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Stylistics: An Introduction

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“Stylistics” an Introduction

Contents

1. Stylistics as a linguistic discipline

2. The notion of style

3. Stylistic markedness (SM)

4. Expressiveness, imagery, emotiveness, intensity.

5. Variation.

6. Expressive means (EM) and stylistic devices (SD)

7. Spoken and written English.

8. The notion of stylistic function

9. Metaphor as a stylistic device.

10. Metonymy as a stylistic device

11. Epithet as a stylistic device.

12. Stylistic devices of zeugma and pun.

13. Antonomasia and oxymoron as stylistic devices.

14. Stylistic devices of simile and hyperbole.

15. Periphrasis and euphemism

16. Allusion and decompozition of set phrase.

17. Inversion and chiasmus

18. Repetition


19. Detached structures, climax.

20. Ellipsis, aposiopesis, question-in-the-narrative.

21. Asyndeton, polysyndeton, gap-sentance link.

22. Litotes and rhetorical questions

23. Represented Speech as a Stylistic Device

24. Onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance.

25, 26. Stylistic differentiation of the English vocabulary

27. The notion of functional style.

28. Literary English language

29. Literary prose

30, 31. Poetry. Rhyme, meter and rhythm

32. Lexical and syntactical features of poetry

33. The style of scientific prose of the English language.

34. The style of official documents.

35. The Newspaper style (NPS) of the English Language

36. Headlines in British NPs

37. The publicist style of the English language.

38. SD of Irony

39. Suspense and antithesis as stylistic devices.


1. Stylistics as a linguistic discipline

The name of Stylistics is given to many linguistic and literary studies and is loosely applied to various fields of theoretical studies and practicalities. Stylistics – no universally accepted and stable referent.

Two major approaches:

 In Britain, USA and some other countries – stylistics is the study of styles in literary (fictional, belles-letters) texts - художественные тексты. (M. Short, M.Toolan, H. Widdowson etc.)

M.Short, “Stylistics is an approach to the analysis of literary texts using linguistic description”.

In Russian tradition: the other approach – the study of styles of any language use from poetry to documents: st-cs is concerned with all types of texts (not only literary).

I. Galperin – “the investigation of the inventory of special language media, which by their ontological features secure the desirable effect of the utterance and certain types of texts”.

Over the last few years this approach has been gaining round even among Western linguists who analysed literary and non-literary texts from a stylistic PoV.

D.Crystal – “stylistics is the study of systematic variations in language use (style)”.

It’d be better to differentiate b-n ling. styl. (Гальперин: linguo-styl. analysis) & lit. styl. (Western ling. – литературоведение: analyses characters, exposition…)

(What is common: both focus on the research of expressive means and stylistic devices (EM & SD), which previously were studied in Rhetoric.) Stylistics is a subdomain of linguistics which concerns stylistic resources of the language and functional styles.

Styl. is a discipline of ling. and it intersects other areas of linguistic.....[read full text]

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- ≈+≤;+†;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈ – 3†-≤≈ ;≈ ⊥∋+† +† ≈+≤;+†;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈ ∋≈ ;† ⊇+∞≈≈’† ∞≠;≈† ≠;†++∞† ∋ ≈+≤;∋† ≈;†∞∋†;+≈; ≈+≤;∋† †-⊥∞ =∋+;∞†;∞≈

- ≤+⊥≈;†;=∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈ - ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∞⊇ ⊥∞;†∞ +∞≤∞≈††+– +∞†∋†∞≈ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∞≈;†≈ †+ +∞+ ∋;≈⊇, +∞†∋†∞≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈ ∋≈+ †∋≈⊥. †+ †+∞ ⊥∋††∞+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞≈ ≠+;≤+ ∞≠;≈† ;≈ +∞+ ∋;≈⊇, ∋† †+∞ ∋∞≈†∋† †∞=∞†

- ++∞†++;≤ – †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ +† ∞††∞≤†;=∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;†;≈⊥ (⊥∞+≈∞∋≈;+≈)

- ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤≈ –≈†∞⊇;∞≈ †+∞ †∋≤†++≈ ≠+;≤+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ∋ ⊥∞+≈+≈’≈ ≤++;≤∞ +† †-⊥∞ ∋∞∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈+ ≤++;≤∞ ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ †++ ⊥∞+∞†+ ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞≈; ≈†+†. ;≈ ⊥∋+† +† ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤≈; ≈†+†. +=∞+†∋⊥≈ ≠;†+ ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤≈ ;≈ ;†≈ ≈†∞⊇+ +† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ ≠+;≤+ ∞≠;≈† +-≈ †+∞ ≠+;†∞+ &∋∋⊥; †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ &∋∋⊥; ++≠ †+∞ ≤+≈†∞≠† ≤∋≈ ≤+≈≈†+∋;≈/∋††∞≤† †+∞ ≤++;≤∞ +† †;≈⊥. ∞≈;†≈ &∋∋⊥; †+∞;+ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈

