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Research Methodology

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the effect of ict usage on study performance Among Univerity students
A Case Study on English Department of IFL

Research Report



Name: L.

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Pon S.



  1. Background of study

    1. Overview of technology

In modern world, technology is involved in our everyday lives.

It is a commonplace that we live in an advanced technological world (Restivo, S. P 2005). We involve technology in almost everything we do in our daiL. lives. Technology is dynamic; it keeps on improving because our needs and demands for technology keep on changing (Ramey, K. 2018, February 22).We use technology to accomplish various tasks such as using technology at work, technology for communication, transportation, learning, manufacturing, securing data, scaling businesses and so much more (Ramey, K. 2018, February 22), so technology comes in different forms such as communication Technology, Construction Technology, Assistive Technology, Medical Technology, Information Technology, Entertainment Technology, Business Technology, and Educational Technology (Ramey, K. 2018, February 22).

    1. Definition of Technology

Technology is defined as consisting of both hardware and software (knowledge required to produce and use technological hardware) (Arnulf, 2013, Oct 16).In Merriam Webster dictionary defines technology as the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems

    1. Technology in Cambodia

Even though Science and engineering education in Cambodia, especialL. at higher education level is still in the initial stage ("Cambodia's 2017 Social Media & Digital Statistics", 2017), Cambodia is trying to improve the technology since 2017 to embrace the digital age ("Cambodia's 2017 Social Media & Digital Statistics", 2017).

Technology in Cambodia seems likeL. to be gotten more and more interests, especialL. by youths. According to "The Technology Helping Cambodia's Disconnected and Hardest to Reach" in 2017 by ICTworks, Cambodia has over 19 million mobile phone subscribers and about 3.8 million is the internet users. Even politicians are also using new technology such as Facebook.

A 2014 report published by the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) says that “Mobile phone access is near universal for young people… Almost all youth (96%) in Cambodia have access to mobile phone.” (ICTworks, "The Technology Helping Cambodia's Disconnected and Hardest .....[read full text]

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7+∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† ∋†≈+ +∋≈ ∋ ⊥†∋≈ †+ ⊇;=∞+≈;†+ 0∋∋++⊇;∋’≈ ∞≠⊥++† +∋≈∞ †++∋ ⊥∋+∋∞≈†≈ ;≈†+ ∋⊥+;≤∞††∞+∋† ⊥++≤∞≈≈;≈⊥, †;⊥+† ∋∋≈∞†∋≤†∞+;≈⊥, ∞†∞≤†++≈;≤≈ ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ∋+∞∋≈ +∞⊥∞;+∞ ∋≈ ∋⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞7. ≈∂;††∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∞⊇∞≤∋†∞⊇ ≠++∂†++≤∞ (&⊥∞+†;3≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+&⊥∞+†;).

    1. 0+++†∞∋ +† 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+

8+≠∞=∞+, 8∞∋∋≈ +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈ †++ †+∞ 0∋∋++⊇;∋’≈ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ∞+∋ ⊇+ ≈+† ∋∞∞† †+∞ ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇≈.

7+∞ +∞⊥++† 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ 17 ;≈⊇∞≈†++: 3∂;††≈ †++ ∋ ⊇;⊥;†∋† ∞≤+≈+∋+, +∞†∞∋≈∞⊇ ;≈ ∞∋+7. 2017, †+∞≈⊇ †+∋† 75 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† +∞≈;≈∞≈≈∞≈ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† †;≈⊇ †+∞ 17 ≈†∋†† †+∞+ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈+†+∞+ ⊇∋†∋ †++∋ 2014 ≈++≠≈ †+∋† †∞≠∞+ †+∋≈ 6 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ ∞≈;=∞+≈;†+ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ ≠∞+∞ ∞≈++††∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≈≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋∋{++ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +;+†+⊥+ ++ ∞≈⊥;≈∞∞+;≈⊥, ≠+;†∞ 46 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† ≈†∞⊇;∞⊇ ∋≤≤+∞≈†;≈⊥, †;≈∋≈≤∞ ++ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† (&⊥∞+†;3≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+&⊥∞+†;).

