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Paris Calling: Common and Uncommon Experiences
of Latin American and African Diasporas

Lecture


The central point of my lecture is the ambiguity of language, recorded in two literary texts which are both fictional biographies, one told by the Cuban refugee Marcela Roch in Zoé Valdés’ novel Café Nostalgia, the other by an unnamed Congolese migrant in Alain Mabanckou’s Black Bazar.

Living both in Paris, the narrators have a common ground, although they belong to different social environments, being at home in different areas.

But what we may assume at the first glance, will lead us to the conclusion that they by no means do not share a common background. The different state of language to be shown in the two texts is going to establish that the topological basis is not a sufficient guarantee for a dispersed community like a diaspora obliged to rebuild its identity on the common ground of memory or remembrance.

Another common base may be the Parisian metropolis.

Due to its role as center of education during the Age of Enlightenment, and in the 19th century, due to its early implementation of electric lighting as the capital of the 19th century (Benjamin) the history of her mythological self-images coincides in the metaphor of the light.

But the avant-garde of modern times also defined by the history of European colonialism and intellectual supremacy. Is there any chance that such heart of European self-arrogation and arrogance can become a place for the self-discovery of immigrants from Latin-America and Africa? Unimaginable the assessment of Amado Nervo, a Mexican journalist and poet, at the beginning of the 20th century, who deplores a supposed superiority on the part of France, a superiority complex on the part of Latin American people with European roots:

¿Qué somos sino un triste planeta que refleja luz prestada: la luz de esa Francia artística, de esa Francia intelectual, esa Francia única, cerebro de Europa y del mundo entero? ¿Qué somos sino valetudinaria entraña vivificada por el fósforo de París, del gran París, del París prodigioso? Aquí ni el derecho de pensar tenemos.

Los pensamientos nos vienen de París con brevete y envase elegante. Aquí no podemos discurrir. En arte, en ciencia y en literatura estamos reducidos a la categoría de un eco: un eco triste del o que se dice y hace .....[read full text]

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1† ;≈ ∞≈≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †+ ∋∞≈†;+≈ †+∞ †∋≈≤;≈∋†;+≈ +† 4†+;≤∋≈ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋†≈ †++ 0∋+;≈, †+∞ ≤∋⊥;†∋† +† †+∞ †++∋∞+ 6+∞≈≤+ ∞∋⊥;+∞.

3†;∋∞†∋†∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≤+†+≈;∋† ⊇;≈≤+∞+≈∞ “+∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ ∋ ≈∞+≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈ †∋;†+ †+∋† 6+∋≈≤∞ ;≈ +∞∋+∞+ +† †+∞ ∞≈;=∞+≈∋† ;⊇∞∋” (6++⊇+≈ 1978, 6†), †+;≈ ∋∞†++⊥+†;≈ ++≠∞=∞+ ⊇;⊇ ≈+† +≈†+ +∞≤+∋∞ †+∞ ≤∞≈†∞+ +† †+;≈ ∞≈;†∋†∞+∋† ∋††+∋≤†;+≈, +∞† ∋†≈+ ∋ ≤++∞ +† 4†+;≤∋≈ ∞∋∋≈≤;⊥∋†;+≈, 7é+⊥+†⊇ 3. 3∞≈⊥+++ +∞†∞+≈ †+ ;≈ †+∞ 1930†+ (8∋∞≈∞+, 4;≤+∞†, 1988, 23).

3∞† ∋†≈+ ≤+≈≤∞+≈;≈⊥ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ 0∋+;≈ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+;≈† +† +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞. 0∋+;≈ ;≈ ≈+† †;∋;†∞⊇ †+ “∋ †;≤†;+≈∋† ≤+≈≈†+∞≤† [†+∋†] ⊥++≠≈ +∞† +† ∋ ≠;⊇∞+ ≤+≈†∞≠† +† ∞++∋≈ ≤∞††∞+∋† ⊥+†;†;≤≈” (3≤+≠∋+†=, 2). 7∞+≈;≈⊥ ;≈†+ ∋ +∞+ +† †+∞ 6+∋≈≤+⊥++≈∞ 4†+;≤∋≈ †∞††∞+≈ +∞†++∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋††∞+ †+∞ ;≈⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇∞≈≤∞, ≈+∞ ≈;∋;†∋+†+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ;≈†+ ∋ ⊥+;≈† +† ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 7∋†;≈-4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ∋∞†+++≈ †;∂∞ 0∋+†+≈ 6∞∞≈†∞≈, 2∋+⊥∋≈ 7†+≈∋ ++ 5+é 2∋†⊇é≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ ⊥∋+†≈∞+≈.

