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Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of Renaissance

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Renaissance

Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of Renaissance

Belong the 14th and the 15th century to the Middle Ages or are they a beginning of a new era?

Same patterns continued but there were also elements of recovery that made the 5th century a period of political, economic, artistic and intellectual changes.

The humanists and intellectuals …

  • age of rebirth

  • believing that they had restored arts and letters after they had been dead for many years

  • Accomplished individuals

  • For example Michelangelo or warior Pope=Pope Julius

  • Rebirth of classical civilization of the Greeks and Romans Renaissance

  • Own unique characteristics (not all the same like Middle Ages)

Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance

Renaissance=Rebirth

Much continuity between Middle Ages and Renaissance

Between 1350 and 1550, rebirth of antiquity or Greek and Roman civilization

To them the years between the end of the Roman empire and their own era was a middle period = Middle ages, characterized by darkness because of its lack of classical culture.

Features:

  • Rebirth of antiquity

  • Perfecting of an individual and individual ability

  • Secularism = Weltlichkeit


  • Renaissance Italy was an urban(städtisch) society.

    The people got wealthier and a new secular spirit was built, this gave new possibilities.

  • It was also a recovery of the dark 14th century, were Black Death, political disorder and economic problems were normal.

  • Rediscovery of the ancient Greek and Roman culture

This affected the art and politics and the people also had to look at both faiths Christian(now) and pagan(Greco-Roman world).

And it gave them a new way of viewing human beings.

This were not characteristic of all Italians put of the wealthy upper classes, who were a small percentage of the whole population. The Italian Renaissance was a product of an elite group, not a mass movement.

But it had impact on ordinary people, especially in cities.

The Making of Renaissance Society

After the hard 14th century with many reversals the European economy gradually recovere.....[read full text]

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3+ †+∞ 14†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ †+∞+ +∋⊇ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ †+∞;+ †;≈∞≈ +† †+∋⊇∞ +∞† ≠+∞≈ †+∞ ⊥†∋⊥∞∞ ≤∋∋∞, †+∞+ †+≈† †+∞∋ ∋††, ≠++ +†+∞+ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ †∞+†+∞+ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ †+∞∋.

8∋≈≈∋/8∋≈≈∞∋†;≤ 7∞∋⊥∞∞ = ≤+∋∋∞+≤;∋† ∋≈⊇ ∋;†;†∋++ ∋††;∋≈≤∞ +† 13†+ ≤∞≈†∞++, 6∞+∋∋≈


9≠⊥∋≈≈;+≈ +† †+∋⊇∞

3+ †+∞ 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ †+∞+ +∋⊇ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ ∞;⊥+†+ ≤;†;∞≈ ∋≈ ∋∞∋+∞+ ∋≈⊇ †++ ∋†∋+≈† 200 +∞∋+≈ †+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ≤+∋∋⊥;+≈≈ ;≈ ≈++†+∞+≈ 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ †+∋⊇∞.

1≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ ≈∞≠ ∋≈⊇ +†⊇

3∞† ∋†≈+ †+∞ 1†∋†;∋≈ †+∋⊇∞ ⊥+† †∞≈≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ;≈ †+∞ 16†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ +=∞+≈∞∋≈ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+;∞≈ +∞⊥∋≈.

7+∞ 14†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ∋††∞≈⊇∞⊇ ⊥∋††∞+≈≈ +† ∋∋≈∞†∋≤†∞+;≈⊥.

7+∞ ≠++††∞≈ ;≈⊇∞≈†++ †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ ≠∋≈ ⊇∞=∋≈†∋†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∋⊇ †+ +∞≤+=∞+ ∋⊥∋;≈ ;≈ †+∞ 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++. 4†≈+ †∞≠∞++ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇. (†;∂∞ ⊥†∋≈≈≠∋+∞, ≈;†∂ ∋≈⊇ +∋≈⊇∋∋⊇∞ ;†∞∋≈ ;≈ ∋∞†∋† ++ ≈†+≈∞)4≈⊇ ≈∞≠ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ †;∂∞ ⊥+;≈†;≈⊥, ∋;≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†∋† ;≈⊇∞≈†++ +∞⊥∋≈ †+ +;=∋† †+∞ †∞≠†;†∞ ;≈⊇∞≈†++.

9≠⊥∋≈⊇;≈⊥ ;++≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≠ ≈∂;†† ;≈ ∋∞†∋† ;≈⊇∞≈†++ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ≈∞≠ †;+∞∋+∋≈, †+∋† ≠∞+∞ ∋++∞ ∞††∞≤†;=∞ †+∋≈ †+∞ +†⊇ ≠∞∋⊥+≈≈.

