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Advanced Consumer Behavior 6SZ 009 Coursework 1 A critical analysis of consumer decision-making process in today’s hospitality industry Student Name: Ming Kai Eric, WONG (BAH2) Student Number: **** Submitted to: Mr. D. Bradley Submission Date: 08th April, 2011 A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts with Honors in Hospitality Management SHMS UC University of Derby 2011 Abstract This report is to critically analyze two consumer decision-making models and combine some postmodernism factors inside, such as Hyperreality, Fragmentation, Branding and customer loyalty. Therefore, the evaluation for the CMD models which is going to defined those models are vague or all-encompassin­g for apply in hospitality industry. Simple Model of Decision-Making Process model (Simth & Taylor. 2004) and Normative Model of Consumer Decision Making model. (William, 2002)are going to analyze in this report. Furthermore, aim and objectives and methodology are also mentioned in this report. Acknowledgement­s The author are be grateful for Mr. Bradley to provide a guideline and suggestion for this report. Besides, The theories, models and basic concept which about consumer behavior that taught and discussed in the lectures and tutorials lessons. All of above help the author to more deep understanding in consumer behaviors topic. Extra readings for books and
Temperature is the most important factor influencing enzyme activity. Argumentative Discussion This essay will be about factors influencing the enzyme activity. I will also prove the statement weather temperature is the most important factor influencing enzyme activity, or not. Lean back and just listen or read on your own. Enzymes are essential for almost all the chemical reactions that take place inside living cells. However, the activities of the enzymes can be enhanced or inhibited by a number of factors. Enzymes are protein-based complex molecules produced by the cells. There are several enzymes which are involved with different biochemical reactions. Each of these enzymes present in our body can influence any one particular chemical reaction or a set of reactions. They serve as organic catalysts and enhance (verbessern, erhöhen) the speed of the reactions in which they take part. In the absence of an enzyme, the speed of a chemical reaction becomes extremely slow. Some of these reactions may not occur if the right kind of enzyme is not present in the body. An enzyme can increase the speed of a chemical reaction in many ways. The chemical substances that are present at the start of a biochemical process is termed as substrates which experience chemical changes to form one or more end products. Basically, the active site of the enzymes forms a temporary bond with the substrate. During this time, an enzyme

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users


A Survey on


Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users in Kathmandu Valley


Submitted by,


MBA-A, (2017-19)


ACE Institute of Management


PU Registration Number: 2017-2-22-0446


A Graduate Research Project


Submitted to,


Mr.

Pravat Uprety


Faculty: Business Research Methodology


ACE Institute of Management


As a partial fulfilment for the Degree of


Masters of Business Administration


Kathmandu


August, 2018

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users


Letter of Acknowledgement


This graduate research project “A Study on Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behavior of Smartphones Users in Kathmandu” would not have been possible without the help and guidance of several individuals who in one way or another contributed their valuable assistance in the preparation of this project.


First of all, I would like to thank our course instructor Mr.

Parvat Uprety for all the support, guidance, and motivation throughout the period of this research project. It would have been impossible to complete the research project on the prescribed format without his supervision and guidelines.


I would also like to appreciate ACE Institute of Management and thank Department of MBA, Pokhara University for designing such a practical course in our faculty.


And also to all those respondents who helped me by filling the questionnaire and helped me to complete my research work.


Last but not the least, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude towards my family and friends who supported and encouraged me during the pe.....[read full text]

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_______


00 5∞⊥;≈†+∋†;+≈ 4∞∋+∞+: 2017-2-22-0446

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈


7∋+†∞ +† 0+≈†∞≈†≈


7;≈† +† 7∋+†∞≈ ;


7;≈†≈ +† 6;⊥∞+∞≈ ;=


9≠∞≤∞†;=∞ 3∞∋∋∋++ =


0+∋⊥†∞+ 1: 1≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈ 1


1.1 3∋≤∂⊥++∞≈⊇ 1


1.2 0+++†∞∋ 3†∋†∞∋∞≈† 4


1.3 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0+{∞≤†;=∞≈ 6


1.4 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0∞∞≈†;+≈≈ 6


1.5 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 8+⊥+†+∞≈;≈ 7


1.6 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 7;∋;†∋†;+≈ 8


1.7 7+∞++∞†;≤∋† 6+∋∋∞≠++∂ 9


0+∋⊥†∞+ 11: 7;†∞+∋†∞+∞ 5∞=;∞≠ 10


2.1 7;†∞+∋†∞+∞ 5∞=;∞≠ 10


2.1.1 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ 10


2.1.2 3+∋≈⊇ 1∋∋⊥∞ 11



6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈


2.1.3

6∞∋†∞+∞≈

12

2.1.4

4≤≤∞≈≈++;∞≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ .

14

2.1.5

0∞∞+ 6++∞⊥ .

15

2.1.6

3∞+=;≤∞

17

2.2

9∋⊥;+;≤∋† 5∞=;∞≠

18

0+∋⊥†∞+ 3: 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 4∞†++⊇+†+⊥+

20

3.1

7+⊥∞ +† 5∞≈∞∋+≤+

20

3.2

3+∞+≤∞ +† 8∋†∋ .

20

3.3

3∋∋⊥†∞ 3;=∞ .

20

3.4

0∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞ 8∞≈;⊥≈

21

3.5

3∋∋⊥†;≈⊥ 8∞≈;⊥≈ .

21

3.6

8∋†∋ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ 4≈∋†+≈;≈

21

0+∋⊥†∞+ 4: 8∋†∋ 4≈∋†+≈;≈, 6;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ 5∞≈∞††

23

4.1

8∋†∋ 4≈∋†+≈;≈

23

4.1.1

8∞∋+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ 0++†;†∞ +† 5∞≈⊥+≈⊇∞≈†≈

23

4.1.2

8∞≈≤+;⊥†;=∞ 4≈∋†+≈;≈

27

4.1.3 1≈†∞+∞≈†;∋† 4≈∋†+≈;≈

31

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈


4.2 6;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ 5∞≈∞†† 52


0+∋⊥†∞+ 5: 3∞∋∋∋++, 0+≈≤†∞≈;+≈ ∋≈⊇ 5∞≤+∋∋∞≈⊇∋†;+≈ 54


5.1 3∞∋∋∋++ ∋≈⊇ 0+≈≤†∞≈;+≈ 54


5.2 5∞≤+∋∋∞≈⊇∋†;+≈ 55


5∞†∞+∞≈≤∞≈ 57


4⊥⊥∞≈⊇;≠ 60

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ ;


7;≈† +† 7∋+†∞≈


7∋+†∞ 1: 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ++ 6∞≈⊇∞+ 23


7∋+†∞ 2: 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ++ 6∞≈⊇∞+ 24


7∋+†∞ 3: 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ++ 6∋∋;†+ 4∋;≈ 0≤≤∞⊥∋†;+≈ 25


7∋+†∞ 4: 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ++ 1≈≤+∋∞ 7∞=∞† 26


7∋+†∞ 5: 0++≈≈ †∋+∞†∋†;+≈ +† ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ +† ∋++;†∞ ++ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ 27


7∋+†∞ 6: 0++≈≈ †∋+∞†∋†;+≈ +† ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ++ ∋⊥∞ 28


7∋+†∞ 7: 5∋≈∂;≈⊥ +† 3+∋≈⊇ 0+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 29


7∋+†∞ 8: 4≈∋†+≈;≈ +† †∋≤†++≈ ∋††∞≤†;≈⊥ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ∞≈∞+≈ 30


7∋+†∞ 9: 0+;-≈⊥∞∋+∞ †∞≈† +† 4⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ 0∞++∞≈† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ++∋≈⊇ 31


7∋+†∞ 10: 0+;-≈⊥∞∋+∞ †∞≈† +† 1≈≤+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ 0∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 32


7∋+†∞ 11: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ 3;††;≈⊥≈∞≈≈ †+ ≈⊥∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ 4⊥∞ 33


7∋+†∞ 12: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ 3;††;≈⊥≈∞≈≈ †+ ≈⊥∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ 1≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† 34


7∋+†∞ 13: 0+≈∞+=∞⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈≤+ †∋+†∞ †++ ∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 35


7∋+†∞ 14: 9≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈≤+ †∋+†∞ †++ ∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 35


7∋+†∞ 15: 0+;-≈⊥∞∋+∞ †∞≈† †++ ∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 36

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ ;;


7∋+†∞ 16: 0+≈∞+=∞⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈≤+ †∋+†∞ †++ ;≈≤+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 37


7∋+†∞ 17: 9≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈≤+ †∋+†∞ †++ ;≈≤+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 37


7∋+†∞ 18: 0+;-≈⊥∞∋+∞ †∞≈† †++ ;≈≤+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 37



7∋+†∞ 19: 0+≈∞+=∞⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈≤+ †∋+†∞ †++ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 38



7∋+†∞ 20: 9≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈≤+ †∋+†∞ †++ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 38


7∋+†∞ 21: 0+;-≈⊥∞∋+∞ †∞≈† †++ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ 39


7∋+†∞ 22: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ 1≈≤+∋∞ 7∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ 6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 40


7∋+†∞ 23: †-†∞≈† †∋+†∞ †++ 6∞≈⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ 6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 41


7∋+†∞ 24: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ⊥+;≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 42


7∋+†∞ 25: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ++∋≈⊇ ;∋∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 43


7∋+†∞ 26: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ⊥∞∞+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 44