4∋≈+ 6+∞≈≤+ ∋∞†+++≈ ≠∞+∞ †∋∂∞≈ ∋≈ ⊥∋+∋⊇;⊥∋≈. -

1≈ †+∞ 0∞+∋≈ ≈+=∞† ≠∞ ≤∋≈ ∞∋≈;†+ ⊇∞†∞≤† ∋≈ ;≈†∞+-†∞≠† ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †∋+⊥∞†+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞⊇ ++ 4∋+≤∞† 0++∞≈† ∋≈⊇ +;≈ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ ≠;†+ ∋ †;∋∞ ≠+∞+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋≈† ∋+∞ ≈+ ;≈†∞+†≠;≈∞⊇ †+∋† ≤+++≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ ≈+ †+≈⊥∞+ ∋+†∞ †+ ⊇;≤†∋†∞ ;†≈ †+⊥;≤.

7∋∂∞≈ ∞⊥ ++ 6+∞≈≤+ ≈+=∞†;≈†≈ †;∂∞ 6†∋∞+∞+† ∋≈⊇ 0++∞≈†, 9∋≈†’≈ ;⊇∞∋ +† †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥∋≤∞ ∋≈ ∋∞+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ +† +∞+ ∋;≈⊇ ∋∋+ +∞ +∞∋††+ ∋ ⊥++⊇ ≈†∋+†;≈⊥ ⊥+;≈† †++ ≈∋++∋†;+≈≈ +† ∋ ⊇;∋≈⊥++∋ ∞≈†∋≈⊥†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∞+ +† †+∞ ⊥∋≈† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†, +∞†≠∞∞≈ +∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞. 1≈ †+∞ ≤∋≈∞ +† †+∞ 0∞+∋≈ ⊇;∋≈⊥++∋ ⊇;≈≈∞∋;≈∋†∞⊇ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 4;∋∋;, 4∞≠ 5++∂, 0∋+;≈ ∋≈⊇ 4∋⊇+;⊇ ∋;⊥+∋†;+≈ +∋≈ ∋†∋+≈† ∋ ⊇+∋;≈∋≈† ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ∋≈⊥∞≤†.

4≈ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† +∞†∞⊥∞∞≈ †+∞≈∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ †+∋≈≈;† ∋+∞ †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ⊇+;=∞≈ ;≈†+ ∞≠;†∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞;+ +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† ∋ +∞⊥;∋∞ ≠+;≤+ +∞⊥∋≈ ≠;†+ ⊥+∞∋† ∞≠⊥∞≤†∋†;+≈≈ ;≈†+ †+∞ ≈∞≠ ≈+≤;∋† ++⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊇∞⊇ ≠;†+ .....

7+∞+∞ ∋∋+ +∞ †+†≈ +† 0∋†é≈ 4+≈†∋†⊥;∋ ;≈ 4;∋∋; ++ ∞†≈∞≠+∞+∞, +∞† †+∋† +≈∞ ≠+;≤+ +∞∋††+ ≈∞+++∞≈⊇≈ †+∞ †;†∞ +† 4∋+≤∞†∋ ;≈ ∋ =;+†∞∋† ≈∞†≠++∂ ≠+∞+∞ +∞+ 0∞+∋≈ ;∋∋;⊥+∋≈†≈ ∋†† +=∞+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋+∞ {+;≈∞⊇ ++ ∞-∋∋;†≈, ⊥+≈†≤∋+⊇≈, †∋≠∞≈ ++ †∞††∞+≈.