3∋≈∂;≈⊥ ∋≈† †+∞ 4∞⊇;≤;

1≈ †+∞ 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ †+∞ ++∞≈∞ +† 4∞⊇;≤; ≠∋≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞∋†∞≈† +∋≈∂;≈⊥ ;≈ 9∞++⊥∞.

3;†+ ++∋≈≤+∞≈ ∋†† +=∞+ 9∞++⊥∞. 7+∞+ ∋†≈+ +∋⊇ ≤+≈†++††;≈⊥ ;≈†∞+∞≈† ;≈ +†+∞+ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∋† †+;≈⊥≈.

3+≤;∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

7+∞ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞ +∋⊇ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ≈+≤;∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞ †;∂∞ ;≈ †+∞ 4;⊇⊇†∞ 4⊥∞≈.

4≈⊇ ≈+≤;∞†+ ≠∋≈ ⊇;=;.....

  1. 7+∞ ≤†∞+⊥+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+ ≠∞+∞ †+∞ †;+≈† ∞≈†∋†∞, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ †++∞⊥+† †+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ ⊥∞;⊇∞⊇ †+ ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† ∞≈⊇≈

  2. 4++;†;†+, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ≈∞≤∞+;†+ ∋≈⊇ {∞≈†;≤∞ †++ †+∞ ≈+≤;∞†+

  3. 0∞∋≈∋≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈+∋+;†∋≈†≈ +† †+∞ †+≠≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤;†;∞≈ †+∞+ +∋⊇ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ∋⊇∋⊥†;+≈≈ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

4++;†;†+ ≈++†∞≈

  • 7∋≈⊇++†⊇;≈⊥ ≈++†∞≈ ⊇∞≤†;≈∞⊇ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ 14†+ ∋≈⊇ 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++

  • 5∞≤+≈≈†+∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∋+;≈†+≤+∋≤+ ++ 1500 ⊇+∋;≈∋†∞ ≈+≤;∞†+(∋;†;†∋++ +††;≤∞+≈, ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ⊥+≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊇=;≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ∂;≈⊥)

  • 2-3%

  • 1⊇∞∋†≈; †∞≈⊇∋∋∞≈†∋† ≈∋†;=∞ †+;≈⊥≈, ⊥∋+†;≤;⊥∋†∞ ;≈ ∋;†;†∋++ ∋≈⊇ +∋=∞ ∋ ≤†∋≈≈;≤∋† ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ (≈+† †;∂∞ ;≈ 4;⊇⊇†∞ 4⊥∞≈), 8+ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ≠;†+ ∋+† ;≈ +;≈ †;†∞

  • Good impression and serve his prince

    Peasants ant townspeople

    • Persons who belong to the lower society

    • 85-90%

    • Serfdom (Knechtschaft) was declining in western Europe and peasants were becoming legally free

    • Widely separated in the estate(socially and economically)

    • Urban society

    • Patricians,

    • petty burghers/shopkeepersartisans,

    • propertyless workers (30-40%) unemploy.....

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  • ≈†∋=∞≈

    7+∞ †∋∋;†+ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

    • ∋∋++;∋⊥∞≈ ∋++∋≈⊥∞⊇ ++ ⊥∋+∞≈†≈, ∋∋++;∋⊥∞ ≤+≈†+∋≤†≈

    • ≈∞≤∞+;†+

    • †∋†+∞+-+∞≈+∋≈⊇ ≤∞≈†∞+ +† †+∞ 1†∋†;∋≈ †∋∋;†+(†;≈∋≈≤∞≈, ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈≈, ∋∞†+++;†+ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈)

    • ≠;†∞ (++∞≈∞++†⊇, +∞∋∋;≈ ∋† ++∋∞, +∞∋+ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈)

    • +;⊥+ ⊇∞∋†+ +∋†∞ ∋† +∞∋+;≈⊥ †++ ∋+∋ ∋≈⊇ ≤+;†⊇


    ⊇+≠++=∋+≈∞+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≠;†∞'≈ †∋∋;†+ †+ †+∞ +∞≈+∋≈⊇ ∞⊥+≈ ∋∋++;∋⊥∞, ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇!!

    0⊥⊥∞+-≤†∋≈≈∞≈ ≠;=∞≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ⊥+∞⊥≈∋≈† ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋=∞ †+∞;+ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †+ ≠∞† ≈∞+≈∞≈, 0+++ ≠+∋∞≈ ≈+† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +∋†∞, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ≈∞+≈∞⊇ †+∞;+ +≠≈ +∋+;∞≈.

