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Károli Gáspár Reformed Church of Hungary

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5, Mrs Fodor, 2018

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On the Pulse of Morning By Maya Angelou A textual and contextual reading in combination with Bill Clinton’s first inaugural address Contents 1. Introduction. 2 2. Formal textual analysis 2 3. Extra-textual analysis 4 4. Introduction to the America of 1993. 5 5. Analyzing the common themes and imagery. 5 6. Conclusion. 8 7. Bibliography. 9 1. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to offer a textual and contextual reading of Maya Angelou‘s poem “On the Pulse of Morning“ which was written for and performed at the inauguration of American…

Text Commentary

The Infamy Speech by President Franklin D. Roosevelt


Summary of the text

President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his Infamy Speech in December 8, 1941 only one day after Japan had attacked Pearl Harbour. At the beginning of his speech, he made a summary and told everyone what happened in the previous day and around the Pacific region. Most importantly, he stated who was responsible for all of it: Japan.

He spoke in the name of the Americans and finally he asked the Congress for a formal declaration of war against Japan.


Analysis

First of all, with this speech, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had to reach at least two aims. First, was to convince the Congress to declare a war against Japan and the second one was to turn the anti-war public opinion into a willing to join and fight in the Second World War.

The best speeches are often the shortest ones like the Gettysburg Address speech by President Abraham Lincoln, which was only two minutes, or like Roosevelt’s speech. The speech of President Roosevelt took only for seven minutes. When it is short, it can catch the audience attention easier and the effect can be more drastic.

Moreover, it could be more dramatic and more emphatic than a longer one where the audience can lost between the lines.

Although as a president, Roosevelt should talked in the name of the American nation, with this tool he took out part of his responsibility from being the only one who led his country into the war. In addition, he emphasized the fact that America have to take part in this war together because the Japanese attract was also against the whole nation. “But always will our whole Nation remember the character of the onslaught against us.” Therefore, Americans would never forget what happened and they have to act collectively against the common threat to their nation.

Roosevelt knew that people may resist, due to the consequences of the First World War, therefore, he put the United States in a role of a victim. He brought Edith Bolling Wilson, President Wilson's widow to the Congress. Just like later President Bush brought Lisa Beamer to his 9/11 speech to the Congress.1 The two widows were set there as livin.....[read full text]

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6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, ≠+∋∞≈, ≠;=∞≈, ∋+†+∞+≈ ∋+∞ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† ;∋∋⊥;≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;† ≤+∞†⊇ +∋;≈∞ ∞∋⊥∋†++ †++∋ ∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞ †+∞∋ †∞∞† †+ †;⊥+† †++ ;≈≈+≤∞≈†, ≠∞∋∂ ⊥∞+⊥†∞. 1† ∋†≈+ ≤+≈≈∞≤† †+∞ †≠+ ∞=∞≈†≈, 6;+≈† 3++†⊇ 3∋+ ∋≈⊇ 3∞≤+≈⊇ 3++†⊇ 3∋+ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋∂∞≈ †+∞ ∞+⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ {+;≈ ∋⊥∋;≈.

3;†+ †+∞ ∞=;⊇∞≈≤∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≤+∞†⊇ †∞∞† †+∞ †∞∋⊥†∋†;+≈ †+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† +;∋ ≈†++≈⊥∞+. 1† ≤+∞†⊇ ∋†≈+ ++;≈⊥ +∋≤∂ +†⊇ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈ +∞†++∞ †+∞ 6;+≈† 3++†⊇ 3∋+, ≠+∞≈ †+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ++∞≈⊥∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞≈† †+ †+∞ +;⊥ ≠∋+ ∋≈ +∞++∞≈.