7∋+†∞ 27: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ⊥++⊇∞≤† †∞∋†∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 45


7∋+†∞ 28: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ≈∞+=;≤∞ ⊥∞∋†;†+ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 46


7∋+†∞ 29: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ †++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 47


7∋+†∞ 30: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ∋≤≤∞≈≈++;∞≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 47


7∋+†∞ 31: 44024 †∋+†∞ †++ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ 48


7∋+†∞ 32: 0+++∞†∋†;+≈ 4≈∋†+≈;≈ +† 6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0∞+≤+∋≈∞ 8∞≤;≈;+≈ 49

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ ;;;


7∋+†∞ 33: 8∞≈≤+;⊥†;=∞ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ +† ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ †++∋ ⊥+;≤;≈⊥ 50


7∋+†∞ 34: 44024 7∋+†∞ †++ ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ †++∋ ⊥+;≤;≈⊥ 51

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ ;=


7;≈†≈ +† 6;⊥∞+∞≈


6;⊥∞+∞ 1: 7+∞++∞†;≤∋† 6+∋∋∞≠++∂ 9


6;⊥∞+∞ 2: 8;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ++ 6∞≈⊇∞+ 24


Figure 3: Distribution by Age Group 24


Figure 4: Distribution by Family main Occupation 25


Figure 5: Distribution by Income level 26

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Smartphone Users v

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9≠∞≤∞†;=∞ 3∞∋∋∋++


3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∋ ≈∞∞⊇ +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ ≠∋≈†≈.

7+∞ ⊥†++∋† ∋∋+∂∞† +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ;≈ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∋≈ ;† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ †+∞ ⊇+∋;≈∋≈† ⊇∞=;≤∞ ≠+;≤+ ≤∋≈ ⊇+ ∋∞††;⊥†∞ †∋≈∂≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ≤∋††;≈⊥, †∋∂;≈⊥ ⊥++†+≈, ≠∞+ +++≠≈;≈⊥, ≈∞≈⊇;≈⊥ †∞≠†≈, =;⊇∞+ ≤∋†† ∞†≤. 1† ;≈ ≈∋;⊇ †+∋† ∋≈ ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ∞≈∞≈ 3++∞+≈ +† +;≈/+∞+ ⊇∋+ ∞≈;≈⊥ ⊥++≈∞≈.


7+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ ∋;∋≈ †+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈∋†+=∞ †+∞ ⊥++∋;≈∞≈† †∋≤†++≈ †+∋† ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈' ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈ ;≈ 9∋†+∋∋≈⊇∞.

4++∞+=∞+, †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ∋††∞∋⊥†≈ †+ †∞≈† ≠+∞†+∞+ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋≈+ =∋+;∋†;+≈ ;≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋†;+≈ +† ;≈⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇∞≈† =∋+;∋+†∞≈ ∋≈ †∋≤†++ ∋††∞≤†;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+, ∋⊥∞ ⊥++∞⊥, +≤≤∞⊥∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† +† ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈.


6++ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞† ≤+∋⊥†∞†;+≈ +† †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+, ∋ ⊥∞∋≈†;†∋†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ∋∞†++⊇+†+⊥+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+.

0+;∋∋++ ≈+∞+≤∞≈ +† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ∋≈∋†+=∞ ⊇∋†∋. 7+∞ ⊥+;∋∋++ ⊇∋†∋ ;≈ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ =;∋ ≈∞+=∞+ ∞≈;≈⊥ ∋ ≈†+∞≤†∞+∞⊇ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞. 3†+∞≤†∞+∞⊇ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞ ≤+≈≈;≈†≈ +† ⊇∞∋+⊥+∋⊥+;≤ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈, ≈;≈⊥†∞ ≤++;≤∞, ∋∞††;⊥†∞ ≤++;≤∞, +∋≈∂;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ .....


7+;≈ ≈∞+=∞+ †++∂ †+∞ ≈∋∋⊥†∞ ≈;=∞ +† 109 ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ †+†∋† ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∞≈;⊇;≈⊥ ;≈ 9∋†+∋∋≈⊇∞ =∋++;≈⊥ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+, ∋⊥∞, +≤≤∞⊥∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈†+†+ ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞†.

7+∞≈∞ ⊇∋†∋ ≠∞+∞ †∞+†+∞+ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ;≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+∞≈†;∋† ≈†∋†;≈†;≤≈. 1≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;=∞ ≈†∋†;≈†;≤≈, ⊥;∞-≤+∋+† ∋≈⊇ ≤++≈≈ †∋+∞†∋†;+≈ †∞≤+≈;⊥∞∞≈ ≠∞+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ∋≈∋†+=∞ †+∞ ⊇∋†∋. 1≈ ;≈†∞+∞≈†;∋† ≈†∋†;≈†;≤≈, 0∞∋+≈+≈ ≤+-+∞†∋†;+≈, 0+;-≈⊥∞∋+∞, ;≈⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇∞≈† ≈∋∋⊥†∞ †-†∞≈† ∋≈⊇ 44024 †∞≤+≈;⊥∞∞≈ ≠∞+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;=∞ †+∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈.