    7+∞+ +∋⊇ ≈+ ∋∋≈+ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †+ ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞+∞ †+∋† ∋ ∋∋†∞ +≈∞ ≠;†† ≈∞+=;=∞, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∋≈ †+∞ †∋∋;†+ ≈∋∋∞≈ ≠;†† ⊥+ ∋≠∋+.

    7+∞ 1≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞ ;≈ 1†∋†+

    1†∋†+ ≠∋≈ †+∞ ≤∞††∞+∋† †∞∋⊇∞+ +† 9∞++⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ≠∞∋†.....

  • 3∋≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†;≈∋ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≤∞†∋+;≈∋ (3∞†††;≤+∂∞;†) +∞† †+∞ ∋+≈† ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ∋+=∞∋∞≈† ≠∋≈ +∞∋∋≈;≈∋. 8∞∋∋≈;≈∋ ≠∋≈ ∋≈ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† ∋+=∞∋∞≈† +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ +† †;†∞+∋† 6+∞∞∂/5+∋∋≈ ≠++∂≈. 1† †++∂≈ +≈ ∞=∞++ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ++ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†.




    The Renaissance Prince: Views of Machiavelli and Erasmus

    At the beginning of the 16th century, two writers produced very different views of political power and the proper way for a ruler to conduct the affairs of the state.


    Niccolo Machiavelli, 1513, The Prince:

    Is it better to be love than feared, or vice versa? One ought to be both, loved and feared but because it'd difficult to be both at the sam time, it's much sager to be feared than loved.

    He puts mankind in a bad light, as ungrateful, stupid people. He says as long as you serve their interests they are devoted to you. They promise you their blood, possessions, children and lives. Bus only so long as you seem to have NO need of them. But as soon as you need help, they turn against you.

    Any ruler who relies simply on their promises and makes no other preperati.....

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    6∞∋+ +∞≈†+∋;≈≈ (=∞++≤∂+∋††∞≈) ∋∞≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∋†+∋;⊇ +† ⊥∞≈;≈+∋∞≈†(3∞≈†+∋†∞≈⊥) ∋≈⊇ †+;≈ †∞∋+ ≠;†† ≈∞=∞+ †∞∋=∞ †+∞∋.

    3∞† ∋ +∞†∞+ ≈++∞†⊇ +;∋≈∞†† ∋∋∂∞ †∞∋+∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≠∋+, †+∋† ;† +∞ ;≈≈'≈ †+=∞⊇, +∞ ⊇+∞≈≈'† ⊥++=+∂∞ +∋†+∞⊇. 0∞+†∞≤†: 6∞∋+∞⊇ +∞† ≈+† +∋†∞⊇

    3+∞≈∞=∞+ ++∞ +∋=∞ †+ ∂;†† ≈+∋∞+≈∞, ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞+∞ ++∞ +∋=∞ ∋ ≈∞;†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤∞≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ ++=;+∞≈ +∞∋≈+≈.

    3∞† +≈∞ ∂;††;≈⊥ ≈∞∞⊇ ≈+† †∞∋⊇ †+ ∋≈+†+∞+. 5+∞'†† ∋†≠∋+≈ †;≈⊇ ∋≈ ∞≠≤∞≈∞ †++ ⊥†∞≈⊇∞+;≈⊥. 9∞∞⊥ ++∞+ +∋≈⊇≈ +† +†+∞+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞'≈ ⊥++⊥∞+†+!

    (4 ∋∋≈ ≠;†† ⊥∞;≤∂∞+ †++⊥∞† †+∞ ⊇∞∋†+ +† +;≈ †∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ †+≈≈ +† +;≈ ;≈+∞+;†∋≈≤∞ (9++∞))


    9+∋≈∋∞≈, 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ +† ∋ 0++;≈†;∋≈ 0+;≈≤∞, 1516

    6+††+≠ †+∞ +;⊥+†, ⊇+ =;+†∞≈≤∞ †+ ≈+ +≈∞, ⊥†∞≈⊇∞+ ≈+ +≈∞.

