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Hong Kong Polytechnic University

2017-2018 (Semester 1)

 ELC3121 English for Scientific Communication

Neonicotinoid Reduces Honeybee Health

Which Helps the Growth in Crops


Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Introduction. 3

2. Methods 4

2.1 Group members’ participation. 4

2.2 Methods of the experiments 5

2.3 Methods used to gather data in results section. 5

3. Results 6

3.1 Country-specific response of neonicotinoid. 6

3.2 Chronic exposure reduced health of honeybees 7

3.3 Low risk for Bombus impatiens 9

3.4 Beneficial to wheat and oilseed rape. 10

4. Discussion. 11

5. Conclusion. 12

Reference. 13

1. Introduction

The proper use of neonicotinoid in crops is especially crucial because of the main role and function of this pesticide in seed coating and the control of soil insects, foliar insects, and some detrimental pests that jeopardize the growth of crops.

Nevertheless, the use of neonicotinoid could pose a threat to honey bees, leading to the decline of pollinators as well as crop yield. In recent years, the possibility that the reduction on the lifespan of honeybees by neonicotinoid, might further decreased crop yield was suggested. From then on, substantial research work such as A field study examining the effects of exposure to neonicotinoid seed-treated corn on commercial bumble bee colonies (Christopher & Cynthia, 2014) has been dedicated to investigating the influences of variable concentration of neonicotinoid on crops, yet there is still not common acceptance as to whether neonicotinoid can cause genuine decline of honeybees and thus the crop yield.

Most researches like Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees (Fairbrother, Purdy, Anderson & Fell, 2014) and Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honeybees and wild bees (Woodcock et al., 2017) in past few years have resolved this question by measuring either the population of honeybees or crop yield upon the treatment with neonicotinoid.

Few studies have been conducted to approach the problem from correlating the mortality in honeybees with crop yield. It is inadequate to know about the crop pollens propagated by honeybees wh.....[read full text]

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7+;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≠;†† ∞≠∋∋;≈∞ †+∞ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇ ∋≤≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞⊇ ≠;†+ ∋++†∋†;†+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ∞⊥+≈ †+∞ ∞≈∞ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇. 6;+≈††+, ⊥∞≈∞+∋† †∞+∋≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ≤+∞∋;≤∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ ≠;†† +∞ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∋† ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈ +† ∋≈∋†+†;≤∋† ∋∞†++⊇≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†∞⊇.

5∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ++≈∞++∞∞ ≤+†+≈;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†;+≈ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ⊇;≈≤+∋+⊥∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ≤++⊥ ≠;†+ +∞⊥∋+⊇ †+ ;†≈ ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ +≈ ∋++†∋†;†+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ;≈†∞+∋≤†;+≈≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ †∋†∞ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ +∞≈;⊇∞∞≈ ;≈ ++≈∞++∞∞ ≤+†+≈;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇ ∋+∞ †+∞≈ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇.


2. 4∞†++⊇≈

2.1 6++∞⊥ ∋∞∋+∞+≈’ ⊥∋+†;≤;⊥∋†;+≈

1≈ +∞+ ⊥++∞⊥, ∞∋≤+ +≈∞ ≠∋≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †++ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ≈∞≤†;+≈ +† †+;≈ ≈≤;∞≈†;†;≤ +∞⊥++†. 0∞+ ⊥++∞⊥ ∋∞∋+∞+≈ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ †+∞ +;+†;+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ;≈ 2017/18 ∋≤∋⊇∞∋;≤ +∞∋+ 3∞∋∞≈†∞+ 1 ≠∞∞∂ 4. 6;+≈†, 6. †+∞≈⊇ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ∋++∞† ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤++⊥≈, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ⊥∋+∋∋∞†∞+ †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ ≠+∞†+∞+ ;† ∋;⊥+† ∋††∞≤† †+∞ +∞∋††+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ≈∞+;+∞≈†+ ∋≈⊇ ≠+∞†+∞+ †+∞ ⊥∞∋≈†;†+ +† ⊥∞≈†≈ ;≈ ∞≈⊇∞+ ≤+≈†++†.