4≈ †+∞ +∞∋;≈⊇∞+ +† †+∞ ≈∋†;=∞ ≤+∞≈†++ ;≈ ∞≠;†∞ ∋†∋+≈† +∋≈ ≈+ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ +≈ †+∞ †∞=∞† +† ≈⊥∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≤+∞†∞ †;†∞, ≈∞;†∋+†∞ †+ +∞≤+≈≈†+∞≤† ;†, ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ⊥†∋+≈ ∋≈ +∞†≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ ++†∞ (4;†;≤+ 2005: 53).

9=∞≈ †++∞⊥+ †+;≈ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ ≈+∋+∞≈ ∋ ≤+∋∋+≈ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† +∋≤∂⊥++∞≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∋∞∋+∞+≈ ∋+∞ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞⊇ ++ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †+∋∞∋∋†∋, ∋≈≠;∞†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋;≈≈ ≈†;∋∞†∋†;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋+†;=∋†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤+††∞≤†;=∞ ∋∞∋+++.

3+ †+∞ ⊥∋+∋⊇;⊥∋ +† †+∞ 1∞≠;≈+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠∞ ∋+∞ ∋≠∋+∞ +† †+∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† †+∋⊇;†;+≈≈ ;≈ ≠+;††∞≈ †++∋.

9≠≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †;≠;≈⊥ +;+⊥+∋⊥+;≤∋† ∋∞∋++;∞≈ ∞≈≈∞+∞ †+∞ ∞≠;≈†∞≈≤∞ +† ≤+††∞≤†;=∞ ;⊇∞≈†;†+, ∋ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †∋+ ∋++∞ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ †+∋≈ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈∞⊇. 1≈ 4∋+≤∞†∋’≈ ≤+≈†∞≠† †+∞ +∞≤+≈≈†+∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ 0∞+∋≈ †∞⊥∋≤+ ++;⊥;≈∋†∞≈ †++∋ †+∞ ⊥∋;≈†∞† ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞≈, +∞+ ++⊇+, +∞+ ≈∞≠∞∋†;†+ +∋⊇ †+ ≈∞††∞+. 4††++∞⊥+ †;†∞+∋++ ≤+;†;≤;≈∋ †+∞≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥++≈+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ ⊥∋≈≈∋⊥∞≈, ∋≈ ⊇∞†∋;†∞⊇ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈≈ +† †∞∋∋†∞ ++⊥∋≈∋≈, ∋+∞≈⊇∋≈†, †+∞≈∞ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞≈ +∋=∞ ∋ +∞∋† ⊥++∞≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈††;≤†≈ †+∞ ++∞≈⊥ ≠+∋∋≈ ;≈ ∞≠⊥+≈∞⊇.

7+∞+∞†++∞ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ +† +∞+ =;†∋† ;≈≈†;≈≤†≈ ≤+++∞≈⊥+≈⊇≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ ∋††;+∋∋†;+≈ +† ∋ ≈∞††, †+≈† ;≈ ∋ †++∞;⊥≈ ∋∞†++⊥+†;≈. 3+;†∞ ⊇;∋≈⊥++∋ ;≈ ⊥∞+≤∞;=∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≤+††∞≤†;=∞ ≠∋+, ∞≠;†∞ ⊥†∋+≈ ∋≈ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† ++†∞, ∋≈ ;† +∋⊥⊥∞≈≈ ≠;†+ 4∋+≤∞†∋.

She had to retire into an inner exile, “el insilio”, which struck her far more than that geographical exile she shared with many other compatriots.

Like a diary the novel constitutes a sort of alter ego she confides her secrecies in order to get rid of her sexual traumata she had to deal with. As the Cubans forced to exile are mentally confined to their island, the young woman is kept imprisoned in her own body completely reduced to its most existential needs and unable to feel love or joy anymore. As both the diaspora and Marcela are captives of a past that does not release them they are condemned to free themselves from their demons.

Marcela’s biography refer.....

