Leisure Activities in the Late Middle Ages in Europe My interest to write about the leisure activities in the Late Middle Ages came across my mind when I remembered talking with a friend about how much time we actually spent every day on facebook – a social networking website. But since in the Late Middle Ages no televisions, computers, game boys nor phones and all other electrical devices existed, I wondered how young people of my age – adolescents - passed their free time. As we may do several sport activities, I wanted to know what kind of sport they practiced. Furthermore was I interested in if there was a difference in leisure activities between the adolescents of noble and peasant social background. When I started to look for material concerning my topic (first of all in the internet) I was quite surprised about the many sources the internet offered me. Though, when I scanned over the texts, it was rather confusing because every webpage was writing about different activities during different time periods and at different places. Hence/Therefore­, I decided to focus on the Late Middle Ages (1250-1500) in Europe because it could bid me the most information – also in terms of books that I lend from the Mediothek. Once I had everything together I was prepared to start writing. To begin, I will give you a brief summary about the society ..
Prehistoric Britain and Ireland · By chronology: o Paleolithic Britain o Mesolithic Britain o Neolithic Britain o Bronze Age Britain o British Iron Age Introduction ­ ­ Human · Britain has been intermittently (prerušovane) inhabited by members of the Homo genus (ľudského génu) for hundreds of thousands of years, · and by Homo sapiens (človek rozumný) for tens of thousands of years. · modern humans arrived in Britain at least 25,000 years ago (before the end of the last glacial period) =è people migrated to Southern Europe (when much of the continental land mass of Britain became covered with ice or frozen as tundra) Geography · The seas level was about 127 m (417 ft.) lower than it is today (much water was trapped in ice). · Britain was joined to Ireland by a land bridge until 14,000 BC · Lowered sea level also joined Britain to Continental Europe by an area of dry land, known as Doggerland - until around 6500 BC. After ICE AGE · Homo sapiens had reoccupied Britain by approximately 12,000 BC (warmer and more hospitable climate). Literature, findings · By around 4000 BC, the island was populated by people with a Neolithic culture (because of no literature of pre-Roman Britain has survived, its history, culture and way of life are known mainly through archaeological finds). · The first significant written record of Britain and its inhabitants was made by the Greek
Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of Renaissance
Belong the 14th and the 15th century to the Middle Ages or are they a beginning of a new era?
Same patterns continued but there were also elements of recovery that made the 5th century a period of political, economic, artistic and intellectual changes.
The humanists and intellectuals …
age of rebirth
believing that they had restored arts and letters after they had been dead for many years
For example Michelangelo or warior Pope=Pope Julius
Rebirth of classical civilization of the Greeks and Romans Renaissance
Own unique characteristics (not all the same like Middle Ages)
Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance
Much continuity between Middle Ages and Renaissance
Between 1350 and 1550, rebirth of antiquity or Greek and Roman civilization
To them the years between the end of the Roman empire and their own era was a middle period = Middle ages, characterized by darkness because of its lack of classical culture.
Rebirth of antiquity
Perfecting of an individual and individual ability
Secularism = Weltlichkeit
Renaissance Italy was an urban(städtisch) society.
The people got wealthier and a new secular spirit was built, this gave new possibilities.
It was also a recovery of the dark 14th century, were Black Death, political disorder and economic problems were normal.
Rediscovery of the ancient Greek and Roman culture
This affected the art and politics and the people also had to look at both faiths Christian(now) and pagan(Greco-Roman world).
And it gave them a new way of viewing human beings.
This were not characteristic of all Italians put of the wealthy upper classes, who were a small percentage of the whole population. The Italian Renaissance was a product of an elite group, not a mass movement.
But it had impact on ordinary people, especially in cities.
The Making of Renaissance Society
After the hard 14th century with many reversals the European economy gradually recovere.....[read full text]
The Renaissance Prince: Views of Machiavelli and Erasmus
At the beginning of the 16th century, two writers produced very different views of political power and the proper way for a ruler to conduct the affairs of the state.
Niccolo Machiavelli, 1513, The Prince:
Is it better to be love than feared, or vice versa? One ought to be both, loved and feared but because it'd difficult to be both at the sam time, it's much sager to be feared than loved.
He puts mankind in a bad light, as ungrateful, stupid people. He says as long as you serve their interests they are devoted to you. They promise you their blood, possessions, children and lives. Bus only so long as you seem to have NO need of them. But as soon as you need help, they turn against you.
Any ruler who relies simply on their promises and makes no other preperati.....
A good prince is a living likeness of God, who's good and powerful and wants to help all.
An evil prince, who's like a plague to his county belongs to the devil.
Petrarch= father of Italian Renaissance Humanism
In Florence, humanist movement took a new direction at the beginning of the 15th century, when it became closely tied to Florentine civic spirit. CIVIC HUMANISM
Intellectuals life (Petrarchs for example) in the 14th century was a lonely live, with no families and community actions.
Now they took a new view of their role as a n intellectual. The study of the humanities should be put to the service of the state. AN individual has to grow intellectually and morally in the life of the state.
The civic humanists reflected the values of an urban society.
And they had a growing interest in classical Greek civilization.
They taught liberal studies to reach their full potential. Humanist education was thought to be a practical preparation for life. Its aim was the creation not of a great scholar but of a complete citizen. They were the model for basic education in Europe until the 20th century.
Largely absent were females. The few female students didn't taught mathematics but religion and morals for preparing them as mothers and wives.
Was there a Renaissance for women?
They had greater freedom to bring their emotional needs but others say they became even more subject to men Historians say conditions had stayed bleak (trostlos) for most women, but they found ways to develop a new sense of themselves as women.
Some were even educated in humanist fashion.
The Impact of Printing
In the Renaissance one of the most important technological innovations of Western civilization was invented, printing. It had an impact on European intellectual life.
With wooden blocks people could print since the 12th century, but new in the 15th century was repeatable printing with movable metal type.
The first printed book was Gutenberg's bible completed in 1455.
The new way of printing spread rapidly all over Europe. 50 percent of the printed books were religious. Next importance were Latin and Greek classics, grammars or philosophy works. Printing became one of the largest .....