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Research Methodology

Class E3.1

the effect of ict usage on study performance Among Univerity students
A Case Study on English Department of IFL

Research Report


Name:

Pon


  1. Background of study

    1. Overview of technology

In modern world, technology is involved in our everyday lives. It is a commonplace that we live in an advanced technological world (Restivo, S. P 2005). We involve technology in almost everything we do in our dai lives. Technology is dynamic; it keeps on improving because our needs and demands for technology keep on changing (Ramey, K. 2018, February 22).We use technology to accomplish various tasks such as using technology at work, technology for communication, transportation, learning, manufacturing, securing data, scaling businesses and so much more (Ramey, K. 2018, February 22), so technology comes in different forms such as communication Technology, Construction Technology, Assistive Technology, Medical Technology, Information Technology, Entertainment Technology, Business Technology, and Educational Technology (Ramey, K. 2018, February 22).

    1. Definition of Technology

Technology is defined as consisting of both hardware and software (knowledge required to produce and use technological hardware) (Arnulf, 2013, Oct 16).In Merriam Webster dictionary defines technology as the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems

    1. Technology in Cambodia

Even though Science and engineering education in Cambodia, especial at higher education level is still in the initial stage ("Cambodia's 2017 Social Media & Digital Statistics", 2017), Cambodia is trying to improve the technology since 2017 to embrace the digital age ("Cambodia's 2017 Social Media & Digital Statistics", 2017).

Technology in Cambodia seems like to be gotten more and more interests, especial by youths. According to "The Technology Helping Cambodia's Disconnected and Hardest to Reach" in 2017 by ICTworks, Cambodia has over 19 million mobile phone subscribers and about 3.8 million is the internet users. Even politicians are also using new technology such as Facebook.

A 2014 report published by the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) says that “Mobile phone access is near universal for young people… Almost all youth (96%) in Cambodia have access to mobile phone.” (ICTworks, "The Technology Helping Cambodia's Disconnected and Hardest to Reach", 2017). The government also has a plan to diversify Cambodia’s export base from garments into agricultural processing, light manufacturing, electronics and other areas require an appropriate skilled and educated workforce ("Science and technology").

    1. Problem of Technology

However, Human resources for the Cambodia’s technology era do not meet the demands. The report Cambodian IT industry: Skills for a digital economy, released in ear 2017, found that 75 percent of businesses could not find the IT staff they needed and another data from 2014 shows that fewer than 6 percent of Cambodian university students were enrolled in a science major such as biology or engineering, while 46 percent studied accounting, finance or management ("Science and technology").

The Cambodian ICT Masterplan 2020 for government was also launched in 2014. The plan aligns with the ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015, to focus on human resources, training and enhancing digital literacy (including for rural people), computer access of government employees, expanded ICT infrastructure, cyber security and more. Specific goals include one that 70 percent of Cambodian people are able to access the internet by 2020 ("Science and technology").Forty-eight percent of Cambodians were found using technology, most smartphone to access Internet ("Mobile Phones and Internet Use in Cambodia in 2016").

The number of smartphone users is increasing each year. In 2015 the number increased 21 percent. Data collected in September 2016 by interviewing 2061 participants aged between 15 and 65 years old across Cambodia shows that over 96% of Cambodians claim to own their own phone ("Mobile Phones and Internet Use in Cambodia in 2016"). Over 37 percent of Cambodians aged 15 to 65 claimed to use the Internet or to have used it at some point (up 15 percent from 2015, 72 percent from 2014, and 82 percent from 2013) ("Mobile Phones and Internet Use in Ca.....[read full text]

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This creation of new application is the next useful step for both teachers and students to reduce the errors and bias of correcting students’ exam paper. Before the application is introduced, it was difficult for teachers to correct the pen-and-paper version of examination without mistakes and bias because most in school, student-teacher ratio is 46 to one, and in some rural schools, the ratio increases to more than 62 students being taught by just one teacher ("Using Technology to Improve Education for Cambodian Children", 2015).

Many advantages of TEST app are increasing uniformity in the examination, reducing error and bias, and automatical and accurate calculating students’ average scores ("Technology for Education Systems Transformation (TEST) (2014-2015)"). The ministry also corporates with Telecomm company Mobitel to make an online institution in which high school students can dive in doing exercises and online learning by themselves or download lessons.