6∋≤†++≈ 4††∞≤†;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ =;


7+∞ =∋+;∋+†∞≈ ∞≈⊇∞+ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤† †∞∋†∞+∞≈, ++∋≈⊇ ;∋∋⊥∞, ⊥+;≤∞, ⊥∞∞+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+=;≤∞ ⊥∞∋†;†+.

6++∋ †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ;† ≠∋≈ †+∞≈⊇ +∞† †+∋† 4⊥⊥†∞ ∋≈⊇ 3∋∋≈∞≈⊥ ≠∞+∞ †+∞ ∋+≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ++∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈. 0∞∞+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞, ++∋≈⊇ ;∋∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+=;≤∞ ⊥†∋+∞⊇ ∋ ∋∋{++ ⊥∋+† ≠+;†∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈;≈⊥ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈. 7+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ ∋†≈+ +;⊥+†;⊥+†∞⊇ †+∋† +≈ †+∞ +∋≈;≈ +† ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞†, ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ ≠∋≈ †+∞≈⊇ ∋∋+≈⊥ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇∞≈†≈ ≠+∞≈ †+∞+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ †+∞ =∋+;∋+†∞≈/†∋≤†++≈ †;∂∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† †∞∋†∞+∞≈, †++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞ ≠+;†∞ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞.

8+≠∞=∞+ †+∞+∞ ≠∋≈ ≈+ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ =∋+;∋+†∞≈.

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 1


0+∋⊥†∞+ 1: 1≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈


1.1 Background


The history of mobile phone usage in Nepal dates back to 1999 when NTC started providing GSM mobile service from May 1999. Mobile phones have emerged as an important means for communication in Nepal.

Its role has been significant in the development of various industries of Nepal. Mobile phones were considered as means of pleasure and luxury some years back, but today it has become the need of almost all people in Nepal for business purposes, convenience as well as for maintaining one's status in the society. At the beginning when NTC started its GSM mobile service with post-paid service then there were very few mobile phone users that also within Kathmandu valley only.

Later NTC started pre-paid service and distributed more than one lakh sim cards. It also improved its network services throughout the country which increased the mobile users in Nepal. Queue were started to be seen outside Nepal telecom's offices for sim card which showed the mobile phone popularity across Nepal. With evolution of other mobile telecommunication service providers like NCELL and UTL, today, almost every adult in Nepal possess a mobile phone of and each individual's mobile phone varies in model an.....

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4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 4++;†∞ 0++≈∞ 1∋⊥++†∞+≈ 4≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈ (404), ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ ∋+∞ †+∞ †+;+⊇ †∋+⊥∞≈† †+∋⊇∞⊇ ≤+∋∋+⊇;†+ ;≈ 4∞⊥∋† ∋††∞+ ⊥∞†++†∞∞∋ ∋≈⊇ ;++≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈.

7+†∋† †+∋≈≈∋≤†;+≈ +† 5≈. 36 +;††;+≈ ≠∋≈ ∞≈†;∋∋†∞⊇ ++ {∞≈† ≈∞††;≈⊥ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ ++ †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† †+∞ +∞∋+ 2016. 8∞≈⊥;†∞ +∞∋=+ †∋≠∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞, †+∞ ;∋⊥++† +† ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ ;≈ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∞=∞++ +∞∋+ ++ 40%. 6+=∞+≈∋∞≈† ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ 5≈ 1.65 +;††;+≈ 247 ;≈ †+∞ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ +∞∋+ 2015.4++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ +∋=∞ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ;≈ †;†∞≈†+†∞ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞. (5∞⊥∞+†;≤∋, 2016)

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 2


3+ 6∞++∞∋++ 2016, †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞ 27.85 ∋;††;+≈ ∋++;†∞ ≈∞+≈≤+;+∞+≈ ;≈ 4∞⊥∋† ∋⊥∋;≈≈† 26.49 ∋;††;+≈ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈≈.

4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 8∞⊥∋+†∋∞≈† +† 0∞≈†+∋≈, 4∞⊥∋† ;∋⊥++†∞⊇ 4.16 ∋;††;+≈ +∋≈⊇≈∞†≈ ≠++†+ 5≈14.63 +;††;+≈ ∋≈ +† 2016-17 †;≈≤∋† +∞∋+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++≠†+ ++ 33.1 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +∞∋+-+≈-+∞∋+. (9+∋≈∋† &∋∋⊥; 5;{∋†, 2016)


3;†+ †+∞ ∋∞††;⊥†∞ ∞≈∞≈, ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ≈∋†∞≈ ∋+∞ +++∋;≈⊥ ∋†† +=∞+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇.