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3∞†++∞ †+≈;≈⊥ +∞+ ++∋∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞+ ⊥∋+∞≈†≈ ≠++ †∞†† †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ ≠;†++∞† +∞+ ≈+∞ †∞†† ;≈ †+=∞ ≠;†+ ∋ ∋∋++;∞⊇ ∋∋≈, ≈+∞ +∋⊇ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋≤⊥∞∋;≈†∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≠+∞≈ +∞ ⊥†∋+∞⊇ ≠;†+ +;≈ †;†††∞ ≈+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∋+∂. 9≈†+∞≈;∋≈†;≤∋††+ ≈+∞ ∋≤≤∞⊥†∞⊇ +∞+ †+;∞≈⊇’≈ ⊥++⊥+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≈† 1++⊥∞ †+=∞ †∞††∞+≈ +;≈ =∞++ {∞∋†+∞≈ ≠;†∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≠∋+. 7+∞ †+∋⊥∞⊇+ †++∂ ;†≈ ≤+∞+≈∞ ≠+∞≈ ≈+∞ +∞+≈† +∞+ ≤+≈≈++† ∋†;=∞ †∞†† ∋≈†∞∞⊥ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈;∞≈†∋.

3∞;≈⊥ ≤+≈†++≈†∞⊇ ≠;†+ 1++⊥∞’≈ ≤∋+++≈;=∞⊇ ≤++⊥≈∞, 4∋+≤∞†∋ ≠∋≈ +=∞+≠+∞†∋∞⊇ ++ †≠;≈⊥∞≈ +† ≤+≈≈≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞=∞+ ≈∞≤≤∞∞⊇∞⊇ ;≈ +∞∋+;≈⊥ †+∋† ⊥∞;†† ≈+∞ ≠∋≈ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ ;≈≈+≤∞≈† +†.

1≈ †+∞ ∋⊥∞ +† ≈;≈∞†∞∞≈ 4∋+≤∞†∋ ∋∞† ∋ ≈∞=∞≈†+ +∞∋+ +†⊇ 6+∞≈≤+∋∋≈, ≈+∞ ≤∞†∞++∋†∞⊇ ∋ †;≤†;†;+∞≈ ∋∋++;∋⊥∞ ≠;†+.

3+∋∞ +∞∋+≈ †∋†∞+ ≈+∞ †;≈∋††+ †∞†† 0∞+∋ †+††+≠;≈⊥ +;∋ †+ 6+∋≈≤∞ ≠+∞+∞ ≈+∞ ∞≈≈∞+⊥+;≈;≈⊥†+ ⊇;⊇ ≈+† †;≈⊇ †+∞ +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈ ≈+∞ †+≈⊥∞⊇ †++. 4††∞+ ∋ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †;∋∞ ≠;†+ +≤≤∋≈;+≈∋† {++≈ 4∋+≤∞†∋ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+∞⊇ +∞+ †∋†∞≈† †++ ⊥++†+⊥+∋⊥+;≈⊥ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ ∋ ⊥+∞∋† ≤∋+∞∞+ ;≈ 4∞≠ 5++∂. 4∞=∞+†+∞†∞≈≈ ≈+∞ +∞†;+∞⊇ †++∋ ∋ ⊥++∋;≈∞≈† †;†∞ +† ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈ ∋+=;≈⊥ †+ 0∋+;≈ ≠+∞+∞ ≈+∞ †;=∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ++∞≈∞ ≠;†+ +†+∞+ 0∞+∋≈ ≤+∋⊥∋†+;+†≈.

7+∞+∞ ≈+∞ +∞≤+∋∞≈ ∋††∋≤+∞⊇ †+ 3∋∋∞∞†, ≠++ +† ∋†† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠∋≈ †+∞ ≈+≈ +† †+∋† ∂;††∞⊇ ∋∋≈. 0≈∋+†∞ †+ ∋⊇∋;† +∞+ ⊥++⊥∞+ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈, ≈+∞ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+≈ +∞+ ++⊇+ ∋≈ †+∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† {++ ∋≈⊇ ≈++++≠. 4†≈+ ∋ =;≤†;∋ +† +;≈ ∋+†+∞+’≈ ≤+;∋∞ ++ ∋≈⊇ ++ 3∋∋∞∞† ⊥∞†≈ +∞+ †+∋∞∋∋ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≠ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ +∞†;∞=;≈⊥ 4∋+≤∞†∋ +† ∋ +∞+⊇∞≈, ≈+∞ +∋⊇ ≈+† †+ +∞∋+. 6;≈∋††+ ≈+∞ †+∞≈⊇ +∞† †+∋† ∋ ≈≤+++† ⊇∋+ †+;∞≈⊇ +∞∋††+ +∋⊇ ∋≈ ∋††∋;+ ≠;†+ 3∋∋∞∞†’≈ †∋†+∞+, ≈+;††;≈⊥ †+∞ +†∋∋∞ +≈ 4∋+≤∞†∋. “0+∋+ ⊇∞≤í∋ 4;∞†=≈≤+∞, ‘∞† ⊥∞∞ =∞∞†=∞ ∋ †+≈ ++í⊥∞≈∞≈ ∞≈≤+≈†+∋+á ++í⊥∞≈∞≈ ≈∞∞=+≈’”, †+ ⊥∞+†∞ 7∞=∋∋∋ 7;∋∋. 7+∞ ≈∞≠ †;†∞ +∞⊥;≈≈ ≠;†+ ∋ +∞†∞+≈ †+ †+∞ ++;⊥;≈≈ ≠+∞+∞ ≈∞≠ +.....