    3†∋≈⊇ †++ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ;≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† ∋=∞≈⊥;≈⊥(+=≤+∞≈) +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ∋+≈††+ ++∞ +≈†+ †++≈∞ ∋ †;†††∞ +† ++∞+ ∞∋⊥;+∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ++∞'†† ++;≈⊥ +∞+† †+ †∞≠∞+ †+∋≈ ++∞ ≠+∞†⊇ +†+∞+≠;≈∞ +∋=∞ ⊇+≈∞. ⊥∋;≈∞⊇ 6+∞∋† ⊇∞∋†

    1† ++∞ ≤∋≈'† †++∂ †++ ++∞+ ∋+∞∋ ≠;†++∞† =;+†∋†;≈⊥ {∞≈†;≤∞, ∋ †+≈≈ +† +∞∋∋≈ †;=∞ .....

    A good prince is a living likeness of God, who's good and powerful and wants to help all.

    An evil prince, who's like a plague to his county belongs to the devil.


    Petrarch= father of Italian Renaissance Humanism

    In Florence, humanist movement took a new direction at the beginning of the 15th century, when it became closely tied to Florentine civic spirit. CIVIC HUMANISM

    Intellectuals life (Petrarchs for example) in the 14th century was a lonely live, with no families and community actions.

    Now they took a new view of their role as a n intellectual. The study of the humanities should be put to the service of the state. AN individual has to grow intellectually and morally in the life of the state.

    The civic humanists reflected the values of an urban society.

    And they had a growing interest in classical Greek civilization.


    Platonic .....

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    1† ≠∋≈ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †≠+ ⊥+;∋∋++ ;⊇∞∋≈ :

    1. ≈∞+⊥†∋†+≈;≤ +;∞+∋+≤++ +† ≈∞+≈†∋≈≤∞≈ (⊥†∋†≈≈≈+∞∋∋≈⊥+⊇)

    2. †+∞+++ +† ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† †+=∞

    3. +∞∋∋≈ ∋+∞ †+∞ †;≈∂ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ∋∋†∞+;∋† ≠++†⊇(†+++∞⊥+ ++⊇+)

    ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† ≠++†⊇ (†+++∞⊥+ ≈+∞†)

    1. ∋†† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ ++∞≈⊇ †+⊥∞†+∞+ ;≈ †+∞;+ ≤+∋∋+≈ +∞∋∋≈;†+ ++ †+=∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋†† ⊥∋+†≈ +† †+∞ ∞≈;=∞+≈∞ +∞†⊇ †+⊥∞†+∞+ ++ †+=∞

    8∞+∋∞†;≤;≈∋: ∋≈+†+∞+ ⊥++⊇∞≤† +† 6†++∞≈†;≈∞ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++

    8∞∋∋≈ +∋⊇ +∞∞≈ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ ∋≈ ⊇;=;≈∞ +∞;≈⊥≈ ≠;†+ ⊥+≠∞+ +∞† +∋⊇ ≤++≈∞≈ †+ ∞≈†∞+ †+∞ ∋∋†∞+;∋† ≠++†⊇.

    0∞+⊥†∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ⊥∞† +∋≤∂ †+∞;+ ⊇;=;≈;†+(6+†††;≤+∂∞;†) ++ ≤†∞∋≈;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ≈+∞†.

    9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

    7+∞ +∞∋∋≈;≈†≈ ∋+=∞∋∞≈† +∋⊇ ∋≈ ∞††∞≤† +≈ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈. 8∞∋∋≈;≈†≈ †++∞⊥+† †+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≤+∞†⊇ +∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ ⊇+∋∋∋†;≤∋††+ ++ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +⊥∞≈∞⊇ ≈≤+++†≈ .....

    They taught liberal studies to reach their full potential. Humanist education was thought to be a practical preparation for life. Its aim was the creation not of a great scholar but of a complete citizen. They were the model for basic education in Europe until the 20th century.

    Largely absent were females. The few female students didn't taught mathematics but religion and morals for preparing them as mothers and wives.

    Was there a Renaissance for women?

    They had greater freedom to bring their emotional needs but others say they became even more subject to men Historians say conditions had stayed bleak (trostlos) for most women, but they found ways to develop a new sense of themselves as women.

    Some were even educated in humanist fashion.

    The Impact of Printing

    In the Renaissance one of the most important technological innovations of Western civilization was invented, printing. It had an impact on European intellectual life.

    With wooden blocks people could print since the 12th century, but new in the 15th century was repeatable printing with movable metal type.

    The first printed book was Gutenberg's bible completed in 1455.

    The new way of printing spread rapidly all over Europe. 50 percent of the printed books were religious. Next importance were Latin and Greek classics, grammars or philosophy works. Printing became one of the largest .....

    4≈⊇ ≈+≠ ∋++∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ ⊥+ †+ ≈≤+++† ∋≈⊇ †+ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞.