0≈∞ +† †+∞ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈ ∋∋+≈⊥ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ ≈+† {∞≈† †++ ≤∋††;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †∞≠†;≈⊥ ≈+≠∋⊇∋+≈; +∋†+∞+ ;† +∋≈ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ †++ ∞-+∋≈∂;≈⊥ †+ ∞-≈++⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∋≈ ≠∞††. 0≈∞ +† ≈+≤;∋† ∋∞⊇;∋ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ;≈ ≠;⊇∞†+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ∋∋+≈⊥ ∋†† ∋⊥∞ ⊥++∞⊥≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++†∞ ≠++†⊇. 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ≈∞+=∞+ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ 20% ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≤+∞≤∂ †+∞;+ ⊥++≈∞≈ ≠;†+;≈ 15 ∋;≈∞†∞≈ +† ≠∋∂;≈⊥ ∞⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞† 50% +∋⊇ ;≈≈†∋††∞⊇ 6∋≤∞+++∂ (≈+≤;∋† ≈;†∞) +≈ †+∞;+ ≈∋∋+† .....


3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈ ≈+≠∋⊇∋+≈ ∋+∞ +∞⊥†∋≤;≈⊥ ∋++∞ +† +∞+ ⊥∋⊇⊥∞†≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋†∋+∋ ≤†+≤∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;⊥;†∋† ≤∋∋∞+∋≈.

0≈∞ +† †+∞ ≈∞+=∞+≈ †+∞≈⊇ ⊥∞† †+∋† †+∞ ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ +≠≈∞+ ≈⊥∞≈⊇≈ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ †≠+ ++∞+≈ ∞∋≤+ ⊇∋+ ∞≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊇∞=;≤∞. 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ +≠≈∞+≈ +≈ ∋≈ ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ∞≈∞≈ ⊥++≈∞ †++ 25 ∋;≈∞†∞≈ †+ +++≠≈∞ †+∞ ≠∞+, 17 ∋;≈∞†∞≈ †+ ≈+≤;∋† ≈∞†≠++∂;≈⊥, 13 ∋;≈∞†∞≈ †+ ⊥†∋+ ⊥∋∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 16 ∋;≈∞†∞≈ †+ †;≈†∞≈ †+ ∋∞≈;≤. 4∋∂;≈⊥ ⊥++≈∞ ≤∋††≈ ≠∋≈ +≈†+ †+∞ †;††+ ∋+≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ∞≈∞ †++ †+∞ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈, +≈†+ ≈†;⊥+††+ ∋++∞ †;∋∞ †+∋≈ †+∞+ ≈⊥∞≈⊇ ≠+;†;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞≤∂;≈⊥ ∞∋∋;† (11 ∋;≈∞†∞≈) ∋≈⊇ †∞≠† ∋∞≈≈∋⊥;≈⊥ (10 ∋;≈∞†∞≈).3+;†∞ †+∞ ≈∞+=∞+ †+∞≈⊇ †+∋† ⊥++†+⊥+∋⊥++ ≠∋≈ †+∞ ∋+≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ †+;≈⊥ †+ ∞≈∞ ∋ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ †++, ≠;†+ 74 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† ≈∋+;≈⊥ †+∋† †+∞+ +∋⊇ †∋∂∞≈ ⊥++†+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞;+ +∋≈⊇≈∞†.

4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 8∋=;⊇ 1++≈≈+≈, ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ∋∋≈∋⊥∞+ +† ⊇∞=;≤∞≈ †++ 02 ;≈ †+∞ 09 &⊥∞+†;3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈ ∋+∞ ≈+≠ +∞;≈⊥ ∞≈∞⊇ †;∂∞ ∋ ⊇;⊥;†∋† ‘3≠;≈≈ 4+∋+ 9≈;†∞’, +∞⊥†∋≤;≈⊥ ⊥+≈≈∞≈≈;+≈≈ †;∂∞ ≠∋†≤+∞≈, ≤∋∋∞+∋≈, +++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈ †∋⊥†+⊥≈.&⊥∞+†; (5;≤+∋+≈⊇, 2012)

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 3


In today’s consumer-driven societies, it is important to have in-depth understanding and awareness of consumers and their behaviour which would help manufactures in both marketing and sales.

As being end users of tangible products and services, a deep understanding of cultural environments to achieve their goals – underpins all marketing activities, service provisions and policy formulations are obligatory. It is vital to the profitability and success of any business venture, service provider, or organization to understand the psychology of the consumer.

It is important for marketers to understand what prompts a consumer to buy a particular product and what stops them from purchasing. Thus, the role of marketing is very important in upgrading the pace of industrialization, which is responsible for developed and strong economy.