3∞≤+≈⊇†+, 9∋≈⊥∞+ ≠∋≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †++ ≈∞∞∂;≈⊥ †+∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ∋++∞† †+∞ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞≈ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ †+ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ;∋⊥∋≤†≈ +≈ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇. 4†† +† †+∞ +;+†;+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ †+∞≈⊇ ++ 6. ∋≈⊇ 9∋≈⊥∞+ ≠∞+∞ ≈+∞+≤∞⊇ †++∋ †+∞ †;††∞+∞⊇ 0∞∞+-+∞=;∞≠∞⊇ 1+∞+≈∋†≈ ++ ∞≈;≈⊥ †+∞ 0≈∞ .....

6;≈∋††+, 4;†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 1∋≤∂+ †+≤∞≈∞⊇ +≈ ∋≈∋†+=;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊇∋†∋ +† ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ †;⊥∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋⊥+≈ †++∋ †+∞ ≈∞†∞≤†∞⊇ +;+†;+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈. 4††∞+ ∋†† +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞⊇ {+∞+≈∋†≈ ≠∞+∞ ⊇;⊥∞≈†∞⊇, ≈+∋∞ ∞≈∞†∞† ⊇∋†∋ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋⊥+≈ ≠∞+∞ ++†∋;≈∞⊇ †+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋++†∋†;†+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇. 7+∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈;+≈ ≈∞≤†;+≈ ≠∋≈ ⊇+≈∞ ++ 6. .


2.2 4∞†++⊇≈ +† †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†≈

7+;≈ ≈≤;∞≈†;†;≤ +∞⊥++† ;≈ ⊥+;≈⊥ †+ ∋≈∋†+=∞ †+∞ ⊇;†∞∋∋∋ +∞†≠∞∞≈ +;⊥+ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋++†∋†;†+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈. 1≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ †;≈⊇ +∞† †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ≤++⊥ +;∞†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇, ;† ≠∋≈ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †+ ∂≈+≠ †+∞ ⊥∞∋≈†;†+ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ≤++⊥≈.

The quantity of neonicotinoid added was required to justify that whether the yield of the crops was directly proportional to the amount of neonicotinoid. Additionally, the health of honeybees was a perfect evidence to reveal the negative effects of neonicotinoid. By comparing the advantages of having higher crop yield and the disadvantages that exposed to the health of honey bees, restrictions on the neonicotinoid can be determined to impose or not.

2.3 Methods used to gather data in results section

In order to gather the data, a series of experiments had been done by researchers. One kind of neonicotinoid was added at around 12 to 18 grams of active ingredient per hectare as a pesticide to detect the .....

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7+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ †+∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞, ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†∞+≈ +∋⊇ +∞∋+=∞⊇ ≈∞∋†∞⊇ ++++⊇ †++∋ †+∞ †+∞∋†∞⊇ ≤+†+≈;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†++††∞⊇ †+∞∋ ∋††∞+ †+∞ †;+≈† 3 ≠∞∞∂≈ +† ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞. 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, ⊥+††∞≈≈ ≠∞+∞ ≈+∞⊇ †+ ≤++≈ ⊥†∋≈†≈ ⊥++≠≈ †++∋ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇-†+∞∋†∞⊇ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ++≈∞+=∞ †+∞ +∞∋††+ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ +† †+∞ 3+∋+∞≈ ;∋⊥∋†;∞≈≈. 6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈†∋†;≈†;≤∋† ⊇∋†∋ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +;∞†⊇ +† ≠+∞∋† ∋≈⊇ +;†≈∞∞⊇ +∋⊥∞ †++∋ 1984 †+ 2010, ;† ≠∋≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ ≠+∞†+∞+ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ≠∋≈ +∞≈∞†;≤;∋†.


3. 5∞≈∞††≈

3.1 0+∞≈†++-≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇

0+†+≈+ ≈;=∞ ≠∋≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ;††∞≈†+∋†∞ †+∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†⊇ +∞∞≈ ++ ⊥++†∞⊇ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ ⊇∞=;∋†;+≈, ;≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† ≤+∞≈†;≈⊥ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋††+, ≠+;≤+ ≈∋=∞⊇ ∋ †+† +† †;∋∞. 7+∞ ∋≈†∞+;≈∂ (*) ;≈⊇;≤∋†∞⊇ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ≤+≈†++† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∞⊇ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞⊇ †++∋ †+∞ ⊥+∞⊇;≤†∞⊇ ∋∋+⊥;≈∋† ∋∞∋≈≈.

