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Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh

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Environmental Sciences

University, School

buet, dhaka

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Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh



1.Introduction

According to estimations there are approximately 2, 6 billion people living without proper sanitation.

These people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed, feel of fear or direct health problems due to lack of sanitation. Some relieve themselves during the night time while others hide in the bushes for defecation.

Some people even defecate into plastic bags and then throw the bags as far as they can.

If people don’t have access to proper toilets, they need to rely on solutions that are neither good for them nor the communities they live in, or for the environment. Due to inadequate water supply, sewerage systems and lack of sanitation millions of people face death annually. Over 2 million people die annually just by diarrhoea, wherefrom most are under the age of five.

Every day approximately 5000 children die to diarrhoea based diseases. According to some estimates two thirds of the costs of medical treatment are used to nurse diarrhoea related diseases. At the same 300 million people in developed countries are using the same amount of water what many people in developing countries are entitled for a whole day by simply flushing once.

According to WHO and UNICEF safeguarding access to clean water and sanitation to all people would cost approximately 9 billion USD annually from the year 2005 to 2015 (including only building cost. If you compare this cost to the cost of global armament (780 billion USD annually), to the cost of alcohol and cigarette consumption in Europe (155 billion USD annually) or even to the cost of ice-cream consumption in Europe (11 billion USD) it can be considered as rather small cost.

World’s sanitation problems cannot be solved only by building water latrines and sewerage systems. The building and maintenance costs are too high and furthermore this infrastructure cannot ensure clean environment. In a case of inadequate waste water treatment even more severe health and environmental risks than the use of bushes for defecation pu.....[read full text]

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7+∞+∞†++∞, ;† ;≈ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ ≤+∞∋⊥, †∞≤+≈;≤∋††+ ≈;∋⊥†∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†∞ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞≈, ≠+;≤+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋⊇{∞≈†∞⊇ †+ ∋∞∞† †+∞ ≈∞∞⊇≈ +† ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤∞††∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†≈. 8++ †∋†+;≈∞≈ (8++ †+;†∞†≈, 87) ∋+∞ +≈∞ ⊥++⊇ ≈+†∞†;+≈ †++ †+;≈. 1† ;≈ ∋†≈+ ≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥;∞≈∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ †++ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞≤†;+≈≈ †+ +∞∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† +∞∋††+.

7+;≈ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ⊥∞;⊇∞ ≠∋≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ ++;⊥;≈∋††+ ++ 6†++∋† 8++ 7+;†∞† 4≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈ +† 6;≈†∋≈⊇ (6876) ∋≈⊇ 7∋∋⊥∞+∞ 0≈;=∞+≈;†+ +† 4⊥⊥†;∞⊇ ≈≤;∞≈≤∞≈ (7449) ⊥++{∞≤† ;≈ 2005. 7+∞ ⊥++{∞≤† +∞≤∞;=∞⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++∋ †+∞ 4;≈;≈†++ +† 6++∞;⊥≈ 4††∋;+≈ +† 6;≈†∋≈⊇. 7+∞ ∋;∋ +† †+∞ ⊥++{∞≤† ≠∋≈ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ †+∞ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ +† 6;≈≈;≈+ ≠++∂∞+≈ ;≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ ;≈ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥;∞≈∞ ∋∋††∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+ ⊥;=∞ †+∞∋ ∋+;†;†;∞≈ †+ ∋≈≈≠∞+ †+∞ †+≤∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞’≈ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ +≈ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥;∞≈∞.

7+∞ ∋;∋ ;≈ †+∋† ≠++∂∞+≈, ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ †∋∂∞ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ;≈≈∞∞≈ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥∋+† +† †+∞;+ †∞≈≤†;+≈≈.



1.1.8∞†;≈;†;+≈ +† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈



3++†⊇ 8∞∋††+ 0+⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ (380) ⊇∞†;≈∞≈ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋≈ ⊥++∞⊥ +† ∋∞†++⊇≈ †+ ≤+††∞≤† +∞∋∋≈ ∞≠≤+∞†∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞+;≈∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ ≠∋≈†∞ ≠∋†∞+≈ ;≈ ∋ ++⊥;∞≈;≤ ≠∋+, ≠+∞+∞ +∞∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ .....

3∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋∞†++⊇≈ ∋;∋ †+ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞ ≈⊥+∞∋⊇;≈⊥ +† ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈ ++ ∋⊇∞⊥∞∋†∞ ≠∋≈†∞ ≠∋†∞+, ∞≠≤+∞†∋ ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ≠∋≈†∞ †+∞∋†∋∞≈†, ⊥++⊥∞+ +∋≈⊇†;≈⊥ +† ≠∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ †++⊇ ∋≈⊇ ++ +∞≈†+;≤†;≈⊥ †+∞ +≤≤∞++∞≈≤∞ +† ≤∋∞≈∞≈ +† ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈. [1, 2]

3∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋ ≈+≈†∞∋ †+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ +∞∋††++ †;†∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†.

1†≈ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞ ;≈ ∋†≈+ †+ ∋≈≈∞+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∋=∞ ∞≈+∞⊥+ ≤†∞∋≈ ≠∋†∞+ †++ ≠∋≈+;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+;≈∂;≈⊥ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞≈. 7+⊥;≤∋††+, +∞∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥;∞≈∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ ≤+≈≈∞≤†∞⊇ †+ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∞≤+⊥≈;=∞ ≠+∞+∞ +∞∋††+ ⊥+++†∞∋≈ ++;⊥;≈∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ++≠ †+ +∞††∞+ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ++ †+∞;+ +≠≈ ∋≤†;+≈≈. 9≈≈∞≈†;∋† ⊥∋+†≈ +† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ∋+∞ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ +† †+;†∞† ∋≈⊇ ≠∋≈+ ∞⊥ †∋≤;†;†;∞≈, ≈∞≠∞+∋⊥∞ ≈+≈†∞∋≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∞≈∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋;≈†∞≈∋≈≤∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ †∋≤;†;†;∞≈. [3]

1≈ ⊇∞†;≈;≈⊥ 0≈;†∞⊇ 4∋†;+≈’≈ 4;††∞≈≈;∞∋ 8∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† 6+∋†≈ (486) †≠+ †∞+∋≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈: “;∋⊥++=∞⊇ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈” ++ +++∋⊇∞+ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† “+∋≈;≤ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈”. [4]

8∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ †∋≤;†;†;∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ ;≈ 380’≈ ∋≈⊇ 041096’≈ 1+;≈† 4+≈;†++;≈⊥ 0++⊥+∋∋ (140) “0++⊥+∞≈≈ +≈ 8+;≈∂;≈⊥ 3∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ 3∋≈;†∋†;+≈: 3⊥∞≤;∋† 6+≤∞≈ +≈ 3∋≈;†∋†;+≈ 2008”.

6+††+≠;≈⊥ ∋∞†++⊇≈ ∋+∞ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋≈ ;∋⊥++=∞⊇ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ †∋≤;†;†;∞≈:

• ⊥+∞+-††∞≈+ †∋†+;≈∞/†+;†∞† †+:

• ⊥∞+†;≤ ≈∞≠∞+

• ≈∞⊥†;≤ †∋≈∂

• pit latrine with slab

• ventilated improved pit latrine

• composting toilet.



Following sanitation facilities are considered as undeveloped:



• service or bucket latrines (where excreta are manually removed)

• pit latrines .....

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• +∋≈⊥;≈⊥ †∋†+;≈∞

• +⊥∞≈ †∋†+;≈∞≈

• ∞≠≤+∞†;+≈ †+ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈†.



3∋≈;≤ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ≠∋≈ ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ ;≈ 04’≈ 3++†⊇ 3∞∋∋;† +≈ 3∞≈†∋;≈∋+†∞ 8∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† (3338) ;≈ 2002.