Every buying behaviour and decision-making process of buyer differs with each other but the buying process may be identical.

Generally, the buyer’s buying process consists of five-stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase and post purchase evaluation. The initial stage of consumer buying process is the problem recognition and it occurs when buyer becomes aware of the fact that there is difference between a desired state an.....

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4††∞+ +∞≤+∋;≈⊥ ∋≠∋+∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋ ++ ≈∞∞⊇, †+∞ +∞+∞+ +∞≤+∋∞≈ ≈∞∋+≤+∞≈ †++ †+∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ ∋=∋;†∋+;†;†+ +† ++∋≈⊇≈, ⊥++⊇∞≤† †∞∋†∞+∞≈, ≈∞††∞+’≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈, ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ +∞†∞=∋≈† ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈. 8∞+∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞≈≈;†+ +† ≈∞∋+≤+ ∞††++†≈ ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇≈ +≈ †+∞ +∞+∞+’≈ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ ;≈ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†∞+∞ +† †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† †+ +∞ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞⊇. 8∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈†∋⊥∞, +∞+∞+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥≈ ∞=+∂∞⊇ ≈∞† (†+∞ ≈∞† +† ++∋≈⊇≈ +† ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈), ≠+;≤+ †+∞≈ †+∞ +∞+∞+ ∋≤†∞∋††+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+≈ ≠+;†∞ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ++∋≈⊇ ≤++;≤∞.

0++⊇∞≤† ;≈ †+∞ ∞=+∂∞ ≈∞† +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ∞=∋†∞∋†∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ †+;+⊇ ≈†∋⊥∞ +† +∞+;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈. 7+ ∞=∋†∞∋†∞ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∞=+∂∞⊇ ≈∞†, ∋ +∞+∞+ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞≈ ∋ ≈∞† +† ≤+;†∞+;∋ †+ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤≈. 0≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤+;†∞+;∋ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† ∞∋≤+, ∋ +∞+∞+ +∋†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈†∞∋††+ +∋≈∂≈ †+∞ ++∋≈⊇≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∞=+∂∞⊇

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 4


≈∞†≈.

1† †+∞ ∞=∋†∞∋†;+≈ +;∞†⊇≈, +≈ †+∞ ≈∞≠† ≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈;≈⊥ ≈†∋⊥∞. 8∞+;≈⊥ †+;≈ ≈†∋⊥∞, ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+ ≈∞†∞≤†≈ ≈+† +≈†+ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† ++ ++∋≈⊇ †+ +∞+ +∞† ∋†≈+ ≈∞†∞≤† ≈∞††∞+ †++∋ †+∞ ≈†++∞ †++∋ ≠+;≤+ ≈/+∞ ≠;†† +∞+ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†. 7+∞ ∋≤†∞∋† ∋≤† +† ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ +≤≤∞+≈ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+;≈ ≈†∋⊥∞. 3∞†, ≈+† ∋†† ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ †∞∋⊇≈ †+ ∋ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞; †+∞ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋† ∋∋+ †∞+∋;≈∋†∞ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ⊥+;++ †+ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞.

4††∞+ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞, ∋ +∞+∞+ ≈†∋+†≈ †+ ∞=∋†∞∋†∞ †+∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤† ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈, ∂≈+≠≈ ∋≈ ⊥+∞†-⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ∞=∋†∞∋†;+≈. 7+∞ +∞†≤+∋∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+≈†-⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ∞=∋†∞∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∞;†+∞+ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ++ ⊇;≈≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ ≠+;≤+ †∞∞⊇≈ +∋≤∂ †+ +†+∞+ ≈†∋⊥∞≈ +† †+∞ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞≈ ≈∞+≈∞⊥∞∞≈† ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞.


1.2 0+++†∞∋ 3†∋†∞∋∞≈†


3;†+ †+∞ ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞∋∞≈† +† †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ⊇∋+ ++ ⊇∋+, ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ +∋=∞ ∋∋⊇∞ †+∞ †;†∞ +† †+∞ ∞≈∞+≈ ∞∋≈;∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋+ ++ ⊇∋+ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ ∋+∞ †;≈⊇;≈⊥ =∋+;+∞≈ +∞∋≈+≈≈ †++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ +∞+ ;†.

8∞≈⊥;†∞ †+∞ †∋≤† †+∋† ≈∋∋+† ⊥++≈∞≈ +∋=∞ ⊥++≠≈ ∋≈ ∋ ≈∞≤∞≈≈;†+ †+⊇∋+, =∞++ †∞≠ +∞≈∞∋+≤+∞≈ +∋=∞ ∋≤†∞∋††+ +∞∞≈ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ ;≈≈;⊇∞ 4∞⊥∋† †+ †+∋≤∞ †+∞ +++† ≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞ ∞+⊥∞ †+ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ≈∋∋+† ⊥++≈∞≈. 1† ;≈ +∞†⊥†∞† †++ †+∞ ∋∋+∂∞†∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞+≈ †+ ≈+≈≤+++≈;=∞ †+∞ ∋∋+∂∞†;≈⊥ ∞††++†≈ †+ †∋+⊥∞† †+∞ ∋+≈† ⊥++∋;≈.....