7+∞ 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ 107 4∋≈†∞+⊥†∋≈ 2020 †++ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† ≠∋≈ ∋†≈+ †∋∞≈≤+∞⊇ ;≈ 2014. 7+∞ ⊥†∋≈ ∋†;⊥≈≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ 43944 107 4∋≈†∞+⊥†∋≈ 2015, †+ †+≤∞≈ +≈ +∞∋∋≈ +∞≈+∞+≤∞≈, †+∋;≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈+∋≈≤;≈⊥ ⊇;⊥;†∋† †;†∞+∋≤+ (;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ †++ +∞+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞), ≤+∋⊥∞†∞+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ +† ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈, ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ 107 ;≈†+∋≈†+∞≤†∞+∞, ≤++∞+ ≈∞≤∞+;†+ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞. 3⊥∞≤;†;≤ ⊥+∋†≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ +≈∞ †+∋† 70 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+∞ ;≈†∞+≈∞† ++ 2020 (&⊥∞+†;3≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+&⊥∞+†;).6++†+-∞;⊥+† ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∞≈⊇ ∞≈;≈⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+, ∋+≈†7. ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ †+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ 1≈†∞+≈∞† (&⊥∞+†;4++;†∞ 0++≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 1≈†∞+≈∞† 0≈∞ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋ ;≈ 2016&⊥∞+†;).

7+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞ ∞≈∞+≈ ;≈ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∞∋≤+ +∞∋+. 1≈ 2015 †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ 21 ⊥∞+≤∞≈†. 8∋†∋ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ ;≈ 3∞⊥†∞∋+∞+ 2016 ++ ;≈†∞+=;∞≠;≈⊥ 2061 ⊥∋+†;≤;⊥∋≈†≈ ∋⊥∞⊇ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 15 ∋≈⊇ 65 +∞∋+≈ +†⊇ ∋≤++≈≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋ ≈++≠≈ †+∋† +=∞+ 96% +† 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈≈ ≤†∋;∋ †+ +≠≈ †+∞;+ +≠≈ ⊥++≈∞ (&⊥∞+†;4++;†∞ 0++≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 1≈†∞+≈∞† 0≈∞ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋ ;≈ 2016&⊥∞+†;). 0=∞+ 37 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈≈ ∋⊥∞⊇ 15 †+ 65 ≤†∋;∋∞⊇ †+ ∞≈∞ †+∞ 1≈†∞+≈∞† ++ †+ +∋=∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ;† ∋† ≈+∋∞ ⊥+;≈† (∞⊥ 15 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† †++∋ 2015, 72 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† †++∋ 2014, ∋≈⊇ 82 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† †++∋ 2013) (&⊥∞+†;4++;†∞ 0++≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 1≈†∞+≈∞† 0≈∞ ;≈ 0∋.....

4+≈†7. 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ ∞≈∞+≈ ∋+≈†7. ∞≈∞ ≈∋∋+†⊥++≈∞≈ †+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+ †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ∋∞⊇;∋ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 6∋≤∞+++∂, 1≈≈†∋⊥+∋∋, 7;≈∞, ∋≈⊇ ≈+ +≈. 0≈7. 6∋≤∞+++∂, ∞+;⊥∞;†+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ =∞++ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ≈+≤;∋† ∋∞⊇;∋ ⊥†∋††++∋≈, +∋≈ +=∞+ 6.8 ∋;††;+≈ †+≤∋† ∞≈∞+≈, ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ †++∋ 2017’≈ 4.8 ∋;††;+≈ ∞≈∞+≈ (6∞∞≈†∞≈, 2018). 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ ∞≈;≈⊥ 6∋≤∞+++∂ †+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ ∋++∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈, ∞≈+∋≈≤∞ †+∞;+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≈∂;††≈, ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ †+∞;+ †∞=∞† +† ≈+≤;∋† ⊥∋+†;≤;⊥∋†;+≈ (&⊥∞+†;4++;†∞ 0++≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 1≈†∞+≈∞† 0≈∞ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋ ;≈ 2016&⊥∞+†;).