- ⊇;≈≤+∞+≈∞ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ – ⊇∞∋†≈ ≠;†+ †++∋∋† &∋∋⊥; †∞≈≤†-† ++⊥∋≈;=-≈ +† †-⊥∞ ∋∞∋≈≈ ∞≠†∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ∋≤++≈≈ ⊇;≈≤+∞+≈∞≈; ⊇;≈≤. ∋≈∋†. ∋+=∞≈ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈ +† ⊇;≈≤. †+≠∋+⊇ +;≤+ +∞∋∋≈ ≤+≈†∞≠†≈ ∋≠∋+ †++∋ †+∞ ⊥+∞+≤≤∞⊥∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ ⊥∞+∞ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞≈  +† ∋∋;≈≈†+∞∋∋ †;≈⊥. – ∋∞≈†∋† ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈

- †;†∞+∋++ ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ (литературоведение) -  †;†∞+∋++ ≤+;†;≤;≈∋, ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ †;†∞+∋++ †∞≠†≈

- †∞≠† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈

КИРА: 3†+†;≈†;≤≈ - †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ +† ≈†+†∞≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ +∞†⊥ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈.  3†-≤≈ ⊇∞∋†≈ ≠;†+ .....

1)&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ †∋≈⊥. ∋∞∋≈≈;

2)&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈ +† ≈†+†;≈†;≤ †∞≠†≈ – ≈†+†∞ ;≈ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞⊇ ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ †∞≈≤†;+≈ (†∞≈≤†;+≈∋† ≈†+†∞); ≈†+†∞ ;≈ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇ ;≈ †∞+∋≈ +† ⊇;†а. ≠+;†∞+≈’ ≈†+†∞ +† †+∞ †∞≠†≈ (∋∞†+++, ⊥++∞⊥ +† †∞≠†≈) ;≈ †∞+∋≈ +† †∞≠† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤≈.

6∞≈≤†;+≈∋† ≈†+†∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+=∞+∞⊇ ;≈ †;≈⊥∞+≈†+†;≈†;≤≈. 

2. 7+∞ ≈+†;+≈ +† ≈†+†∞

7+∞ †∞+∋ ‘≈†+†∞’ +∋≈ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞⊇ ∋ †+† +† ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+∞+≈∞ +† +;≈†+++.

6++∋ 7∋†;≈ “≈†;†∞≈”. 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋ †+† +† ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ †+ †+∞ ≈+†;+≈ +† ‘≈†+†∞’ =&⊥†; ∋∋≈+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ †+ 3†-≤≈. 8∞†;≈;†;+≈≈:

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ∋ ≈++† +† ⊇∞≤++∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ (;≈†∞≈≈;†;≤∋†;+≈)

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; †+∞ ∋∋≈ +;∋≈∞††

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ∋ ≠∋+ +† ≈∋+;≈⊥ ++ ≠+;†;≈⊥ ≈∋†+

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 3†+†∞ ;≈ ∋ ⊇∞=;∋†;+≈ (⊇∞††∞≤†;+≈)

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; ≤++;≤∞ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈;†≈. 6∋†⊥∞+;≈: ≈†+†∞ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈ ++ ≈∞+≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈ ≤++;≤∞ +† ≠++⊇≈ (†∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈;†≈) ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ;≈†∞≈≈;†+ +≈∞’≈ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞.

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; +∞≈∞†† +† ≤++;≤∞

-&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ≠+;†∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+

-          situationally distinctive use of language. Ankvist: style is a situational variation of the language (It is like LOVE. we all know what it is, but cannot define it.). The choice depends on the social situation (socially determined language variation)

-          language variety conscious or unconscious selection of language means

Styles in literature i.e. romantic style, classical style.

Evaluative  styles: clumsy style, elegant style, terse (сжатый, краткий) style etc.

Perso.....

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3†+†∞ +† †+∞ †∞≠†.

6∞≈≤†;+≈∋† ≈†+†∞.