4++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ +∋=∞ †+∞≈⊇ =∋+;+∞≈ +∞∋≈+≈≈ †+ ≈∞†† †+∞;+ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ ∋≈ †+∞ ∞∋∞+⊥;≈⊥ =∋+;∞⊇ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ≠+;≤+ +∋=∞ +∞≤+∋∞ +∋≈⊇+ =;∋ ≈∋∋+† ⊥++≈∞≈ +∋=∞ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋ ≈∞≤∞≈≈;†+ ≠;†+ ∞∋≈∞ †++ †+∞ ∞≈∞+≈.

1† ;≈ †+∞ +∋≈;≤ +∞∋≈+≈ †++ ⊥++≠†+ ;≈ ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇ †++ ≈∋∋+† ⊥++≈∞≈.


9∋†+∋∋≈⊇∞, ∋≈ ∋ ≤∞≈†∞+ +† †+∞ 4∞⊥∋†∞≈∞ ∞≤+≈+∋+, +∋≈ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ∋∋+∂∞† ;≈ 4∞⊥∋†.

4∋+∂∞†∞+≈ ∋∞≈† +∋=∞ ⊇∞†∋;† ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ +† +∞+∞+’≈ +∞+∋=;+∞+ †+ ∞≠⊥†++∞ ∋∋+∂∞† ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† ∋≈⊇ †+ ;≈=∋⊇∞ ∋∋+∂∞†. 8∞∞ †+ ≤+≈†;≈∞+∞≈ ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ∞≈=;++≈∋∞≈† +† 4∞⊥∋†∞≈∞ ∞≤+≈+∋+, ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, †∞∋+≈;≈⊥, †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;≤∋† ∋⊇=∋≈≤∞∋∞≈†, ∞†≤., †+∞ ∞⊥⊥+∋⊇∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≠ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ +†

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users 5


smartphones are very significant in practical life.

It has also enhanced communication, education, businesses, etc.


After knowing that there are wide ranges of smartphone users, they possess diverse buying behaviour.

With the increase in mobile phone brands in the market, lots of mobile dealers are cropping up old established brands and new brand of mobiles are entering the market. With the increase in competition locally as well as from global dealers, Nepalese mobile phone dealers are coming up with new and promotional campaigns and schemes to attract the customers. Companies like Apple, HTC, Huawei, One Plus, Samsung, Oppo, etc. have invested a lot of money in Research and Development(R &D) department just to make various innovations and make people life easier on their daily life.


With the entrance of many new phones in the market, peo.....

0++;≤∞≈ +∋=∞ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞ ∋∋+∂∞† =∞++ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†;=∞. 4∞≠ ;≈≈+=∋†;=∞ ∋⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋∋⊥∋;⊥≈≈ ∋+∞ +≈∞ +† †+∞ ≤+∋⊥+≈∞≈†≈ †+∋† ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ †+∞;+ +∞+;≈⊥ +∞+∋=;+∞+ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈. 3∞≈;⊇∞≈ †+∞≈∞, †∋≤†++≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ++∋≈⊇ ∋††;†∞⊇∞, †∞∋†∞+∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ∋≤≤∞≈≈++;∞≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇, ⊥∞∋†;†+, ≠++⊇ +† ∋+∞†+ ∋†≈+ ⊥†∋+≈ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ++†∞ ;≈ ;≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ +∞+;≈⊥ +∞+∋=;+∞+. 2∋+;+∞≈ ≈+≤;∋† †∋≤†++≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †∋∋;†+, ⊥++∞⊥≈, ++†∞, ≈†∋†∞≈ ∞†≤. ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† †∋≤†++≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋⊥∞, +≤≤∞⊥∋†;+≈, †;†∞≈†+†∞ ∞†≤. +∋=∞ ∋ ∋∋{++ ≤+≈†+;+∞†;+≈ ;≈ ∋∋≈;⊥∞†∋†;≈⊥ †;≈∋† ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ ≠+;†∞ +∞+;≈⊥ ≈∋∋+† ⊥++≈∞≈.


7+;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≠;†† +∞ ⊥∞;⊇∞⊇ †+≠∋+⊇≈ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞≈ +† =∋+;+∞≈ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞ ++∋≈⊇≈ ++ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ∞≈∞+≈ ;≈ 9∋†+∋∋≈⊇∞.

