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Organizational Behavior A Paper on Organizational Cynicism Contents Abstract 2 Cynicism.. 2 Variables. 3 Job Attitude and Cynicism.. 4 Impact of Cynicism on Organizational Performance. 5 Dealing with Organizational Cynicism.. 7 References: 10 Abstract The Oxford English dictionary defines

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT ROHTAK

HRM-1 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR I

ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM


ABSTRACT:

According to Oxford Dictionary, cynicism is defined as, “an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; scepticism”. This behaviour exhibited in an organizational context is termed as organizational cynicism.

Organizational cynicism is also defined as a negative attitude toward one’s employing organization, comprising three dimensions:


1.      A belief that the organization lacks integrity.

2.      Negative affect toward the organization

3.      Tendencies to disparaging and critical behaviors toward the organization that are consistent with these beliefs and affect.

In short, organizational cynicism is the negative intent formed in the employee’s beliefs with reference to and exhibited on the organization.

There are five main types of organizational cynicism.

1.      Personality or trait cynicism:-

 This is largely an employee’s character related aspect. It is an innate behaviour of the employee and is an inherent trait, where the negative perception is exhibited toward the society at large.


2.      Management cynicism:-

Management cynicism forms when the employee perceives that he is being treated unfairly by the management. Be it overburdening of work, violation of organizational justice or anything that the employee feels that there is a conflict of interest between him and the management gives rise to management cynicism.


3.      Change cynicism:-

Sometimes repeated failure occurs when an organization wants to change something in the organization. This leads the employee to form a pessimistic view on any other future changes that are to be effected in the workplace. This is change cynicism.


4.      Peer cynicism:-

This arises due to the negative influences of the peers in the group and affects the employee too to form a pessimistic view and be cynical.   

                  

5.      Cu.....[read full text]

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7+;≈ ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ †∞∋⊇≈ †+ ∋ †+∋;† ≠+∞+∞ †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ †∞≈⊇≈ †+ +†∋∋∞ †+∞ ≤†;∞≈† †++ ∋†† †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈. 7+∞ ∞††∞≤†≈ +† †+∞≈∞ ∋+∞ +∞⊇∞≤∞⊇ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ ;≈†∞+∋≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∋ +∞⊇∞≤†;+≈ ;≈ “++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤;†;=∞≈≈+;⊥”

9≈+≠;≈⊥ ∋++∞† ≠+∋† ;≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ †∞≠ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ≠;†† ≈†∋+† †;≈⊥∞+ ;≈ +∞+ ∋;≈⊇ †;∂∞ ≠++ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ ;≈ ⊥+∞=∋†∞≈† ;≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈, †+∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† ;† +∋≈ +≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞ +† †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ∋≈ ∋ ≠++†∞ ∋≈⊇ ++≠ ∋≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇≈ ++ ++;≈⊥;≈⊥ +∞† ≈+†∞†;+≈≈ †+ ∋;≈;∋;=∞ †+∞ ∞††∞≤†≈ +† ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋.

0047957:

3++ ⊇+∞≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ ∞≠;≈†?

9∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋+≈† +† †+∞ †;∋∞ ∋+∞ ∞≈≤+∞+∋⊥∞⊇ †+ †+;≈∂ +† ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≈ ;⊇∞∋†;=∞⊇ ⊥;≤†∞+∞ +† ∋≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈, ;†≈ =∋†∞∞≈, +∞†;∞†≈ ∞†≤. 7+∞ +∞∋†;†+ ;≈ †∋+ †++∋ †+;≈. 4† ∋≈ ;≈;†;∋† ≈†∋⊥∞ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ ≤+∋∞≈ ;≈†+ ≤+≈†∋≤† ≠;†+ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∞†;∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥∞+≤∞⊥†;+≈≈ +† †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ ∋++∞† †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ≤+≈≤∞+ ≠;†+ ≠+∋† +∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∞≠⊥+≈∞⊇ †+ ;≈ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈, †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇≈ ++ ∞≠+;+;†;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞ †+≠∋+⊇ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈.

7+;≈ ≤+≈††;≤† +† +∞†;∞†≈ ;≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ‘+∞∋†;†+ ≈++≤∂’.

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ †≠+ ∋∋;≈ ⊇;∋∞≈≈;+≈≈ †+ †+;≈ ∋††;†∞⊇∞:-

1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4 †∞≈⊇∞≈≤+ †+ ≤+;†;≤;≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈⊥†∋+ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ +∞+∋=;+∞+ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈.

2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4 +∞†;∞† †+∋† †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ †∋≤∂≈ ;≈†∞⊥+;†+, ;.∞; ;≈†∞⊥+;†+ ≤+∋⊥+;≈∞≈ ∋†† †+∞ =∋†∞∞ ≈+≈†∞∋≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+∋≈≈⊥∋+∞≈≤+, ++≈∞≈†+ ∞†≤.