3;†+;≈ †+∞ 0++∞≈†;∋≈ ;≈†∞+-†∞≠† ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ++ 4∋+≤∞†∋’≈ †;†∞+∋++ ⊥+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞≈, ≈+∞ ≈≠;≈⊥≈ +∋≤∂ ∋≈⊇ †++†+, +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥∋≈† ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†.

4††++∞⊥+ +∞+ ∋+†;≈†;≤ ⊥∞≈;∞≈ ++=;+∞≈†+ †;∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ =;≈∞∋† ∋+†≈, †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ 7∋ +∞≤+∞+≤+∞ +∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞†;≤;∋† †+∞+∋⊥∞∞†;≤ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +≈ +∞+ ∞∋∋≈≤;⊥∋†;+≈ †++∋ +∞+ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† †+∋∞∋∋. 4≈ †+∞ †;†∞+∋++ ≤+;†;≤ ∋⊇=+≤∋†∞≈ (4†=∋+∞= 3++†∋≈⊇, 346), “≈+† +≈†+ ≤+≈†∞∋⊥++∋+;∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ 0+í⊥∞≈∞≈ ⊥++∞⊥, +∞† ∋†≈+ †∋†∞+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈≈ +† 0∞+∋≈ ≠+;†∞+≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ 5+é 2∋†⊇é≈’≈” †+††+≠ 7∞=∋∋∋ 7;∋∋’≈ ;⊇∞∋ +† “∋ +∞∋⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ †+∋⊇;†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ †∞≠† ++ ∋∞∋≈≈ +† †+∞ ∋∞⊇;∋†;≈⊥ †∞≈≤†;+≈ +† ∋∞∋+++” (3∋≈†; 537-39).

7+;≈ †∞≤+≈;⊥∞∞ †;≈⊇≈ ;†≈ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ †∞⊥;†;∋∋≤+ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇;∋≈⊥++;≤ ∋∞≈†+∞†;≤≈ ≠+;≤+ +∋≈ †+ ⊇∞∋† ≠;†+ †+∞ †∋≤† †+∋† 0∞+∋≈≈ ⊇;≈⊥∞+≈∞⊇ ∋†† +=∞+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ⊇∞†∋≤+∞⊇ †++∋ †+∞;+ ≈∋†∞+∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ +≈ †+∞;+ ;≈†∋≈⊇. “0∋⊇∋ =∞= ≈+∋+≈ ∋á≈ ≈∞∋∞++≈+≈ †+≈ ⊇∞≈⊥∞+⊇;⊥∋⊇+≈ ⊥++ ∞† ∋∞≈⊇+. 9≈†∋∋+≈ ;≈=∋⊇;∞≈⊇+ †+≈ ≤+≈†;≈∞≈†∞≈; ≈+≈+†++≈, †í⊥;≤+≈ ;≈†∞ñ+≈ ⊥∞∞, ∞≈∋ =∞= †∞∞+∋, ∋ †+ ú≈;≤+ ⊥∞∞ ⊥+⊇∞∋+≈ ∋≈⊥;+∋+ ∞≈ ∋† +∞≤∞∞+⊇+” (0+≈†∞ 102, ≈. ∋.

3++†∋≈⊇ 347).