7+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† +∞†≠∞∞≈ 5++≈∞=∞††’≈ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ∋≈⊇ 0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 3++⊇++≠ 3;†≈+≈’≈ 3∋+ 4∞≈≈∋⊥∞≈ ;≈ 2 4⊥+;† 1917 ;≈ †+∋† 5++≈∞=∞††’≈ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ;≈ ≠∋+ ≈+++†∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+≤∞≈;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋†≈. 4++∞+=∞+, 5++≈∞=∞†† ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† ∞≈∞ ;⊇∞∋†;≈†;≤ ;⊇∞∋≈ †;∂∞ 3;†≈+≈ ⊇;⊇ +∞†++∞ †+∞ 6;+≈† 3++†⊇ 3∋+: “7+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋∞≈† +∞ ∋∋⊇∞ ≈∋†∞ †++ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋≤+…≠∞ ≈+∋†† †;⊥+† †++ †+∞ †+;≈⊥≈ ≠+;≤+ ≠∞ +∋=∞ ∋†≠∋+≈ ≤∋++;∞⊇ ≈∞∋+∞≈† +∞+ +∞∋+†≈ -- †++ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋≤+.”2

6++∋ ∋+ ⊥+;≈† +† =;∞≠, 5++≈∞=∞†† ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ;≈†+ †≠+ ⊥∋+†≈. 0≈ †+∞ +≈∞ +∋≈⊇ †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 3†∋†∞≈ †+∋† ≠∋≈ “⊥++⊇” ∋≈⊇ +≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ +∋≈⊇ 1∋⊥∋≈∞≈∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠;†+ †+∞;+ “⊇∋≈†∋+⊇†+ ∋††∋≤∂” †+∋† ≠∋≈ +++∂∞≈ †+∞ ∋††;∋≈≤∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈. 0∞+⊥†∞ ⊥+∞†∞+ †+ ≈∞∞ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ;≈ “+†∋≤∂ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;†∞”, “⊥++⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∋⊇” †+∋† ;≈ ≠++ †+;≈ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋≈+†+∞+ ⊇∞=;≤∞ †+ †∞+≈ .....

3;†+ ≤+≈†;⊇∞≈≤∞ ;≈ +∞+ ∋+∋∞⊇ †++≤∞≈—≠;†+ †+∞ ∞≈++∞≈⊇∞⊇ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∋†;+≈ +† +∞+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞—≠∞ ≠;†† ⊥∋;≈ †+∞ ;≈∞=;†∋+†∞ †+;∞∋⊥+—≈+ +∞†⊥ ∞≈ 6+⊇.”3 0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 5++≈∞=∞†† ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞+ ≠+∞†⊇ ≠;≈ ≈+ +∞ ⊇;≈⊥∞††∞⊇ ∋†† †+∞ ⊇+∞+†≈ †+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋;⊥+† +∋=∞. 8∞ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ 6+⊇, ≠+;≤+ +∞+∞ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∋† 6+⊇ ;≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞†++∞ †+∞ ∞=;† ;≈ +≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ ≈;⊇∞.

0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 3∞≈+ ∞≈∞⊇ †+;≈ “⊥++⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∋⊇ ≤+≈†+∋≈†” ;≈ +;≈ 9/11 ≈⊥∞∞≤+. “6+⊇ ;≈ ≈+† ≈∞∞†+∋† +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞∋.”4 1† ;≈ ∋⊥∋;≈ †++ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠++ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ≈∞∞ †+;≈⊥≈ ∋≈ “⊥++⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∋⊇”. 8∞ ∋†≈+ ≈∞† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋≈ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥++† +† 6+⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∞ ⊥∞† †+∞ †∞++++;≈† +≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ “≈;≈†∞†” ≈;⊇∞.

3;†+ †+;≈ ≈⊥∞∞≤+, 0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 3∞≈+ ;≈⊇;≤∋†∞⊇ ∋∋≈+ 4∞≈†;∋ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋≈ ∋≈ +⊥†;+≈∋† †∞++++;≈†. 1≈ +;≈ ≈⊥∞∞≤+, 3∞≈+ ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋†: “†+∞ ∞≈∞∋+ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ;≈ ≈+† +∞+ ∋∋≈+ 4∞≈†;∋ †+;∞≈⊇≈. 1† ;≈ ≈+† +∞+ ∋∋≈+ 4+∋+ †+;∞≈⊇≈. 0∞+ ∞≈∞∋+ ;≈ ∋ +∋⊇;≤∋† ≈∞†≠++∂ +† †∞++++;≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞++ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† †+∋† ≈∞⊥⊥++†≈ †+∞∋.”5 8∞≈⊥;†∞ +† †+;≈ †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋∋≈+ +∋†∞ ≤+;∋∞≈ ∋††∞+ 9/11 ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† 4∞≈†;∋≈ ∋≈⊇ 4+∋+ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈ ∋† †+∞;+ ≠++∂ ⊥†∋≤∞≈ ++ ∋† ≈≤+++†≈.