3;†+ †+∞ +∋⊥;⊇ ⊥++≠†+ +† 1≈†∞+≈∞†, †+∞ 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ ∞≈∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ =∋+;∞†;∞≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞≈. 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞’≈ ∞≈;≈⊥ ∋+⊇∞+≈ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;∞≈, ∋+≈†7. 6∋≤∞+++∂, ≈∞∞∂≈ =∋+;+∞≈ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈, ≈+∋+∞ †+∞;+ †++∞⊥+†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥++=∞ †+∞;+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ∋∋+≈⊥≈† †+∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈, †+∞;+ ⊥++†∞≈≈++≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈+≤;∞†+ (0+†∞≈⊥, &⊥∞+†;6∋≤∞+++∂ 1≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ 5+∞†+ 0+∋≤†;≤∞≈ 4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 8;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥;=∞≈ 5∞≤+∋∋∞≈⊇∋†;+≈ †++ 1∋⊥++=∞∋∞≈†.&⊥∞+†;).

    1. 0=∞+=;∞≠ +† ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋

9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋ +∞†++∞ †+∞ 9+∋∞+ 5+∞⊥∞ 5∞⊥;∋∞ ∋;++++∞⊇ †+∞ 6+∞≈≤+ ≈+≈†∞∋.

7+⊇∋+, ;† ;≈ ≈;≠ +∞∋+≈ +† ⊥+;∋∋++ ≈≤+++† (⊥+∋⊇∞≈ 1-6), †++∞∞ +∞∋+≈ +† †+≠∞+ ≈∞≤+≈⊇∋++ ≈≤+++† (⊥+∋⊇∞≈ 7-9), ∋≈⊇ †++∞∞ +∞∋+≈ +† ∞⊥⊥∞+ ≈∞≤+≈⊇∋++ ≈≤+++† (⊥+∋⊇∞≈ 10-12), †+††+≠;≈⊥ ∋++∞ +† ∋ ≠∞≈†∞+≈;=∞⊇ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋† ∋+⊇∞† (3+∋∋, 2012).&≈+≈⊥;3;≈≤∞ †+∞ 1990 1+∋†;∞≈ 3++†⊇ 0+≈†∞+∞≈≤∞ +≈ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ †++ 4†† (30964), 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ †∞∋⊇∞+≈, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋†7. ;≈ †+∞ †∋†∞ 1990≈ +∋=∞ ∋∋⊇∞ ≈∞∋∞++∞≈ ∞††++†≈ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∋≤≤∞≈≈;+;†;†+ †++ ≈;≈∞ +∞∋+≈ +† ;†≈ ≤∞++∞≈†7. ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ +∋≈;≤ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, †+ ∋†† †+∞;+ ≤;†;=∞≈≈ (3;⊇∞†+, 2004). 0+;†⊇+∞≈’≈ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+ ⊥+;∋∋++ ≈≤+++† +∋≈ ;∋⊥++=∞⊇, ≠;†+ †+∞ ≈∞† ∞≈++††∋∞≈† +∋†∞ ;∋⊥++=;≈⊥ †++∋&≈+≈⊥;94.8 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† †+ 97 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† ≠;†+ ≈+ ⊥∞≈⊇∞+ ⊇;≈⊥∋+;†+, +∞⊥∞†;†;+≈ +∋†∞≈ +∋=∞ †∋††∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∞⊇∞≈† ⊇++⊥ +∞† +∋≈ ⊇∞≤†;≈∞⊇ (7+∋, ≈.⊇.). 3;†;≈⊥∞∋† ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ +∞;≈⊥ ∞≠⊥∋≈⊇∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋+∞ ∋≤≤∞†∞+∋†∞⊇ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋∞††;-⊥+∋⊇∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+.&≈+≈⊥;15,000&≈+≈⊥;≈≤++†∋+≈+;⊥≈ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ †+ ⊥+++ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈.

