3 The German Revolution 1848: Can a revolution still be effective without reaching its most important aim? - Essay/Aufsatz
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Managerial Accounting AC 301 Autumn Semester 2009 Coursework 3: Final Management Report 3HT Team8 -Terminator ­­ Submitted to: Ms. K. Johanson Submission Date: 7th January, 2010 Submitted by: Juventus, Tang Chung(tach10098­8) Class: 3HE Content Page 1.1 The major decision over the last 3 years p.2 1.2 Analysis of the present situation p.3-p.4 1.3 Objective to be reached at the end of year 4 p.5 2.1 Budget Assumptions p.6-p.10 2.2 Operation Budget p.11 2.3 Financial Plan p.12 2.4 Provisional Balance Sheet p.12 3. Break even analysis for year Calculate and Analyze the Break even revenue and measure the risks p.13-p.14 4. Value of the operations at the end of Year 8 & calculate the ROI p.15-p.16 1.1 The major decision over the last 3 years Marketing In last 3 years, we totally spent $2,049,746 in advertising. In year 1, we mainly spent about $180,000 in Business Press for the weekday room and $170,000 in Local Weekly Newspaper for weekend room. Besides, about $90,000 was focused on Direct Mail for targeting the tours. In year 2, we used about $560,000 to advertise the rooms. We started more organized that we planned well in spending money in different target markets according the seasonal demand. However, we still mainly focused on weekday room by using $182,500 in Business Press and weekend room by using $127,000 in Local Weekly Newspaper. Other money was spent in meal, tours, wedding, and conference by Direct Mail. In

The German Revolution 1848

Can a revolution still be effective without reaching its most important aim?        


The German revolution is an important part of the German culture and affects us till today. But how effective can a revolution be when it couldn’t reach its most important aim of creating the national state of Germany? To analyze this question the revolution has to be considered in its course and the circumstances that caused this revolution.

1815 the congress of Vienna was set up after the defeat of Napoleon to define the borders in Europe after the political map has been changed. The congress decided to split the German Empire into 38 different states which were called the “German bun” together.

But the population of Germany was disagreeing with this decision. They wanted the German bun to become one national state to be unified as one. Mostly young people like students called out to this wish and formed student leagues. These student leagues met at different assemblies like the “Wartburgfest” 1817 and the “Hambacher Fest” 1832.  At the “Hambacher Fest” not only students appeared.

All kinds of people living in Germany wanted to fight for a better living and were almost celebrating the unity of Germany even if it wasn’t reached yet. The colors of this movement were black, red and gold which are known as the colors of today’s German flag. 1819 the antinational socialist August von Kotzebue was murdered which caused the government to make new restrictions for the rioting public.

These new restrictions were called the “Karlsbader Beschlüsse” and said that student leagues were forbidden, the press was censored and people who were rioting against the old order were arrested or even murdered. But the dissatisfaction kept on. The industrial revolution changed the social circumstances. People lost their jobs and were often poor. Crop failures in 1846 and 1848 made situation even worse.

So workers made more claims for justice. Citizens stoop up for the establishment of a national state so they could participate in political and economic decisions. In the politics different parties were formed. The liberal and national citizens had increased wishes against the division into small states so they wanted unified national state. The democrats wanted a popular sovereignty, same suffrage and a parliamentary system in all parts of the German bun.

Socialists wanted fair property ownerships and social orders. They were against nobility privileges and political oppression of national minorities. The economic citizenship wanted to change situation of different measurements, currencies and units of weight in Germany so there is no longer obstructing of civil and capitalistic evolution. All these different fractions united themselves to riot for their problems and .....[read full text]

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7+∞ 6∞++∞∋++ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ;≈ 6+∋≈≤∞ ≈≠∋⊥⊥∞⊇ +=∞+ †+ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+. 1≈ 6+∋≈≤∞ †+∞ +∞⊥∞+†;≤∋≈ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋†≈ ∋++;†;=∞⊇ †++ +;+†≈ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† 9;≈⊥ 7+∞;≈ 0+;†;⊥⊥∞. 4††∞+ +;≈ ∋+⊇;≤∋†;+≈ 6+∋≈≤∞ +∞≤∋∋∞ ∋ +∞⊥∞+†;≤ ∋⊥∋;≈.