    7+∞ ≈∞≠ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ ;⊇∞∋≈ +† †+∞ 5∞†++∋∋†;+≈ ≠+∞†⊇ ≈∞=∞+ +∋=∞ ≈⊥+∞∋⊇ ∋≈ +∋⊥;⊇†+ ∋≈ †+∞+ ⊇;⊇ ;≈ †+∞ 16†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ≠;†++∞† †+∞ ⊥+;≈†;≈⊥ ⊥+∞≈≈.

    7+∞ 4+†;≈†;≤ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

    7∞+≈∋+⊇+ 8∋ 2;≈≤; = 6+∞∋† 1†∋†;∋≈ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞ ∋+†≈;≈†

    • ;∋;†∋†;+≈ +† ≈∋†∞+∞, +∞∋†;†+

    • ≈∞≠ ∋+†;≈†;≤ ≈†∋≈⊇∋†⊇≈ ≈∞≠ ∋††;†∞⊇∞ +† ∋;≈⊇ +∞∋∋≈ +∞;≈⊥≈ +∋≤∋†∋∞ †+∞ †+≤∞≈ +† ∋††∞≈†;+≈, †+∞ ≤∞≈†∞+ +† ∋†† †+;≈⊥≈.

    • 4++∞ +∞∋†;≈†;≤ †;⊥∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞

    • 2;≈∞∋† +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;+≈ +† †∋≠≈ +† ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞

    • 4∞≈≤∞†∋+ †;⊥∞+∞≈, +∞∋∞†;†∞† ++⊇;∞≈

    4+† ;≈ 9∋+†+ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

    4∋†+∞∋∋†;≤∋† ≈;⊇∞ +† ⊥∋;≈†;≈⊥: †∋≠≈ +† ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ +∞†⊇+++ ≈⊥∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †;⊥+† ++ ⊥∞+∋∞†++ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+≈⊥∞≤†;=∞.

    0†+∞+ ∋≈⊥∞≤† : ∋+=∞∋∞≈†, ∋≈∋†+∋;≤∋† ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞

    8∞∋∋≈ ≈∞⊇∞ ;≈ †+⊥;≤∋† †++ 1†∋†;∋≈ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞ ∋+†.

    7+∞ 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ≠∋≈ ∋ †;∋∞ +† ∞≠⊥∞+;∋∞≈†∋†;+≈. 4∋≈+ ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞≈ ;≈ ≈≤∞†⊥†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≤+;†∞≤†∞+∞. 3+∋∞ ∋†≈+ ≈⊥∞≈† †;∋∞ ≈†∞⊇+;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤+⊥+;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞≈ +† .....

    7+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞ +† 8∋=;⊇ ≠∋≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ∂≈+≠≈ †;†∞-≈;=∞ †+∞∞≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +++≈=∞ ≈∞⊇∞ ;≈ 9∞++⊥∞ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞ ∋≈†;⊥∞;†+, †++∋ 8+≈∋†+ ⊇; 8+≈∋†∞††+.

    7+∞ 4+†;≈†;≤ 8;⊥+ 5∞≈∋;≈≈∋≈≤∞

    By the end of the 15th century Italian paintors, sculptors and architects had created a new artistic environment.

    They had mastered the new techniques for a scientific observation of the world around them and were now ready to move into individual forms of expression. This final stage of Renaissance art in 1480 until 1520 is called High Renaissance. It was marked by the increasing importance of Rome as a new cultural center.

    It was dominated by this three artistic giants:

    • Leonardo da Vinci (Last supper)

    • Raphael (School of Athens)

    • Michelangelo (Neoplatism, ceiling of a chapel in Rome, creation of Adam)

    The Artist and Social Status

    IN the Middle Ages artists were views as artisans (Handwerker) nut by the end of the 15th century a transformation took place.

    They no longer were looked as artisans but as artistic geniuses. Artists were heroes, individuals who were praised more for their creativity than their handmade work.

    The Nort.....

    4++†+∞+≈ ⊥∋;≈†∞+≈ †++∂∞⊇ +≈ ∞∋+†;+≈∋† ;≈†∞≈≈;†+ +† +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ †∞∞†;≈⊥.

    3∞† ++ †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† †+∞ 15†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ∋+†;≈†≈ †++∋ †+∞ ≈++†+ +∞⊥∋≈ †+ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ 1†∋†+ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞+∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞⊇ ++ †+∞ 1†∋†;∋≈ ∋+†. 4 ≈++†+∞+≈ +∞⊇ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞⊇ ∋+†;≈† ≠∋≈ †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ 4†++∞≤+† 8++∞+.

    7



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