The development of six hundred schools has been supported using school improvement grants (a program that will be expanded nationwide in school year 2013/2014) and thousands of teachers have been trained in effective teaching and learning (Tha, n.d.).

    1. Overview of technology in education

Technology is everywhere in education.

Many developed countries spend tons of money to involve technology in education. For example, public schools in the United States now provide at least one computer for every five students. They spend more than $3 billion per year on digital content (Herold, 2018, February 28).

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4 ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ++⊇+ +† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ +∋≈ ∋†≈+ ∋∋⊇∞ ≤†∞∋+ †+∋† ∋+≈† †∞∋≤+∞+≈ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ≈†+≠ †+ †+∋≈≈†++∋ †+∞ ≠∋+≈ †+∞+ †∞∋≤+, ⊇∞≈⊥;†∞ †+∞ ;≈††∞≠ +† ≈∞≠ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈†+ †+∞;+ ≤†∋≈≈+++∋≈. 7+∞+∞ +∞∋∋;≈≈ 7.;†∞⊇ ∞=;⊇∞≈≤∞ †+ ≈++≠ †+∋† †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ∋≈⊇ +≈†;≈∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ∋+∞ ;∋⊥++=;≈⊥ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ +∞†≤+∋∞≈ †++ ∋+≈† ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ (8∞++†⊇, 2018, 6∞++∞∋++ 28). 3;†+ 2018 {∞≈† ∋++∞≈⊇ †+∞ ≤++≈∞+, †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ ∋†+∞∋⊇+ ≈≠∞∞⊥;≈⊥ †+++∞⊥+ ≤†∋≈≈+++∋≈ ∋≈ ∞⊇∞≤∋†++≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞+≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ ∋++∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞ ⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞⊇ †+ ∞≈+∋≈≤∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈.

4∞≠ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;∞≈ †;∂∞ 41, ∋∋≤+;≈∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥, ∋≈⊇ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋† ≈+††≠∋+∞ ∋+∞≈'† {∞≈† ≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ †++ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈, †+∞+'+∞ ≈+∋∂;≈⊥ ∞⊥ †+∞ ++†∞ +† ∞⊇∞≤∋†++≈, ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ⊥+;†+≈+⊥+;≤∋† ≈+;††≈ ;≈ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ †+ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥, ∋≈⊇ +∞∋+⊇∞†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤†∋≈≈+++∋ (3∞+≈∋+⊇, 2017, 8∞≤∞∋+∞+ 27). 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ⊥†∋+;≈⊥ ∋ ∋∋{++ ++†∞ ;≈ ∞†∞∋∞≈†∋++ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≤+≈⊇∋++ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∞∋+7. ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ 21≈† ≤∞≈†∞++ (4;≤∂∞+≈+≈, &∋∋⊥; 5+⊇+;∋†∞≈, 2013). 3;†+ †+∞ +∋⊥;⊇ ⊥++≠†+ ;≈ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+, 0∋∋++⊇;∋ ;≈ †++;≈⊥ †+ ∋⊥⊥7. †+∞ ∋+⊇∞+≈ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †+ ;∋⊥++=∞ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ≈+≈†∞∋.