4 +∞†++∋ ⊥++⊥+∋∋ †+††+≠∞⊇ †+∋† ;≈≤†∞⊇∞⊇ ∋ +;⊥+† †+ =+†∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞††∞+ ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ †++ ≠++∂∞+≈. 7+∋† ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+ †∞†† †+∞ ⊥+≈≈;+;†;†+ †+ +∞∋††+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥. 5;+†≈ ≈†∋+†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †∞†† †+∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞+ ≤+∞†⊇ ≤∋∞≈∞. 7+∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ †;+≈† ≈†∋+†∞⊇ †+ ++⊥∋≈;=∞ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞ †++ ∋ ⊥∞+⊥†∞’≈ ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ ;≈ 3∋⊇∞≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∞;+ †;+≈† ⊇∞∋∋≈⊇≈ ≠∞+∞ †+†⊇ †+ †+∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈†, ≤∋††∞⊇ †+∞ “4∋≈≈+∞;∋∞+ ⊥∞†;†;+≈”.

9=∞≈ ⊥∞∋≈∋≈†≈ ≠∞+∞ ;≈=+†=∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ +;+†≈ †+ +∞††∞+ †+∞;+ †;=;≈⊥ ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈. 7+∞≈∞ ≤+≈⊇;†;+≈≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ †+∞ ⊥+≈≈;+;†;†+ †+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞ ⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ +∞≈. 7+ ≈∋∋∞ +≈∞ +† †+∞ ⊥++†∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ;∋⊥∋≤†≈: 18†+ 4∋+≤+  1848 ∋≈ ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ ∋† †+∞ ≤;†+ ≤∋≈††∞ +† 3∞+†;≈ ∞≈⊇≈ ;≈ ∋+∋∞⊇ †;⊥+†≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ≤;†;=∞≈≈ ∋+∋+ ∋≈⊇ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 100 ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠∞+∞ ∂;††∞⊇. 4††∞+ ≈∞≤+ †+≈≈∞≈ ≤;†;=∞≈≈ †++∋∞⊇ ∋ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† †+∋≤†;+≈ †+⊥∞†+∞+: †+∞ †;+∞+∋†≈.

7+⊥∞†+∞+ ≠;†+ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋†≈ †+∞+ ≤∋††∞⊇ +∞† †+ †+∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥∋†;†+ †+ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ∋+∋∋∋∞≈†, ⊥+∞≈≈ †+∞∞⊇+∋ ∋≈⊇ †+ ++;≈⊥ ∞⊥ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ⊥∋+†;∋∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ≈+ ≤∋††∞⊇ ∋∋+≤+ ≤†∋;∋≈. 7+∞ ⊥∋+†;∞≈ ∋⊥+∞∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ +∞≈ ;≈†+ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈≈†;†∞†;+≈∋† ≈†∋†∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ +∞†∞ +† †∋≠. 7+∞;+ †;+≈† ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈∞≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∋† †+∞ ≈∞≠ ∋∋+≤+ ∋;≈;≈†∞+≈ ≤+≈†++††∞⊇ †+∞ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† +∋⊥⊥∞≈.....

0≈ 19†+ 4∋+≤+ 1848 †+∞ ⊥+∞≈≈∞+∞ +† ⊥++†∞≈†∞+≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ †+∋† 6+;∞⊇+;≤+ 3;†+∞†∋ 12 +∋⊇ †+ ++≈++ †+∞ 914≈ +† †+∞ 4∋+≤+ ⊥++†∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ 2 ⊇∋+≈ †∋†∞+ +∞ +∋⊇ †+ +;⊇∞ †+++∞⊥+ 3∞+†;≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+†++≈ +† †+∞ ⊥++†∞≈†∞+≈ (+†∋≤∂-+∞⊇-⊥+†⊇) ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞ †+∞ †+∞∞⊇+∋ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈;†+ +† 6∞+∋∋≈+. 4† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 4∋+≤+ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ++†+ ⊥++∞⊥≈ (†;+∞+∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋†≈) ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ +=∞+†+++≠ †+∞ ≈++;†;†+ +∞† ∋≈ †+∞ ≈++;†;†+ ≠∋≈ +=∞+†+++≠≈ (⊥+;≈≤∞ 4∞††∞+≈;≤+), †+∞+ ≈+†;≤∞⊇ †+∞;+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ ;≈ †+∞;+ ;⊇∞+†+⊥;∞≈ ++≠ †+ +∞†∞ 6∞+∋∋≈+.

