Final thesis

Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh

2.270 Words / ~10 pages
<
>
swopdoc logo
Download
a) trade for free
b) buy for 5.34 $
Document category

Final thesis
Environmental Sciences

University, School

buet, dhaka

Author / Copyright
Text by John B. ©
Format: PDF
Size: 0.45 Mb
Without copy protection
Rating [details]

Rating 4.0 of 5.0 (1)
Live Chat
Chat Room
Networking:
0/0|0[0.0]|1/6







More documents
Presentation Paper on Bangladesh Respected Ambassadors from- ARGENTINA, CROATIA, DJIBOUTI, EGYPT, GHANA, MALAYSIA, MONGOLIA, NIGERIA, RUSSIA and URUGUAY, I on behalf of 150 million BD people welcome you on the presentation of Bangladesh- my beloved mother land. Gentlemen, in next 45 min or so all of you will have a short tour to Bangladesh which is 10 thousand km from our present location. So, no more waiting lets starts the tour… [National Anthem] Introduction Bangladesh, in full- ‛People&#­821­7;s Republic of…
Shipping Containers Redesigned As Composting Toilets To Improve Sanitation, Port-au-Prince, Cite Soleil: Final Report Inhaltsverzeich­nis EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 2 FORMAL PROBLEM STATEMENT. 3 BACKGROUND RESEARCH. 3 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS. 6 FINAL DESIGN. 8 BUDGET ESTIMATES AND METERIAL LIST. 22 ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS. 23 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY According to the Human Development Index. Haiti is one of the poorest nations on earth. Its entire country is faced with unemployment, disease, corruption, deforestation, crime, poor…
Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh


1.Introduction

According to estimations there are approximately 2, 6 billion people living without proper sanitation. These people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed, feel of fear or direct health problems due to lack of sanitation. Some relieve themselves during the night time while others hide in the bushes for defecation.

Some people even defecate into plastic bags and then throw the bags as far as they can. If people don’t have access to proper toilets, they need to rely on solutions that are neither good for them nor the communities they live in, or for the environment. Due to inadequate water supply, sewerage systems and lack of sanitation millions of people face death annually.

Over 2 million people die annually just by diarrhoea, wherefrom most are under the age of five. Every day approximately 5000 children die to diarrhoea based diseases. According to some estimates two thirds of the costs of medical treatment are used to nurse diarrhoea related diseases. At the same 300 million people in developed countries are using the same amount of water what many people in developing countries are entitled for a whole day by simply flushing once.

According to WHO and UNICEF safeguarding access to clean water and sanitation to all people would cost approximately 9 billion USD annually from the year 2005 to 2015 (including only building cost. If you compare this cost to the cost of global armament (780 billion USD annually), to the cost of alcohol and cigarette consumption in Europe (155 billion USD annually) or even to the cost of ice-cream consumption in Europe (11 billion USD) it can be considered as rather small cost.

World’s sanitation problems cannot be solved only by building water latrines and sewerage systems. The building and maintenance costs are too high and furthermore this infrastructure cannot ensure clean environment. In a case of inadequate waste water treatment even more severe health and environmental risks than the use of bushes for defecation purposes can be created.

Therefore, it is necessary to develop cheap, technically simple and safe sanitation alternatives, which can be adjusted to meet the needs of different cultures and environments. Dry latrines (Dry toilets, DT) are one good solution for this. It is also necessary to increase sanitation and hygiene education for understanding of the connections to human and environment health.

This sanitation guide was produced originally by Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland (GDTF) and Tampere University of Applied sciences (TAMK) project in 2005. The project received support from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland. The aim of the project was to increase the knowledge of Finnish workers in developing countries in sanitation and hygiene matters and to give them abilities to answer the local people’s questions on s.....[read full text]

Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

• pour-flush latrine/toilet to:

• public sewer

• septic tank

• pit latrine with slab

• ventilated improved pit latrine

• composting toilet.


Following sanitation facilities are considered as undeveloped:


• service or bucket latrines (where excreta are manually removed)

• pit latrines without slab or platform

• hanging latrine

• open latrines

• excretion to environment.


Basic sanitation was defined in UN’s World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002.

By the definition basic sanitation consists: [4]

• development and implementation of efficient household sanitation systems

• improvement of sanitation in public institutions, especially in schools

• promotion of safe hygiene practices

  • promotion of education and outreach focused on children, as agents of behavioral change

  • promotion of affordable and socially and culturally acceptable .....

Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
  • human urine and faeces are considered as a resource, not as waste


  • recovery of nutrients from excreta and utilization of the end product as fertilizer and soil enrichment material


  • in situ or close by treatment of the excreta


  • avoiding utilization of water in the transportation of excreta


  • use of decentralized waste treatment methods and services (e.g. collecting, recycling and preserving)


The principle of nutrient cycle is shown in Picture 1. In the nature waste is not generated, but all the products of organisms are used as nutriment or nutrients for other organisms. Plants give directly nutrition to herbivores or indirectly as energy for the animals higher in the food chain. When animals defecate into the nature, the unused nutrients are transferred back to soil for the use of plants and decomposers.

Human nutrient cycle was also earlier a closed system and the nutrients of excrement have been utilized in cultivation. In the developed countries after the change to modern sanitation techniques, the nutrients of excreta are not used for soil enrichment anymore. Excreta is mixed with water (in industrial countries usually to drinking water) and transported to centralized water treatment plants for purification.

By doing so the nutrient value of the excreta is lost and waste is produced rather than valuable soil enrichment material. This has led to situation where fields are fertilized with artificial fertilizers to ensure growth. Nutrient runoffs of these additional fertilizers are the cause of eutr.....

Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis


1.3. Water and sanitation situation of the world

Access to clean water can be considered as one of the basic needs and rights of a human being. The health of the people and dignified life is based on access to clean water. Clean water together with proper sanitation increases the well-being in terms of health and economy. When sanitary conditions improve people have more time to take care of livelihood and food supply.

Ensuring access to clean water and basic sanitation services is the first step in eliminating poverty. [5]


According to WHO and UNICEF 87 per cent of world’s population had access to an adequate water supply. The amount of proper sanitation has increased from 49 percent in year 1990 to 62 percent in year 2006. Still approximately 900 million people are lacking access to an adequate water supply and 38 per cent of the word’s population (equals to 2, 5 billion people) are without access to proper sanitation services.

Most of these people live in areas of Asia, where as much as half of the population lack of proper sanitation services, and in areas of Africa, where 2 out of 5 does not have access to adequate water supply. The situation is especially alarming in rural areas, where half of the people do not have access to proper sanitation and water supply services. In bigger cities the problem is intense population growth and concentration on population centers.

This will burden existent servi.....

Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis





Examples on consequences of lack of clean drinking water and proper sanitation services.

  • Each year there are approximately 4 billion diarrhoea cases that cause 2.2 million deaths, mostly among children under the age of five. This means a rate of one child every fifteenth second, which is 15 percent of all of the death causes among the children under the age of 5.

  • Approximately 10 percent of the population in developing countries is affected by intestinal worms.

  • Intestinal parasitic infections can lead to malnutrition, anaemia and retarded growth.

  • 6 million people are blind from trachoma. It is the most common cause of blindness in the world.

  • 200 million people in the world are infected with schistosomiasis, of whom 20 million suffer severe

  • co.....

Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Figure 5: The distribution of water usage in households in Finland.


Water supply and sanitation services in developing countries face a number of challenges which make it difficult for them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The world population has increased by an average annual rate of 1.3 % since 1990 and currently stands at about 7 billion. Urbanisation around the world has increased from 43 % in 1990 to 51 % in 2010 and the rising trend is expected to continue.

This urbanisation, which is highest in developing countries, has led to the mushrooming of informal settlements where water supply and sanitation services are virtually non-existent and waterborne diseases are prevalent. This chapter looks at the challenges for water supply and sanitation in developing countries and uses case studies and examples from Zimbabwe to illustrate typical problems.

The problems include lack of investment in the water and sanitation sector, inappropriate technologies, ill-defined institutional frameworks, capacity limitations, and neglect of rural areas. Poor water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe is typified by the cholera outbreak of 2008/09 which killed nearly 4,300 out of the 99,000 that were affected. The general conclusion of this chapter is that the problem of water supply and sanitation in developing countries requires innovative thinking as it impacts on other areas such as the food and energy sectors.

The emphasis should be on appropriate technologies, particularly waterless toilets and natural sewage treatment systems. For water supply, focus should be on demand management and reduction of unaccounted-for water and innovative methods of enha.....

This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download Proper use of Sanitation in Bangladesh
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Legal info - Data privacy - Contact - Terms-Authors - Terms-Customers -
Swap+your+documents