7+∞ 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ 4;≈;≈†++ +† 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, 5+∞†+, ∋≈⊇ 3⊥++† ≤∋††∞⊇ 4+953 ∋≈⊇ 3++†⊇’≈ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †++ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ 3+≈†∞∋≈ 7+∋≈≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ⊥++{∞≤† ≤∋††∞⊇ 7937 +∋≈ {∞≈† ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ ∋ ≈∞≠ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ †++ ∋++;†∞≈ †+∋† ≤∋≈ +∞†⊥ ≈†∞⊇∞≈† ≠;†+ †+∞;+ +∞∋⊇;≈⊥ ∋≈≈∞≈≈∋∞≈†≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ∞≈∞ +† ∋++;†∞ †∋+†∞† ≤+∋⊥∞†∞+≈ (&⊥∞+†;0≈;≈⊥ 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †+ 1∋⊥++=∞ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ †++ 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ 0+;†⊇+∞≈&⊥∞+†;, 2015).

7+;≈ ≤+∞∋†;+≈ +† ≈∞≠ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≠† ∞≈∞†∞† ≈†∞⊥ †++ ++†+ †∞∋≤+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ †+ +∞⊇∞≤∞ †+∞ ∞++++≈ ∋≈⊇ +;∋≈ +† ≤+++∞≤†;≈⊥ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈’ ∞≠∋∋ ⊥∋⊥∞+. 3∞†++∞ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇, ;† ≠∋≈ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †++ †∞∋≤+∞+≈ †+ ≤+++∞≤† †+∞ ⊥∞≈-∋≈⊇-⊥∋⊥∞+ =∞+≈;+≈ +† ∞≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ ≠;†++∞† ∋;≈†∋∂∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +;∋≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ∋+≈†7. ;≈ ≈≤+++†, ≈†∞⊇∞≈†-†∞∋≤+∞+ +∋†;+ ;≈ 46 †+ +≈∞, ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≈+∋∞ +∞+∋† ≈≤+++†≈, †+∞ +∋†;+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞≈ †+ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 62 ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ +∞;≈⊥ †∋∞⊥+† ++ {∞≈† +≈∞ †∞∋≤+∞+ (&⊥∞+†;0≈;≈⊥ 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †+ 1∋⊥++=∞ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ †++ 0∋∋++⊇;∋≈ 0+;†⊇+∞≈&⊥∞+†;, 2015).

4∋≈+ ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ +† 7937 ∋⊥⊥ ∋+∞ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∞≈;†++∋;†+ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈, +∞⊇∞≤;≈⊥ ∞++++ ∋≈⊇ +;∋≈, ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†+∋∋†;≤∋†7. ∋≈⊇ ∋≤≤∞+∋†∞7. ≤∋†≤∞†∋†;≈⊥ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈’ ∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ≈≤++∞≈ (&⊥∞+†;7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †++ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ 3+≈†∞∋≈ 7+∋≈≈†++∋∋†;+≈ (7937) (2014-2015)&⊥∞+†;). 7+∞ ∋;≈;≈†++ ∋†≈+ ≤++⊥++∋†∞≈ ≠;†+ 7∞†∞≤+∋∋ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+ 4++;†∞† †+ ∋∋∂∞ ∋≈ +≈†;≈∞ ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ +;⊥+ ≈≤+++† ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ ≤∋≈ ⊇;=∞ ;≈ ⊇+;≈⊥ ∞≠∞+≤;≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +≈†;≈∞ †∞∋+≈;≈⊥ ++ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞.....