7+∞ †;+∞+∋†≈ ≠∋≈†∞⊇ ∋ ≤+≈≈†;†∞†;+≈∋† ∋+≈∋+≤++ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋†≈ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋≤+. 7+∞+ ≤+∞†⊇≈’† ≈+∋∞ †+ +≈∞ ;⊇∞∋ +† ∋ +;⊥+† †+ =+†∞. 7;+∞+∋†≈ ≠∞+∞ ∋+≈††+ +;≤+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+∋† ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+∞ +;⊥+† †+ =+†∞ {∞≈† †++ ≤;†;=∞≈≈ †+∋† +∋⊇ ∞≈+∞⊥+ ;≈≤+∋∞ +∞† ⊇∞∋+≤+∋†≈ ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +;⊥+† †+ =+†∞ †++ ∞=∞+++≈∞. 4† †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† 4∋+≤+ ∋≈⊇ ∋††∞+ †+†≈ +† ⊥++†∞≈†≈ †+∞ †+∞≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ⊥+∞⊥∋+†;∋∋∞≈† ;≈ ≤++⊥∞+∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ “3∞≈⊇∞≈†∋⊥” +† †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ ≤+≈†∞⊇∞+∋†;+≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+ ⊥+∞⊥∋+∞⊇ †+∞ ∞†∞≤†;+≈≈ †++ †+∞ 4∋†;+≈∋† ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ ;≈ †+∞ 3†.

0∋∞†≈ ≤+∞+≤+ ;≈ 6+∋≈∂†∞+†. 3∞† ⊥++†∞≈† ∂∞⊥† +≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈†;†† ≠∋≈†∞⊇ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈†∋†∞. 4† †+∞ 18†+ 4∋+ †;≈∋††+ †+∞ ⊥++†∞≈†∞+≈ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ †+∞;+ ⊥+∋†≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ †;+≈† ≈∋†;+≈∋† ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ +† †+∞ †;+≈† 6∞+∋∋≈ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋†;≤ ∞†∞≤†∞⊇ ⊥+†;†;≤;∋≈≈ (†+∞ 4∋+≤+ 4;≈;≈†∞+≈) ;≈ †+∞ 3†. 0∋∞†≈ ≤+∞+≤+ ;≈ 6+∋≈∂†∞+†. 7+∞ ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ ∂∞⊥† +≈ ≈†+≠†+ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ∋∞∋≈†;∋∞ ∋ ≤+∞≈†∞+ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≈†∋+†∞⊇.

7+∞ ∋+≈∋+≤+≈ ⊇;⊇≈’† ≠∋≈† †+ †+≈∞ †+∞;+ ⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ †+∞;+ ≈†∋†∞ ≈+ †+∞+ †++∂ +=∞+ ;† ∋⊥∋;≈. 7+∞ ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ ⊇;⊇≈’† +∋=∞ ∞≈+∞⊥+ ∋∞†+++;†+ †+ +=∞+≤+∋∞ †+;≈ ≤+∞≈†∞+ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋† †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† 4∋+ 1848 †+∞ ≈+†∞†;+≈ ≠∋≈ †+ ∂∞∞⊥ 6∞+∋∋≈+ ;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≈†∋†∞≈. 3∞† †+∞+ ≈†;†† ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ +≈∞ †∞∋⊇∞+. 7+∞+ ≠∋≈†∞⊇ †+∞ 0+∞≈≈;∋≈ ∂;≈⊥ 6+;∞⊇+;≤+ 3;†+∞†∋ †+ +∞ †+∞;+ ∞∋⊥∞+++.

3∞† +∞ ⊇∞≈;∞⊇ †+∞ ≤++≠≈ ≈+ †+∞ ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ ≠∞+∞ ∋+≈††+ †;∂∞ +∞†++∞ †+∞ +∞=+†∞†;+≈.

7+∞ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈ +† †+∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ≠∞+∞ ∋+≈††+ ⊇+≠≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ≤+∞†⊇≈’† +∞∋††+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞;+ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈ +∞† ⊇;⊇ †+∞+ +∞∋††+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈+†+;≈⊥? 7+∞ +∞=+†∞†;+≈;≈†≈ +∋⊇ †+∞;+ ;⊇∞∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞†⊇ ∞≈;†+ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ ≈†∋≈⊇ ∞⊥ †++ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈.