This project has been tested at Sisovat High School (Kimhorng & VOA Khmer, "Cambodia Moves Toward More Computer Education in Provinces", 2014). According to Mr. Hang Chuon Naron, the Education, Youth and Sports Minister in Cambodia, said that “Our ministry is working with Microsoft to develop technology skills, build teachers’ capabilities, and promote STEM education to provide students with an opportunity to access quality high education programs and develop the technical skills needed to contribute ful to national development and labor market needs,” ("Cambodia's Ministry of Education partners with Microsoft for digital transformation").

  1. Problem statement

    1. Issue in Technology

Although technology helps us a lot in almost every field, it also gives us some negative impacts. With the use of same internet children are getting addicted to online games and their physical activities and exercises are becoming considerab less (Positive and Negative Effects Of Technology On Our Lives – Impacts, 2013). It is not secret that the newest and most up to date technology is very expensive.

In order for a school to use technology like this they have to pay for it, which is difficult for most public schools to do because of the sheer cost. This is also difficult for parents because the students become accustomed to some technology that they do not have at home (12 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Education, 2015). Moreover, too much reliance on electronic methods of communication not on can increase unnecessary traffic, but also can decrease vital personal interaction (Mary Nestor-Harper). The wealth of great information on the internet is easi overshadowed by the amounts of bad things present as well.

Violence, pornographic materials, and hateful things can all be accessed by students, and if this is done on school time, premises, or technology big problems can arise (12 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Education, 2015). Technology also brings with it all sorts of environmental problems. As well as machines and devices often being made from toxic, or non-biodegradable materials, most technologies need a power source, which can often mean an increase in the consumption of electricity and fossil fuels (Paul Goodman, 2016).Anyone can post anything on the internet, but this doesn’t mean that it is true or correct.

This is a problem when it comes to education because if students are seeking answers to a question, they could easi come across the incorrect answer and not realize it (12 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Education, 2015). Technology is real important and useful for Cambodia to improve economy but there are still some issues of technology.

According to one of articles in VOA khmer “Hope For Solving Community-Level Problems as ICT Reshapes Life In Cambodia” stated that E-commerce in Cambodia is moving slow because of the lack of online security. Another issue of technology in Cambodia is Khmer’s perspectives. Many parents and students do not value science major due to knowing profitable and prestigious career option ("Dearth of Science, Tech Skills Threatens Growth", 2016).

The lack of technology engagement between students’ perspectives and the curriculum in high school is also the problem which leads to the unavailable technology in Cambodia ("Dearth of Science, Tech Skills Threate.....

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  • To find out strategies to overcome the bad effect of technology in study performance

    1. Research Question

    To achieve the aims and objectives of the study, a few questions is needed to answer which are

    1. What ICTs are used in students’ study?

    2. What are the good effect of technology on study performance?

    3. What are the bad effect of technology on study performance?

    4. What are the appropriate strategies that can overcome bad effects of technology?

    1. Literature Review

    1. Definition of Information Communication Technology (ICTs)

    The literature of Information and communication technology has been discussed a lot. The term of ICT has been used and known since 90s of the twentieth century which was the period of the invention of internet, website, and email (Januszewska et al., 2015). Information and communication technology (ICT) is a broader term in technology.

    It combines all forms of IT, telecommunications, broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network-based control and monitoring functions. It can sometime be used in replacement of information technology (IT), but the term is most used in USA (Januszewska et al., 2015). It has been defined by its role in bringing together communications and the integration of telecommunication, computer, middle ware as well as necessary software, storage, audio-visual systems, and other forms of information technology that allow users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information (Mundhe, 2011).

    Similar, Weigel & Waldburger (2004) defined ICT that it involve in all form of technologies that are designed to access, and transmit the information. ICT is broader term that include even the traditional used device such as telephones, computers and so on. However, According to Castells who conduct research on ICT in French literature (cited in Cázares-Garrido, 2016), there is five characteristics that define ICTs: (1) Operation on information which is raw materials. (2) Involvement a part of human society. (3) Interconnection and complexity of systems and elements that comprise it. (4) Flexibility in reorganizing society, business, and organization. (5) Connection of firm systems w.....

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      1. The effect of technology on study performance and its solutions


    In this part, it is divided into three main parts which are the good effects of technology in classroom, the bad effects of technology in classroom and its solutions, and bonus strategies.

    i. Good effect of technology in classroom

    Based on McCoy (2018), there are five positive effects of technology on Education such as research, globalization, educational games, distance education and web seminars. Example, up-to-date library allows student to find it easy to compile the fundamental research for their research paper. Technology brings people closer. Teachers and students can see and hear and learning even they live in different country by video conferencing (McCoy, 2018).