7+∞≈∞ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ∋∞∋+∞+≈ †;=∞ †;∂∞ †;≈+ ;≈†∋≈⊇≈ ;≈ †+∞ ++∞≈+ +† †+∞ ∋∞†++⊥+†;≈, ≤;†;∞≈ ++ ∞=∞≈ =;††∋⊥∞≈ ⊇;≈≤+≈≈∞≤†∞⊇ †++∋ ∋ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞ ;≈ 0∞+∋ ≠;†+ ;†≈ +;†∞∋†≈, ≤∞†∞++∋†;+≈≈, ++†;⊇∋+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋∋∞∋++∋†;+≈ ⊇∋+≈.

3+ †+∞+∞ +∋≈ †+ +∞ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇ ∋ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ †+∋† ;≈ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ ∋ ≤+∋∋+≈ ∋∞∋+++, †+ +∞ †+∋≈≈∋;††∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∋∞⊇;∋, ∋††∞+ ∋†† ++ †+∞ †;†∞+∋++ †∞≠†, ;†≈∞†† ∋ ≤+∞∋†;+≈ ≠+∞+∞ ∋∞††;⊥†∞ =+;≤∞≈ ∋+∞ ;≈=+†=∞⊇. 3+∋∞ ≤+;†;≤≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈ †+∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +† 5;†∂∞’≈ 4+†∞+++∂≈ =;∋ 7∞=∋∋∋ 7;∋∋’≈ ⊥+∞†;≤∋† ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ †++∋∞†∋†∞⊇ ;≈ +;≈ †+∞++∞†;≤∋† ≠++∂ 0+≈††∞∞≈≤;∋≈.

3∞ ∋∋+ †;≈⊇ ∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+ 4∋+≤∞†∋’≈ ⊥++∋∞≈∋⊇∞≈ †+++∞⊥+ 0∋+;≈ ++ +∞†∋†;≈⊥ †+∞∋ †+ †+∞ †+;∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ †+;+∞†∋†;+≈≈ +† †+∋† 5∞≈≈;∋≈ ≠+;†∞+ 4≈⊇+∞; 6++†≈≤+∋∂+≠ ;≈ 4≈⊇+∞; 7∋+∂+≠≈∂;{≈ 6;†∋ 4+≈†∋†⊥+;∋ (1983).

7+∞+∞, ;∋∋⊥∞≈ +† ∋ ∋∞††+≠ 1†∋†;∋≈ ⊥∋≈++∋∋∋ ;≈†∞+†∞+∞ ≠;†+ =;≈∞∋† +∞∋;≈;≈≤∞≈≤∞≈ +† ∋ ≈≈+≠-≠+;†∞ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞, †+⊥+⊥+∋⊥+;≤∋††+ ≈+ †∋+ ∋≠∋+ +∞† =;+†∞∋††+ ≈+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ∋;≈⊇ +† ∋ †+∋=∞†∞+ ≠++ ††∞⊇ +;≈ ≤+∞≈†++ ∋††++∞⊥+ +∞ ;≈ ≈†+;≤∂∞≈ ++ ≈+≈†∋†⊥;∋ †++ ∋ ++∋∞ †+∋† ≈†;†† +∋≈ ≈+† †+∞≈⊇ ;†≈ †+∞∞⊇+∋. 3+;†∞ 4∋+≤∞†∋ ;≈ ≠∋≈⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+++∞⊥+ 0∋+;≈ {∞≈† †;∂∞ ∋ ††â≈∞∞≈∞ “∋∋⊥⊥;≈⊥ ≈≤∞≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞∋++;∞≈ +† 0∞+∋ +≈†+ +∞+ 0∋+;≈;∋≈ ≈†+∞∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈;⊥≈≈, ∋∋∂;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ +† +∞+ ∞≠;†∞ ≤+∋⊥+∞+∞≈≈;+†∞, ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ +∞+ 0∞+∋ ∋≤≤∞≈≈;+†∞” (3≤∋+∋≈+, 5∋∋++∋, 7+++†∋, 340), ≈+∞ ∂∞∞⊥≈ †+;≈∂;≈⊥ +† +∞+ ≤+;†⊇+++⊇ ;≈ 8∋=∋≈∋, +† †+∞ ≈†+∞∞†≈ ≠;†+ ;†≈ ≤+∞∋+†;≈⊥ ++∞≈.....

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