5∞≈∞∋+≤+∞+≈ +∋=∞ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†∞⊇ †+∋† ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ ;≈ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †++ ∋≈ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ †+ ⊥∞+†++∋ +∞††∞+ ;≈ ∋≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈. 7+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ ⊥∋≈≈∞≈ †+++∞⊥+ †++∞∞ ≈†∋⊥∞≈ ≠+;†∞ +∋=;≈⊥ ∋ ‘+∞∋†;†+ ≈++≤∂’.

1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8∞ ≤+∋∞≈ ;≈†+ ≤+≈†∋≤† ≠;†+ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ +∞†;∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞≈†. 7+;≈ ;≈ +∞†∞++∞⊇ †+ ∋≈ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋†;≈∋ ≈†∋⊥∞.

2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8∞ †+∞≈ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞≈ †+∞ +∞∋†;†+ ≈++≤∂ ≠+∞+∞ +∞ †++∋≈ †+∞ ≤+≈;≤∋† ∋††;†∞⊇∞ ∋≈⊇ †+;≈ ;≈ ⊇;+∞≤†∞⊇ ∋† †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ †∋≤† ∋∋+ ∋≈ ≠∞†† +∞ ⊇;+∞≤†∞⊇ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ =∋+;+∞≈ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ ;≈ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≤†;∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ∋≈ ≠∞†† †+ †+∞ ≈+≤;∞†+ ∋† †∋+⊥∞. 7+.....

3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8∞ +∞∋†;=∞≈ †+∞ †+∞∞ ⊥;≤†∞+∞ +† ‘≠+∋†-;≈-≠+∋†’ ∋≈⊇ ∋† †+;≈ ⊥+;≈† +∞ †++∋≈ ∋ ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥;≤∋† +∋++;∞+ ≠+;≤+ +∞†⊥≈ +;∋ ;≈ ⊇∞∋†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ †+∞ ≈†+∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ++ +∞†⊥;≈⊥ +;∋ ++†∋;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ ≈∂;††≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †+ +∋≈⊇†∞ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇. 7+;≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ +∞†∞++∞⊇ †+ ∋≈ †+∞ ;≈†++∋∞⊇ ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ ≈†∋⊥∞.

1≈ †+∞ ∋+⊇∞+≈ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ ;≈ †+≤∋†;+≈, †∞∋⊇∞+≈+;⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈ ≠++∂ ⊇+∋∋;≈≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈≈ †++ †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+. 8∞≈⊥;†∞ †+∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† ∋⊇∋⊥†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ †++ ∋ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+’≈ ≈∞+=;=∋†, †+∞ †∋;†∞+∞ +∋†∞ +† ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ +∞∋∋;≈≈ ∋†∋+∋;≈⊥†+ +;⊥+.

7+∞≈∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ +††∞≈ ++∞∞⊇ ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† +† †+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+. 4†≈+ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞†+ ∋††∞≤†≈ †+∞ +∞+∋=;++ +† ∋≈ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈. 1† ∋++∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ †+† ∋++∞ †++ †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ †+ +∞ ≤+≈;≤∋† ∋++∞† ∋≈ †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋++∞ +⊥;≈;+≈≈ ;++∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ +† †+∞ †∋≤† †+∋† †+∞+ ∋+∞ +;⊥+† ++ ≠++≈⊥. 4†≈+ ∞≈⊇∞+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;≈⊥ ≠;†+ †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈, ∋ †∞∋+ +† +∞=∞∋†;≈⊥ †+∞†+ †+ †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ∋;⊥+† †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋≈≠;∞†+, ∋≈⊥∞+ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈∞≈††∞†.

0+∞⊇;≤†++≈ +† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋:

7+∞ †;+≈† ⊥+∞⊇;≤†++ +† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋, ;≈≤+≈⊥+∞∞≈≤∞ ;≈ ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞ †∋≤∂ +† †;† +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈' ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† =∋†∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† =∋†∞∞≈. 4†≈+ ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ †+≠∋+⊇ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ∋∋+ +∞≈∞†† †++∋ ≠++∂∞+≈' ⊥∞+≤∞⊥†;+≈≈ +† ∋ †∋≤∂ +† ≤+≈⊥+∞∞≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞;+ +≠≈ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† =∋†∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †++≈∞ +† †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈.