0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 3∞≈+ ∞=∞≈ ∋+⊥∞∞⊇ †+∋† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ⊥+† †+∞ {∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ †++∋ 6+⊇. “1≈ ∋†† †+∋† †;∞≈ +∞†++∞ ∞≈, ∋∋+ 6+⊇ ⊥+∋≈† ∞≈ ≠;≈⊇+∋ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋+ +∞ ≠∋†≤+ +=∞+ †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 3†∋†∞≈ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋.”6 1≈ +;≈ 3∋+ 4∞≈≈∋⊥∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+, 0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 3;†≈+≈ ∋†≈+ ≤†+≈∞⊇ +;≈ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ ≠;†+ 6+⊇: “6+⊇ +∞†⊥;≈⊥ +∞+, ≈+∞ ≤∋≈ ⊇+ ≈+ +†+∞+.”7 1≈ †+∞ ++⊥∞ †+∋† 6+⊇ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞†⊥ †+ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈ †+ †+;∞∋⊥+ +=∞+ †+∞;+ ∞≈∞∋;∞≈.

The structure of the two speeches is also similar. In both cases, the presidents first identify the “evil” the enemy which cruelly went against the innocent American nation. After they demonizing one particular nation and then they start talking about the war that will be done and what they have to do.

In this case, they have to start war against the “evil”. Due to the many similarities between the two speeches, Bush probably directly invoking Roosevelt's Infamy Speech.

Roosevelt used sophisticated, strong and vivid words as: “infamy, deliberately attacked, unprovoked and dastardly, onslaught against us”8 and he did use his words in a right way because only after one hour his speech the Congress declared war against Japan and this step brought the United States int.....

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3;+†;+⊥+∋⊥++


6+∋≈∂†;≈ 8. 5++≈∞=∞††, 7+∞ 1≈†∋∋+ 3⊥∞∞≤+, 8 8∞≤∞∋+∞+, 1941


6∞++⊥∞ 3. 3∞≈+ 4⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞≈ 0+≈⊥+∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 4∋†;+≈ 4††∞+ 9/11, 20 3∞⊥†∞∋+∞+, 2001

4≤≤∞≈≈∞⊇ 09.04.2018

4≤≤∞≈≈∞⊇ 29.03.2018


3;†≈+≈'≈ 3∋+ 4∞≈≈∋⊥∞ †+ 0+≈⊥+∞≈≈, 2 4⊥+;†, 1917

4≤≤∞≈≈∞⊇ 10.04.2018


1 (2:15)

2 3;†≈+≈'≈ 3∋+ 4∞≈≈∋⊥∞ †+ 0+≈⊥+∞≈≈, 2 4⊥+;†, 1917

3 6+∋≈∂†;≈ 8. 5++≈∞=∞††, 7+∞ 1≈†∋∋+ 3⊥∞∞≤+, 8 8∞≤∞∋+∞+, 1941

4 6∞++⊥∞ 3. 3∞≈+ 4⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞≈ 0+≈⊥+∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 4∋†;+≈ 4††∞+ 9/11, 20 3∞⊥†∞∋+∞+, 2001

5 1+;⊇.

6 1+;⊇.

7 3;†≈+≈'≈ 3∋+ 4∞≈≈∋⊥∞ †+ 0+≈⊥+∞≈≈

8 6+∋≈∂†;≈ 8. 5++≈∞=∞††, 7+∞ 1≈†∋∋+ 3⊥∞∞≤+

2



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