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Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of Renaissance

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Renaissance

Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of Renaissance

Belong the 14th and the 15th century to the Middle Ages or are they a beginning of a new era?

Same patterns continued but there were also elements of recovery that made the 5th century a period of political, economic, artistic and intellectual changes. The humanists and intellectuals …

  • age of rebirth

  • believing that they had restored arts and letters after they had been dead for many years

  • Accomplished individuals

  • For example Michelangelo or warior Pope=Pope Julius

  • Rebirth of classical civilization of the Greeks and Romans Renaissance

  • Own unique characteristics (not all the same like Middle Ages)

Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance

Renaissance=Rebirth

Much continuity between Middle Ages and Renaissance

Between 1350 and 1550, rebirth of antiquity or Greek and Roman civilization

To them the years between the end of the Roman empire and their own era was a middle period = Middle ages, characterized by darkness because of its lack of classical culture.

Features:

  • Rebirth of antiquity

  • Perfecting of an individual and individual ability

  • Secularism = Weltlichkeit


  • Renaissance Italy was an urban(städtisch) society. The people got wealthier and a new secular spirit was built, this gave new possibilities.

  • It was also a recovery of the dark 14th century, were Black Death, political disorder and economic problems were normal.

  • Rediscovery of the ancient Greek and Roman culture

This affected the art and politics and the people also had to look at both faiths Christian(now) and pagan(Greco-Roman world). And it gave them a new way of viewing human beings.

This were not characteristic of all Italians put of the wealthy upper classes, who were a small percentage of the whole population. The Italian Renaissance was a product of an elite group, not a mass movement. But it had impact on ordinary people, especially in cities.

The Making of Renaissance Society

After the hard 14th century with many reversals the European economy gradually recovered and trade increased. By the 14th century they had expanded their lines of trade but when the plague came, they lost them all, why other countries further expanded them.

Hansa/Hanseatic League = commercial and military alliance of 13th century, German


Expansion of trade

By the 15th century they had more than eighty cities as member and for almost 200 years they were champions in northern European trade.

Industries new and old

But also the Italian trade got less important in the 16th century when the overseas discoveries began.

The 14th century attended patterns of manufacturing. The woollen industry for example was devastated and had to recover again in the 15th century. Also luxury industries expanded. (like glassware, silk and handmade items in metal or stone)And new industries like printing, mining and metal industry began to rival the textile industry. Expanding iron production and new skill in metal industry developed new firearms, that were more effectiv.....[read full text]

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The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy

Italy was the cultural leader of Europe and a relatively wealthy urban lay society. Was characterized by individualism and secularism (Weltlichkeit) but the most important movement was humanism. Humanism was an intellectual movement based on the study of literal Greek/Roman works. It looks on every single person or individual.



The Renaissance Prince: Views of Machiavelli and Erasmus

At the beginning of the 16th century, two writers produced very different views of political power and the proper way for a ruler to conduct the affairs of the state.


Niccolo Machiavelli, 1513, The Prince:

Is it better to be love than feared, or vice versa? One ought to be both, loved and feared but because it'd difficult to be both at the sam time, it's much sager to be feared than loved. He puts mankind in a bad light, as ungrateful, stupid people. He says as long as you serve their interests they are devoted to you. They promise you their blood, possessions, children and lives.

Bus only so long as you seem to have NO need of them. But as soon as you need help, they turn against you.

Any ruler who relies simply on their promises and makes no other preperations, will be destroyed.

Fear restrains (zurückhalten) men because they are afraid of punishment(Bestrafung) and this fear will never leave them. But a ruler should himself make feared in a way, that if he isn's loved, he doesn't provoke hatred. Perfec.....

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Intellectuals life (Petrarchs for example) in the 14th century was a lonely live, with no families and community actions. Now they took a new view of their role as a n intellectual. The study of the humanities should be put to the service of the state. AN individual has to grow intellectually and morally in the life of the state.

The civic humanists reflected the values of an urban society. And they had a growing interest in classical Greek civilization.


Platonic philosophy = Neoplatism

It was based on two primary ideas :

  1. neoplatonic hierarchy of substances (platnsshumangod)

  2. theory of spiritual love

  3. human are the link between the material world(through body)

and spiritual world (through soul)

  1. all people are bound together in their common humanity by love and all parts of the universe held together by love

Hermeticism: another product of Florentine intellectual environment 15th century

Human had been created as divine beings with power but had chosen to enter the material world. People could get back their divinity(Göttlichkeit) by cleaning their soul.

Education in the Renaissance

The humanists movement had an effect on education. Humanists thought that people could be changed dramatically by education and opened schools based on their ideas. They taught liberal studies to reach their full potential. Humanist education was thought to be a practical preparation for life. Its aim was the creation not of a great scholar but of a complete citizen.

They were the model for basic education in Europe until the 20th century. Largely absent were females. The few female students didn't taught mathematics but religion and morals for preparing the.....

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The new religious ideas of the Reformation would never have spread as rapidly as they did in the 16th century without the printing press.

The Artistic Renaissance

Leonardo Da Vinci = Great Italian Renaissance artsist

  • imitation of nature, reality

  • new artistic standatds new attitude of mind human beings bacatme the focus of attention, the center of all things.

  • More realistic figures and landscape

  • Visual representation of laws of perspective

  • Muscular figures, beautiful bodies

Art in Early Renaissance

Mathematical side of painting: laws of perspective organization outdoor space and light by geometry and perspective.

Other aspect : movement, anatomical structure

Human nude is typical for Italian Renaissance art. The 15th century was a time of experimentation. Many advances in sculpture and architecture. Some also spent time studying and copying the statues of the antiquity in Rome.

The statue of David was the first known life-size freestanding bronze nude in Europe since the antiquity, fr.....

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