They triggered the people to believe and fight for better situations in Germany. That’s the spirit of a revolution and even if the aim of a national state wasn’t reached, its ideals kept on. Maybe the revolution was just too early because later Bismarck could unify Germany based on this revolution. And even today there are legacies that affect us. An example is todays German flag which is based on the colors of the revolutionists in 1848. In the German “Grundgesetz” the basic rights for Germany are written down and these rights were firstly written down in the national assembly 1848 and last till today.

Even the text of the hymn of Germany, written by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, was created in the time of the German revolution. The second verse was later been used in the period of National Socialism to show that Germany represents the best country (“Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, ) that was originally meant to be a symbol for one unified Germany and that the thought of a national state should be .....

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3+ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +∋≤∂ ;≈ 1848 ∋∋+ †++∞⊥+† †+∋† †+∞ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≠∋≈≈’† ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ≤+∞†⊇≈’† ∞≈;†∞ 6∞+∋∋≈+ †+ +≈∞ ≈†∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ∋≈≈∞∋+†+ ≠∋≈≈’† ∞††∞≤†;=∞ ≈+ ∋ ≤+∞≈†∞+ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≤+∞†⊇ +=∞+†+++≠ †+∞ +∞=+†∞†;+≈;≈†≈.

3∞† †+∞+ ≈∞=∞+ †+≈† †+∞ ≈⊥;+;† ∋≈⊇ ∂∞⊥† +≈ +∞†;∞=;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞;+ ⊇+∞∋∋≈ ≈+ †∋†∞+ †+∞;+ ;⊇∞∋≈ ≤+∞†⊇ +∞ ;∋⊥†∞∋∞≈†∞⊇. 7+⊇∋+ ≠∞ ≈†;†† ≤∋≈ ≈∞∞ ≠+∋† †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+ †+∞⊥+† †++ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ †+≈⊥ †∞+∋ =;∞≠ †+∞;+ ⊥+∋†≈ ≠∞+∞ +∞∋≤+∞⊇. 7+ ∋≈≈≠∞+ †+∞ ∂∞+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ – +∞≈ ∋ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≤∋≈ ≈†;†† +∞ ∞††∞≤†;=∞ ∞=∞≈ ;† ;†≈ ∋+≈† ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ∋;∋ ≠∋≈≈’† +∞∋≤+∞⊇ +∋≤∂ †+∞≈. 7+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≈++≠≈ †+∋† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ⊇+∞≈≈’† +∋=∞ †+ +∋⊥⊥∞≈ ;∋∋∞⊇;∋†∞†+.

1† +††∞≈ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥≈ +=∞+ ∋ †+≈⊥ †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋†≈ ∋+∞ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ †;∋∞ ∋††∞+ †;∋∞ +∞† ;≈ †+∞ ∞≈⊇ †+∞ ≈⊥;+;† +† ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ;≈ ∂∞⊥† ∋†;=∞ +=∞+ †+;≈ †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈ ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ †+ +∞††∞+ ≤;+≤∞∋≈†∋≈≤∞≈ ∋≈ +∞†++∞. à5∞≈ †+∞ +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≠∋≈ ∞††∞≤†;=∞ +∞† +∋⊇ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ +=∞+ ∋ †+≈⊥ †;∋∞ †+ +∞ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞†.


3+∞+≤∞≈

0≈∞+≈∋∋∞: 9∞=;≈: 6++≈⊇∞/ 0+≈∋≤+∞≈ ⊇∞+ ⊇∞∞†≈≤+∞≈ 5∞=+†∞†;+≈ =+≈ 1848/ 1849; (3†∋≈⊇: 15.12.2017)

9∞;≈ 4∋∋∞ ⊥∞⊥∞+∞≈: 4=+=+∞=+†∞†;+≈ 1848; (3†∋≈⊇: 15.12.2017)

0≈∞+≈∋∋∞: 4+3;≈≈∞≈2⊥+: ≠;≈≈∞≈2⊥+: 8;∞ 5∞=+†∞†;+≈ 1848/49 ∞+∂†=+†; .....



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