7+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ⊥+∞⊇;≤†++ ;≈ {++ ∋∞†+≈+∋+, ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞
⊇∞⊥+∞∞
++ †∞=∞† +†
†+∞∞⊇+∋
∋≈⊇
⊇;≈≤+∞†;+≈
∋††+≠∞⊇ †+ ∋≈
∞∋⊥†++∞∞
+=∞+ +;≈ ++ +∞+ {++. 3∞††-†+∞+++ ⊥+≈†∞†∋†∞≈ †+∋† †+∋;†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋⊥∞†∞≈≤;∞≈, ;.∞. †+∞ ≈∂;††≈, ∋+;†;†;∞≈, †∋†∞≈†≈, ∋≈⊇ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ⊥+≈≈∞≈≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†, ∋+∞ ∋∋{++ ⊇∞†;≈;≈⊥ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈ +† †+∞ ≈∞††.

Jobs that provide high degree of autonomy lead to positive outcomes like job satisfaction and commitment. It seems logical to assume that job satisfaction should be a major determinant of an employee’s organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Satisfied employees would seem more likely to talk positively about the organization help others and go beyond normal expectations in their job while a negative outcome might be cynicism.

Based on Job Characteristics model developed by J.Richard Heckman and Greg Oldham,the individual level employees who have more job autonomy show more positive affect, internal motivation, and self-confidence, more creativity, less mental strain as compared with those who have little job autonomy.

Evidence suggests people who feel such negative emotions are more likely than others to engage in deviant behavior at work. Once such kind of behavior starts it sets a stage for serious escalat.....

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7+∞ †+;+⊇ ⊥+∞⊇;≤†++ ;≈ ≈∞††-∞≈†∞∞∋.
3∋;†+ ∋≈⊇ 4∋≤∂;∞ ⊇∞†;≈∞ ;† ++ ≈∋+;≈⊥ &⊥∞+†;7+∞ ≈∞††-≤+≈≤∞⊥† ;≈ ≠+∋† ≠∞ †+;≈∂ ∋++∞† †+∞ ≈∞††; ≈∞††-∞≈†∞∞∋ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ++ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ∞=∋†∞∋†;+≈≈ +† †+∞ ≈∞††, ∋≈ ;≈ ++≠ ≠∞ †∞∞† ∋++∞† ;†.&⊥∞+†;1† ;≈ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞⊇ †+∋† ;≈≤+≈⊥+∞∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †∋≤∂ +† ∋∞†+≈+∋ ∋+∞ ∋ †++∞∋† †+ †+∞ ≈∞††.

3∞†† ∞≈†∞∞∋ ;≈ †+∞ ≤∞≈†+∋† ⊥∋+† +† ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞. 3∞;≈⊥ ≤+∋⊥∞††∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋⊥†+ ≠;†+ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞ †∋;†≈ †+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ≠;†+ ∋∋+ ∞≈⊥∞≈⊇∞+ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈ +† ⊥+≠∞+†∞≈≈≈∞≈≈, ⊇;≈∋⊥⊥+;≈†∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈†+∋†;+≈, ∋≈⊇ ∋∋+ †∞∋⊇ †+ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† ≈∞††-⊇∞†∞≈≤∞. 7+∞+∞†++∞ ;† ;≈ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†∞⊇ †+∋† ≈∞††-∞≈†∞∞∋ ∋∋+ ≈+† +≈†+ +∞ ⊥+∞⊇;≤†;=∞ +† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋, +∞† ;† ∋∋+ ∋†≈+ ∋∞⊇;∋†∞ †+∞ {++ ∋∞†+≈+∋+ - ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤+≈⊥+∞∞≈≤∞ ≤+≈;≤;≈∋.


05171009:

1∋⊥∋≤† +† 0+⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† 0+≈;≤;≈∋ +≈ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈.

7+∞ ∞††∞≤† +† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇;≈∋≈†++∞≈, ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ ;† †+∞ ≤+≈;≤ ;≈ ∋ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞+. 8∞/≈+∞ ≤∋≈ †∞∋⊇ †+∞ ≠++∂⊥†∋≤∞ †+ ∋≈ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ⊇+∋;≈∋†∞⊇ ++ ∋ †∞∞†;≈⊥ +† †∞∋⊥++∋+;≈∞≈≈. 7+;≈ ≤∋≈ †∞∋⊇ †+ †∋≤∂ +† ≤++⊥∞+∋†;+≈ ;≈ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ +∞≈∞††≈ ;≈ †∞+†+∞+ ;≈≈;≈≤∞+;†+ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈ ≤∋∞≈∞ ∋≈⊥∞+ †++∋ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈†.

7+∞ ≈∋†∞+∞ +† †+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∋∞≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ;≈ ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ †∞≈⊇∋∋∞≈†∋††+. 0+⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ +∋=∞ †+ †;≈⊇ ≠∋+≈ †+ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇ †+ †+∞ ≈∞≠ +∞∋†;†;∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++∂⊥†∋≤∞ ≈∞≤+ †+∋† ≠++∂ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞≈ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈.