3+ †+∞ ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈ +∋≈;≤ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ≤+≈≈;≈†≈: [4]

• ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥†∞∋∞≈†∋†;+≈ +† ∞††;≤;∞≈† ++∞≈∞++†⊇ ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ≈+≈†∞∋≈

• ;∋⊥++=∞∋∞≈† +† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ;≈ ⊥∞+†;≤ ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈≈, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ ≈≤+++†≈

• ⊥++∋+†;+≈ +† ≈∋†∞ ++⊥;∞≈∞ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞≈

  • ⊥++∋+†;+≈ +† ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†+∞∋≤+ †+≤∞≈∞⊇ +≈ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈, ∋≈ ∋⊥∞≈†≈ +† +∞+∋=;++∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞

  • ⊥++∋+†;+≈ +† ∋††++⊇∋+†∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞††∞+∋††+ ∋≤≤∞⊥†∋+†∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞

• ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† ;≈≈+=∋†;=∞ †;≈∋≈≤;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋+†≈∞+≈+;⊥ ∋∞≤+∋≈;≈∋≈

  • ;≈†∞⊥+∋†;+≈ +† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ;≈†+ ≠∋†∞+ +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† ≈†+∋†∞⊥;∞≈ ;≈ ∋ ∋∋≈≈∞+ ≠+;≤+ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† +∋=∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +.....





1.2. 9≤+†+⊥;≤∋† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈

9≤+†+⊥;≤∋† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ (9≤+≈∋≈) ;≈ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ≈∞†+;∞≈† ≤+≤†∞.

1≈ †+∞ ∋+⊇∞+≈ ≤∞≈†+∋†;=∞⊇ ≠∋≈†∞ ≠∋†∞+ ≈+†∞†;+≈≈ +∞∋∋≈ †∋∞≤∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋++∞ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈+∞+≤∞ †+∋≈ ≠∋≈†∞. 9≠≤+∞∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞∋†∞⊇ ;≈ ≈;†∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ †++∋∞⊇ ∞≈⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤† ≤∋≈ ∞∋≈;†+ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †∞+†;†;=∞+ ;≈ ∋⊥+;≤∞††∞+∞. 9≤+†+⊥;≤∋† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ †∞≤+≈;⊥∞∞≈ †∋∂∞ ;≈†+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈ †+∞ ≈∞+++∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ++ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ≤+≈†∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∂∞∞⊥;≈⊥ ;† ≤†∞∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†∞. [6]

6+††+≠;≈⊥ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ 9≤+†+⊥;≤∋† ≈∋≈;†∋†;+≈ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥†∞∋∞≈†∋†;+≈:

  • ∋;∋ ;≈ †+ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞ ≤+≈†∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ +∞∋∋≈ ∞≠≤+∞†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞=∞≈†;+≈ +† ⊇;≈∞∋≈∞≈ ⊇∞+;=;≈⊥ †++∋ ∞≠≤+∞†∋



  • +∞∋∋≈ ∞+;≈∞ ∋≈⊇ †∋∞≤∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈+∞+≤∞, ≈+† ∋≈ ≠∋≈†∞



  • +∞≤+=∞++ +† ≈∞†+;∞≈†≈ †++∋ ∞≠≤+∞†∋ ∋≈⊇ ∞†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∞≈⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤† ∋≈ †∞+†;†;=∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≈+;† ∞≈+;≤+∋∞≈† ∋∋†∞+;∋†



  • ;≈ ≈;†∞ ++ ≤†+≈∞ ++ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† +† †+∞ ∞≠≤+∞†∋



  • ∋=+;⊇;≈⊥ ∞†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† ≠∋†∞+ ;≈ †+∞ †+∋≈≈⊥++†∋†;+≈ +† ∞≠≤+∞†∋



  • ∞≈∞ +† ⊇∞≤∞≈†+∋†;=∞⊇ ≠∋≈†∞ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† ∋∞†++⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ (∞.⊥. ≤+††∞≤†;≈⊥, +∞≤+≤†;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈∞+=;≈⊥)



7+∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞ +† ≈∞†+;∞≈† ≤+≤†∞ ;≈ ≈++≠≈ ;≈ 0;≤†∞+∞ 1. 1≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∞ ≠∋≈†∞ ;≈ ≈+† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†∞⊇, +∞† ∋†† †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ +† ++⊥∋≈;≈∋≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ≈∞†+;∋∞≈† ++ ≈∞†+;∞≈†.....

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