3†+†∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈/∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ –  (стилевые) +-≈ †∞≈≤†-† ≈†+†∞≈

3†+†;≈†;≤ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈/∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ – (стилистические) †+∞ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∋≈≤∞ +† ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ≤+≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ (∋ †;≠∞⊇/≈†∋+†∞ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≠++⊇ – ;≈ ≈†+†. †;≠∞⊇ ++ ≤+≈†∞≠†∞∋†, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ +∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ ≈†+†. ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈)


3. 3†+†;≈†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ (34)

- ⊥++∋;≈∞≈≤∞ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈;†≈ ∞;†+∞+ ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈ ∋ ≈+≈†∞∋ ++ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈†∞≠†. 4 †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈;† ;≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ;† ;† ;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;=∞⊇ ++ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ≤+≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ ⊥∋+∋⊇;⊥∋∋†;≤∋††+ ++ ≈+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤∋††+.

0∋+∋⊇;⊥∋∋†;≤ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ (†+;≈-≈∂;≈≈+) – ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤+≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ – +∞⊥;≈†∞+∞⊇ ;≈ ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈.

3+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ -  ;≈ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≈∞∞†+∋† ≠. ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈†∞≠†

________

                                               ≈+∋∂∞⊇                 ;≈        ≠∋†∞+

4 ∋∋≈ ≠++ +∋⊇ +∞∞≈           ≈∋+†+∞+∞⊇           ;≈        ∋∞⊇    

                                                    †∋∋∞⊇                  ++       ≈†+≈∞≈

                                                    ≤∞†                       ++       ††;≈†≈

                                                    ≈†∞≈⊥                   ++       ≈∞†††∞≈

                                                    †++≈                     ++       ++;∋+≈

__________

                                                                                                  0.8;≤∂∞≈≈

            1≈ †;†∞+∋++ †∞≠†≈ ≈+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ = †++∞⊥++∞≈⊇;≈⊥ (†;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∞≈;† +∞≤+∋∞≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈†∞≠†) - †+∞ †∞+∋ ;≈ +++++≠∞⊇ †++∋ ∋+† ≤+;†;≤;≈∋ ≠+∞+∞ ;† ≈†∋≈⊇≈ .....

34 ;≈≤†∞⊇∞≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;=∞≈∞≈≈, ;∋∋⊥∞++ (образность), ∞∋+†;=∞≈∞≈≈, ;≈†∞≈≈;†+.

[3† ∋ ∋≈⊇ †++∞⊥++∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ∋+∞ †≠+ +† +∋≈;≤ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ +† ≈†+†;≈†;≤≈.

3† ∋. 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ;≈ ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈ ∋ ≈+≈†∞∋ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈†∞≠†, †+∋† ;≈ ⊥∋+∋⊇;⊥∋∋†;≤∋††+ ∋≈⊇ ≈+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤∋††+. ( Далее необъяснимый поток слов: 3++∋⊇∞+ ≤+=∞+∞⊇ †++∞;⊥≈ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ≤+∋+⊥∞⊇ ;≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈+≈†∞∋)

~ 7+;≈-≈∂;≈≈+-†;≈+-≈†;∋ -&⊥†; ≈∂;≈≈+ ;≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈ ∋ ≈+≈†∞∋ – †+∋† ;≈ ⊥∋+∋⊇;⊥∋∋†;≤ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈!!!

3+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤ +≈∞:  ~ 0+≠∞+ ≈⊥+;†≈ ∋+≈+†∞†∞†+ ∞=∞+++≈∞. 4+≈+†∞†∞ ⊥+≠∞+ ≈⊥+;†≈ ∋+≈+†∞†∞†+. – 7+∞ ∞≈∞ +† +∞⊥∞†;†;+≈≈ ;≈†∞≈≈;†;∞≈, ∋∋∂∞≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ ∋++∞ ∞∋+†;+≈∋†, 2 ≠++⊇≈ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞ ≈†+†;≈†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈. 4≈⊇ †+;≈ ≈+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤ ≈† ∋∋+∂∞⊇≈∞≈≈ ( кульминация!!) ≤+;≈≤;⊇∞≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ ≈+†;+≈ 6++∞⊥++∞≈⊇;≈⊥ – †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈;† +∞≤+∋∞≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋††+ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈†∞≠†.

Гальперин решил ничего не говорить по этой теме, добавляю тока то, что в шпорах:

0∋+∋⊇. – ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤+≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ – +∞⊥;≈†∞+∞⊇ ;≈ ⊇;≤†;+≈∋+;∞≈. 3+≈† – ≤+≈≈+†∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≈∞∞†+∋† ≠. ;≈ ∋ ≤+≈†∞≠†. 3+≈†∋⊥∋∋†;≤∋††+ = †++∞⊥++∞≈⊇;≈⊥ (†;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∞≈;† +∞≤+∋∞≈ ≈†+†;≈†;≤∋.....

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