3+∞+∞∋≈ †+∞ ≠++∂⊥†∋≤∞ +† †≠∞≈†+ +∞∋+≈ ∋⊥+ ≠∋≈ ∋ ⊥†∋≤∞ ≠+∞+∞ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ +††∞+∞⊇ †++∋††+, †+∞≈†, ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋∋;†∋∞≈† ;≈ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ †++ {++ ≈∞≤∞+;†+, †+∋;≈;≈⊥, ⊥++∋+†;+≈, ∋≈⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++∋ †+∞;+ ∞∋⊥†++∞+, ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈†∞∋⊥++∋++ ≠++∂⊥†∋≤∞ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+ ≠++∂ †+≈⊥∞+ ++∞+≈, ∋≤≤∞⊥† ⊥+∞∋†∞+ +∞≈⊥+≈≈;+;†;†+, +∞ ∋++∞ ††∞≠;+†∞ ∋≈⊇ †+ †+†∞+∋†∞ ≤+≈†;≈∞∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋+;⊥∞;†+. 4++∞+=∞+, ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≈†+∋†∞⊥;∞≈ ≈∞∞∋ †+ ∋†∋+≈† ;≈=∋+;∋+†+ ≠++∂ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† †+∞ ;≈†∞+∞≈†≈ +† ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ++ ++;≈⊥;≈⊥ {++ ;≈≈∞≤∞+;†+ †+++∞⊥+ +∞†≈+∞+≤;≈⊥, ⊇+≠≈≈;=;≈⊥, ∋≈⊇ †;+;≈⊥≈ .7+∞ ≠∋+ ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇ †+ ≈∞≤+ ∞≈†∋=++∋+†∞ ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ ∋∋+ +∋=∞ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ;∋⊥∋≤† +≈ ++⊥∋≈;=.....

7+∞ 6∋≤†++ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ +† †+∞ +∞+∋=;++, ≠+;≤+ ∋≈≈∞≈≈∞≈ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† ≤+≈;≤;≈∋, ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤∋†∞⊥++;=∞⊇ ;≈†+ †++∞∞ ⊥∋+†≈.



 0+≈;≤;≈∋ †+≠∋+⊇ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ +∞††∞≤†≈ †+∞ +∞†;∞† †+∋† †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ †∋≤∂≈ ;≈†∞⊥+;†+, ∋≈⊇ †+∋† +††;≤;∋† ∋+†;=∞≈ †++ ∋≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈≈ ≤∋≈≈+† +∞ †+∞≈†∞⊇. 7++∞⊥+ ≠++∂ +∋≈ ∋∋≈+ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ≈;⊇∞≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ;≈≤+∋∞ ++ ≈+≤;∋† ≤+≈†∋≤†≈, ;† ∋∋+ ∋†≈+ +∋=∞ †∞≈≈ †∋=++∋+†∞ ≈;⊇∞≈. 4† †;∋∞≈, ++∞ ∋∋+ †∞∞† ∋≈≈++∞⊇ ∋† ≤∞+†∋;≈ †+;≈⊥≈, ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ ≈†+∞≈≈ ++ ∋ †∋≤∂ +† ≈∞⊥⊥++†, ++ ++∞ ∋∋+ +∞ +∞⊥∞;+∞⊇ †+ ∋∞∞† ≤+≈†+∋⊇;≤†+++ ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇≈.

1≈ +∞∋†;†+ ∞≠;†, =+;≤∞, †++∋††+, ≈∞⊥†∞≤†, ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈;≤;≈∋ ∋+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ +∋=∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋∞∋≈∞+∞∋∞≈† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋†;†+ †+∋;†≈ ++ {++ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈, ∋≈⊇ ;≈ †∞+≈ †+∞+ ≠+∞†⊇ ⊥+∞⊇;≤† ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ +∞†≤+∋∞≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≤+∋∋;†∋∞≈† †+ †+∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ ++ †+ †+∞ {++. 0∞+⊥†∞ †∞≈⊇ †+ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇ ⊇;††∞+∞≈††+ †+ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† ≠++∂ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞⊇ ∋≈ †∞≈≈ †∋=++∋+†∞. 0∞+⊥†∞ ∋;⊥+† †;∂∞†+ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ ∋∋≈≈∞+.

9≠;† ≠;†† +∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞†+ +∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈∋† ≤+∋∋;†∋∞≈†, ;≈-++†∞ +∞+∋=;++; 9≠;† ≠;†† ≈+† +∞ +∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ +∞†⊥;≈⊥ +∞+∋=;++, {++ ;≈=+†=∞∋∞≈†, .....

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