥†; ≈∞∋+≤+ †++ ≈∞≠ ∋+⊇∞≈ +† ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ †+∋† +∞≈† ∋≤≤+∞≈†∞⊇ †++ ∋+⊇∞+≈;†+ ∋≈⊇ ∋+⊇∞+≈ †;†∞

    • 5∞=;≈;+≈ +† ∋+†+≈ †+∋† +∋⊇ ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†∞⊇ ≤∞††∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+† +† †+∞ 03.

    7957 44475313: 38953008 44895304’3 592077

    4⊥⊥++∋≤+;≈⊥ 4≈⊇∞+≈+≈’≈ “8∋≈⊇≈”

    • 3∞†+≈⊥∞⊇ †+ ∋ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈ +† 4;⊇≠∞≈†∞+≈ ≠+;†∞+≈ ≠++ +∞∋∋;≈∞⊇ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋†;≈† +∞† ⊥++=∞⊇ †+ +∞ +∞+∞†≈

      • 7+∞+ ⊥++†+∋+∞⊇ ≈∋∋††-†+≠≈ †;†∞ + ∞≠∋∋;≈∞⊇ ∞†∞∋∞≈†∋† ≈†+∞⊥⊥†∞≈.

    • 0≈∞ +† †+∞ †;+≈† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ∋∞†+++≈ †+ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋≠∋+∞ +† †+∞ ;∋⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++∂ +† 6+∞∞⊇.

    • 8∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞⊇ 8∞∋;≈⊥≠∋+, 6∋∞†∂≈∞+ ∋≈⊇ 3†∞;≈+∞≤∂.

    • 3;≈∞≈+∞+⊥, 0+;+ &⊥†; ≈∞≠ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≈+++† ≈†+++ †++∋ &⊥†; †+∋≈≈;†;+≈ +† ≈∋++∋†;=∞ .....

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