    Furthermore, based on an article in TeachHUB, Benefits of technology in the classroom which was cited from a study by IT Trade Association Comp TIA, technology makes learning more fun, prepares students for the future, improves retention rate, helps students learn at their own pace and connects with students. (Cox, 2018) According to the same research, students like to use technology because they believe that using laptops and tablets makes them more fun and interesting.

    Moreover, the subjects that used to be boring can will become more interesting with virtual lesson, through a video, or when using a tablet. Learning with their own pace, students can learn depending on their abilities and needs because almost all apps allow for personalized instruction. For this reason, it save time for teacher to help students who might be struggling especial (Cox, 2018).

    According to Gulek & Demirtas (2005) students having laptop engage school work than those who don’t have. Depending on a sentence in an academic article done by Gulek & Demirtas (2005) states that “Research provides evidence that students who engage in collaborative work, participating in more project-based learning, have higher levels of motivation.” and basing on the above authors, when students are motivated, they improved thei.....

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    Based on another article, Why Self-Discipline Is the Best Productivity Hack You Need (Nightingale, 2016). It can be said that self-discipline is the best to leverage students’ productivity. In order to build self-discipline, a well-known YouTube channel, Practical Phycology having about 1.3 million subscribers shares their 5 techniques. Those methods are Change Your Environment, remove bad habits first then replace with good habits, Schedule Break, Journal & Schedule Your Days and Enjoy the Process (Psychology, 2017).

    Another method to manage ICT distraction is suggested by a research is to “Changes in teaching style will become one of the ways to manage ICT distractions in the classroom. The ICT devices are in the hands of students and will remain there. How we manage the personal use of ICT devices in the classroom should

    be the focus of future discussion amongst the stakeholders… (Goundar, 2014)” within a school.

    Another problem is lack of social interaction.Students and children have very little contact with teachers and university professors (Assignment Expert, n.d.). Similar, a website Tophat also wrote that technology can disconnect students from social interactions (Himmelsbach, 2018).​ We have not found specific solutions for this problem. Anyways, based on Mr.

    Soam Sambath, the founder of Cam-paint in Cambodia, raised three self-discipline to practice if one wants to have a brilliant future: discipline for yourself, discipline for time and discipline for work (Hong, 2018). He gave advice to people to have principle or discipline to interact with the others that relates to body, speech and mind. For example, as we are Khmer and Buddhist is to respect old people when the young sees the old, or by asking yourself what to do when you meets a person with the similar age (Hong, 2018).

    Moreover, many eye experts showed that watching phone screen or laptop screen for long period harms students’ eyes. Depending of an eyes expert, it is recommended to use the 20-20-20 rule meaning that every 20 minutes, you should refocus your eyes on something 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds. This will give your eyes a break and allow them to relax. Every hour or so try taking a slight longer break – go to the bathroom, make a cup of tea or take a five-minute walk and use this time to relax your eyes (avogel, n.d.)

    .....

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    The last strategy is Recall What You Know. Students can use helpful technology application on their smartphone such as Timer, Reminder and Noted so that they can remind themselves to review it.

    Based on a website Acrobatiq, Marianne Stenger reviews research and makes suggestions for studying success by managing these factors: location, lighting, body temperature, study environment, and clutter (Diogenes, 2016). Based on the same author in an article 5 ways to optimize your learning environment for better results, there are mix it up, choose lighting careful, pay attention to your body temperature, match your study environment to the exam environment and consider both the pros and cons of clutter.

    The article mentions that “our reaction to natural lighting is very different to that of artificial lighting. Research into the impact of light on humans led by neuroscientist Mirjam Munch shows that artificial light makes us drowsy, while daylight helps us feel more alert. So while studying, an outdoor area or room with larger windows should help you kick off any sleepiness and stay focused.

    If natural light isn't an option, such as during wintertime when there are fewer hours of daylight, using brighter lights can still improve your performance. For instance, researchers in Vienna, Austria, found that children who studied in classrooms with enhanced lighting (500 Lux) performed better on writing, reading, and mathematics exercises than those with standard lighting (300 Lux) (Stenger, 2015).” Moreover, in order to get better result in classroom, students need to pay attention to their body temperature and make sure there are neither too hot nor too cold because a study from Cornell University showed that when temperatures were around 68°F (20°C) people made 44% more errors and were less than half as productive as when the temperatures were 77°F (25°C).

    Anyways, Stenger also said that “Things get a little confusing when you consider another study by researchers in Helsinki, Finland, which found that people were more productive in cooler temperatures of around 71.6°F (22°C).” That is why student need to pay attention to the temperature to get better result.

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