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Research Question:

How does size if the canopy affect the velocity?


Introduction:

A parachute is an object which helps to slow down the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Parachutes are usually made out of light, strong fabric such as silk and nylon. Nylon is the fabric we use in modern days normally.

Parachute was discovered before the airplanes long ago in the 20th century. Leonardo da Vinci was the person originally to have the idea of parachutes but fausto veranzio was actually the one to make parachute useable. So normally you would say fausto veranzio created parachute but Leonardo also gets some credits.

In 1797 Andrew Garnerin was the first to do a recorded parachute jump without a rigid frame. He jumped from a place which was 8000 feet above ground. It was all pretty save until in 1837 Robert Cocking died in a parachute accident. That then lead to Captain Thomas Baldwin inventing the first parachute harness to keep people safe in 1887. Then in 1890 Paul Letteman and Kathchen Paulus had the idea of folding the parachute in a knapsack, to make parachutes more convenient.

In 1911 two parachuters claim to be the first person to jump from an airplane. In October 9, 1920 the first parachute training tower was build. But now a days there is many different kinds of parachute. Parachute are now mostly used for sports. Now known as sports parachutes.

Some examples are the Conical, Pyramid, Round, Square, Ram-Air, Ribbon/Ring. This already began in the 1960s. These parachute went in a horizontal speed. Parachutes all have something do with the earth’s gravity. The purpose if parachutes is to slow the gravity-driven fall of an object.

When we throw a ball up into the air sooner or later, it always falls back to the ground. That's because Earth pulls everything toward it, this process is called gravity. The strength of Earth's gravity is mostly the same all over the world. If we drop a heavy stone and a light feather from the top of a skyscraper, gravity pulls them toward the ground at exactly the same rate.

If there were no air, the feather and the stone would hit the ground at the same time. But if we do it the stone will always drop faster then the feather. Not because it weighs more but because the feather fans out and catches in the air as it falls. This process that slows it down is called air resistance.

What is air resistance though, does it really exist. Well just because the air is invisible, doesn't mean it's not there. Earth's atmosphere is full of gas molecules, so if you are to move through air you would have to push the gas molecules out of the way. Normally we don’t feel it, we only really notice this when we're m.....[read full text]

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Controlled variable- The weight of the play doe will always stay the same. The high the parachute will drop in will also always be the same. The string length will also always stay the same.

What I cant measure or ensure to make it fair is the wind. I cannot control the weather.


Materials:

  • Black rubbish bags

  • Scissors

  • Pen

  • Ruler

  • Scale

  • String

  • Stapler

  • Play dough

  • Hole puncher

  • Timer


Method:

  1. Take a black rubbish bag.

  2. Use a ruler to measure the size you want.

  3. Using a scissors cut the square out.

  • Repeat this step 2 more times but with different measurements. Each slightly bigger than the other.

  • Use a hole puncher and make 4 wholes in each of the edges of the box.

  • Measure out 12 strings.

  • Tie a knot on both ends of the string.

  • Put a string through each hole.

  • Use a stapler to fasten the string.

  • Use the left over rubbish bags to make little basket to put the play doe inside.

  • Attach the basket with the the canopy using the other and of the string and a stapler.

  • Weigh the play doe.

  • Put the play do.....

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    The was to keep you save is after throwing the parachute stay in an appropriate distance away from the side.


    Raw data:

    Weight of play dough (grams)

    Size of canopy

    Height of balcony (meters)

    Time for parachute to fall down (seconds)

    Total velocity (m/s)

    20.5

    30cm by 30cm

    9

    3.47

    2.59

    20.5

    38cm by 45cm

    9

    5.53

    1.62

    20.5

    52.5cm by 49cm

    9

    6.59

    1.36

    Analysis:

    In this graph, we can see that the velocity decreases as we have more surface area for the parachute’s canopy. That is happening because the I cut the canopies only slightly smaller then the other.

    I didn’t cut it that curate because it was kinda hard to cut a rubbish bag. But it still worked you can see by the graph that the velocity is decreasing slowly.


    Conclusion:

    In conclusion I think as my hypothesis says the bigger the canopy is the more air resistance it will create, the slower it will drop. According to my data each size of canopy has a different velocity because of the size.

    If I were to have time I would really want to try if that changing the pendant can affect the dropping speed. Using heavier weight for bigger canopies, I think that would be cool, if I had more time next time I would love to try. At least my hypothesis was successful, and logical.

    Air resistance is just the something as the force you fee.....

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    Theses are just some of the many problems to beware off.



    .....

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