7+;≈ ⊥++{∞≤† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ †∞≈†∞⊇ ∋† 3;≈+=∋† 8;⊥+ 3≤+++† (9;∋+++≈⊥ &∋∋⊥; 204 9+∋∞+, &⊥∞+†;0∋∋++⊇;∋ 4+=∞≈ 7+≠∋+⊇ 4++∞ 0+∋⊥∞†∞+ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ;≈ 0++=;≈≤∞≈&⊥∞+†;, 2014). 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 4+. 8∋≈⊥ 0+∞+≈ 4∋++≈, †+∞ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, 5+∞†+ ∋≈⊇ 3⊥++†≈ 4;≈;≈†∞+ ;≈ 0∋∋++⊇;∋, ≈∋;⊇ †+∋† “0∞+ ∋;≈;≈†++ ;≈ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≠;†+ 4;≤++≈+†† †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ≈∂;††≈, +∞;†⊇ †∞∋≤+∞+≈’ ≤∋⊥∋+;†;†;∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ⊥++∋+†∞ 3794 ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ ≠;†+ ∋≈ +⊥⊥++†∞≈;†+ †+ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ ⊥∞∋†;†+ +;⊥+ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ⊥++⊥+∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ †+∞ †∞≤+≈;≤∋† ≈∂;††≈ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ †+ ≤+≈†+;+∞†∞ †∞†7. †+ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ †∋+++ ∋∋+∂∞† ≈∞∞⊇≈,” (&⊥∞+†;0∋∋++⊇;∋'≈ 4;≈;≈†++ +† 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈ ⊥∋+†≈∞+≈ ≠;†+ 4;≤++≈+†† †++ ⊇;⊥;†∋† †+∋≈≈†++∋∋†;+≈&⊥∞+†;).

  1. 0+++†∞∋ ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈†

    1. 1≈≈∞∞ ;≈ 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+

4††++∞⊥+ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ +∞†⊥≈ ∞≈ ∋ †+† ;≈ ∋†∋+≈† ∞=∞++ †;∞†⊇, ;† ∋†≈+ ⊥;=∞≈ ∞≈ ≈+∋∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ;∋⊥∋≤†≈. 3;†+ †+∞ ∞≈∞ +† ≈∋∋∞ ;≈†∞+≈∞† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊥∞††;≈⊥ ∋⊇⊇;≤†∞⊇ †+ +≈†;≈∞ ⊥∋∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ⊥++≈;≤∋† ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠∞+≤;≈∞≈ ∋+∞ +∞≤+∋;≈⊥ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+7. †∞≈≈ (0+≈;†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ 4∞⊥∋†;=∞ 9††∞≤†≈ 0† 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ 0≈ 0∞+ 7;=∞≈ – 1∋⊥∋≤†≈, 2013).&≈+≈⊥;1† ;≈ ≈+† ≈∞≤+∞† †+∋† †+∞ ≈∞≠∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈† ∞⊥ †+ ⊇∋†∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ =∞++ ∞≠⊥∞≈≈;=∞.

1≈ ++⊇∞+ †++ ∋ ≈≤+++† †+ ∞≈∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †;∂∞ †+;≈ †+∞+ +∋=∞ †+ ⊥∋+ †++ ;†, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †++ ∋+≈† ⊥∞+†;≤ ≈≤+++†≈ †+ ⊇+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞ ≈+∞∞+ ≤+≈†. 7+;≈ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †++ ⊥∋+∞≈†≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ ≈†∞⊇∞≈†≈ +∞≤+∋∞ ∋≤≤∞≈†+∋∞⊇ †+ ≈+∋∞ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †+∋† †+∞+ ⊇+ ≈+† +∋=∞ ∋† ++∋∞ (12 4⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 8;≈∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞≈ +† 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, 2015). 4++∞+=∞+, †++ ∋∞≤+ +∞†;∋≈≤∞ +≈ ∞†∞≤†++≈;≤ ∋∞†++⊇≈ +† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≈+† +≈7. ≤∋≈ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ∞≈≈∞≤∞≈≈∋++ †+∋††;≤, +∞† ∋†≈+ ≤∋≈ ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞ =;†∋† ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† ;≈†∞+∋≤†;+≈ (4∋++ 4∞≈†++-8∋+⊥∞+). 7+∞ ≠∞∋††+ +† ⊥+∞∋† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +≈ †+∞ ;≈†∞+≈∞† ;≈ ∞∋≈;7. +=∞+≈+∋⊇+≠∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∋∋+∞≈†≈ +† +∋⊇ †.....

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