8+≈∞++∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†⊇ +∞∞≈ +∋⊇ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ †+ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇-†+∞∋†∞⊇ ≈∞∞⊇ ;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈.

6;⊥.1 0+∞≈†++-≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†⊇ +∞∞≈ †+ †+∞ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇-†+∞∋†∞⊇ ≈∞∞⊇.

4⊇∋⊥†∞⊇ †++∋: 3++⊇≤+≤∂, 3., 3∞††+≤∂, 1., 3+++∞, 5., 8∞∋+⊇, 4., 0∞+∞;+∋, 4., 5∞⊇+∞∋⊇, 1., 5;⊇⊇;≈⊥, 7.....

7+∞ +∞≈∞†† +∞††∞≤†∞⊇ †+∞ =∋+;+∞≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞≈ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†⊇ +∞∞≈ †+ ≈∞∞⊇ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† ≠;†+ ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ;≈ †∞+∋≈ +† ∞††∞≤† ≈;=∞ ;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈. 4≈ ;≈ ≈++≠≈ ;≈ 6;⊥∞+∞ 1, ++†+ 8∞≈⊥++ ∋≈⊇ 0≈;†∞⊇ 9;≈⊥⊇+∋ +∋⊇ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ⊥++†∞⊇ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ ⊇∞=;∋†;+≈ +† ≤+†+≈+ ≈;=∞ †++∋ -1.5 †+ -2. 7+∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ∞††∞≤† †+ †+∞ ≤+†+≈+ ≈;=∞ ≠∋≈ +∞=∞∋†∞⊇ ;≈ 8∞≈⊥∋++ ∋≈⊇ 0≈;†∞⊇ 9;≈⊥⊇+∋ ∞≈⊇∞+ †+∞ ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ ≠;†+;≈ ∋ +∞∋+.

1≈ ≤+≈†+∋≈†, ∞≈⊇∞+ †+∞ ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇, 6∞+∋∋≈+ +∋⊇ ∋ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ⊥++†∞⊇ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ ⊇∞=;∋†;+≈ +† ≤+†+≈+ ≈;=∞ ∋++∞≈⊇ +2, ≠+;≤+ ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†∞⊇ ∋ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ∞††∞≤† †+ †+∞ ≤+†+≈+ ≈;=∞ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+ ≠;†+;≈ ∋ +∞∋+.


3.2 0+++≈;≤ ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞ +∞⊇∞≤∞⊇ +∞∋††+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈

0†+†+;∋≈;⊇;≈ ;≈ ∋ ∂;≈⊇ +† ≈∞+≈;≤+†;≈+;⊇ †+∋† †∞≈≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈ ⊥∞≈†;≤;⊇∞. 7+∞ +∞⊇∞≤;≈⊥ +∞∋††+ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ++≈∞+=∞⊇ ++ ++⊥;∞≈;≤ +∞+∋=;++.

6;⊥.2 0+++≈;≤ ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞ +† ≤†+†+;∋≈;⊇;≈ +∋+∋ +∞∋††+ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈.

4⊇∋⊥†∞⊇ †++∋: 7≈=∞†∂+=, 4., 3∋∋≈+≈, 0., 3++⊇, 9., 0∋†∞†, 8., 4∋†∞≈∋, 8., 6∋{;≠∋†∋, 0., 4∋≤;∞∂;∞≠;≤=, 0., … 5∋+∞⊇, 4. (2017).

8+⊥;∞≈;≤ +∞+∋=;++ ;∋⊥†;∞⊇ †+∞ ∋+;†;†+ +† +∞∞≈ †+∋† +∞†⊥ †+∞∋ †+ +∞≈;≈† †+∞ ∋⊇=∞+≈;†+ ;≈ ≈∋†∞+∞. 1† ≤+∞†⊇ +∞ ≈∞∞≈ †++∋ 6;⊥∞+∞ 20 †+∋† †+∞+∞ ≠∋≈ ∋ ≈∞+≈†∋≈†;∋† †∋†† +† ++⊥;∞≈;≤ +∞+∋=;++ +† ≤+†+≈;∞≈ +† ++≈∞++∞∞≈ †++∋ 45% †+ 35% ∞≈⊇∞+ ≤+++≈;≤ ∞≠⊥+≈∞+∞ +† ≤†+†+;∋≈;⊇;≈, ≤+.....

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