7+∞ ∋∋{++ ⊥+++†∞∋≈ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞⊇ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞ ++∋≈⊇≈ ;≈ †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ †+∞ ∋+≈† ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ ++ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ †+∞ ∋††+;+∞†∞≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ;≈ ⊥+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ +† ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ++∋≈⊇.

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 6


7+;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≠;†† +∞ †+≤∞≈∞⊇ +≈ †;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ =∋+;+∞≈ ∋††+;+∞†∞≈ +† ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈ ≠+;†∞ +∞+;≈⊥ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈.

7+;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≠;†† +∞†⊥ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ †+ †+≤∞≈ +≈ †∋≤†++≈ †+∋† ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈ †+ +∞+ †+∞;+ ⊥++⊇∞≤†. 7+;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≠;†† †;∋;† †+∞ ≈∋∋⊥†∞ +≈ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ +† 9∋†+∋∋≈⊇∞.


1.3 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0+{∞≤†;=∞≈


7+∞ ∋∋;≈ ++{∞≤†;=∞ +† †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+ ⊥+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ +† ∋++;†∞ ++∋≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ =∋+;+∞≈ †∋≤†++≈ ∋††∞≤†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤++;≤∞ +† ++∋≈⊇.

7+∞ ++{∞≤†;=∞≈ +† †+∞ ≈†∞⊇+ ∋+∞ ∋≈ †+††+≠≈:


  1. 7+ ≈†∞⊇+ †+∞ ++∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ †++ ∋++;†∞ ⊥++≈∞≈ ∋∋+≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +† 9∋†+∋∋≈⊇∞ 2∋††∞+.


  1. 7+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ ∂∞+ =∋+;∋+†∞≈ ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ ⊥∞.....


  1. 7+ †∞≈† ≤+++∞†∋†;+≈ ∋∋+≈⊥ =∋+;+∞≈ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ +∞+;≈⊥ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ∞≈∞+≈.


  1. 7+ +∞†⊥ ∋∋∂∞ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;+≈≈ †+ †+∞ ⊇∞∋†∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈.


1.4 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0∞∞≈†;+≈≈


7+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∋;∋ +† †+;≈ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≠;†† +∞ †+ †;≈⊇ =∋+;+∞≈ ∋††+;+∞†∞≈ ≠+;≤+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞≈ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+ +∞+∋=;+∞+ ≠+;†∞ +∞+;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞.

7+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ ∋≈ †+††+≠≈:


  1. 3+∋† ∋+∞ †+∞ ∂∞+ =∋+;∋+†∞≈ ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ +† ≈∋∋+† ⊥++≈∞≈?


  1. 3+∋† ;≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ∂∞+ =∋+;∋+†∞≈?


  1. 8+ ∋+⊇∞+∋†;≈⊥ =∋+;∋+†∞≈ ∋††∞≤† †+∞ ∂∞+ =∋+;∋+†∞≈ ≠+;†∞ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈;≈⊥ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈?


  1. 8+∞≈ ∋≈ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†’≈ ≠;††;≈⊥≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+;†;†+ †+ ⊥∋+ †++ ∋ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +;≈/+∞+ ++∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞†∞+∞≈≤∞?

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 7


1.5 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 8+⊥+†+∞≈;≈


  1. 81: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∋⊥∞ ⊥++∞⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞


  1. 82: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ;≈≤+∋∞ ⊥++∞⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞


  1. H3: There is significant relationship between willingness to spend and age


  1. H4: There is significant relationship between willingness to spend and income level


  1. H5: There is significant relationship between age and preferred brand


  1. H6: There is significant relationship between income and preferred brand


  1. H7: There is significant relationship between g.....


  1. 88: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈


  1. 89: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ †∋≤†++≈ ;≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ ⊥∞+≤+∋≈∞ ⊇∞≤;≈;+≈


  1. 810: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥+;≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 811: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ++∋≈⊇ ;∋∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 812: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥∞∞+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 813: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥++⊇∞≤† †∞∋†∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 814: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ≈∞+=;≤∞ ⊥∞∋†;†+ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 815: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 816: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∋≤≤∞≈≈++;∞≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 817: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ⊥∞+†++∋∋≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞++∞≈† ++∋≈⊇


  1. 818: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ;≈≤+∋∞ †∞=∞† ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈ †++∋ ⊥+;≤;≈⊥

6∋≤†++≈ 1≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ 0+≈≈∞∋∞+ 3∞+∋=;++ +† 3∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ 0≈∞+≈ 8


1.6 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 7;∋;†∋†;+≈


3†∞⊇;∞≈ +† †∋≤†++≈ ;≈††∞∞≈≤;≈⊥ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+ +∞+∋=;+∞+ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ∞≈∞+≈ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋∋+≈ †+∞≈⊇ ∋∋+≈⊥ †+∞ 434 ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ ≈⊥∞≤;∋.....


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