The Industrial Revolution John Kay The cotton Industry was a major factor in the Industrial Revolution and was one of the most essential industries for development of the industrializati­on. Since cotton was so important and vital, subsequently, most of the inventions made during the industrial time around 1780 were mainly for manufacturing and producing cotton. In 1733, the demand for cotton cloth was extremely high, but the production was low. This crisis had to be solved in order for England’s economy not to be hindered. The solution to this critical issue came from a British weaver called John Kay. Kay saw these problems that the cotton industry was facing and thought about how to make cotton production faster and more efficient. Thus, he invented the flying shuttle, England’s most innovative invention for the cloth production in the economy. It changed the manual labor-based weaving industry into a mechanized system, which brought great advantages due to it drastically shortening the weaving time. John Kay’s innovative and economy-boostin­g Idea paved the way for numerous inventors that followed. John Kay was born on June 17th 1704 to a farming family in Walmersley, a Lancashire hamlet north of Bury. Kay grew up without a father, as he died before his birth, and was educated by his mother until his apprenticeship with a hand-loom reed maker. The apprenticeship introduced him to the cotton industry,
April 2, 2012
American History – Industrial Revolution Research Paper
Topic: Immigration:What were the reasons for different groups of immigrants from Europe to come to the United States of America from 1890-1920?
“Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me: I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”
This is a quote from the sonnet “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus from 1883. It gives an indication about the American attitude and sentiment towards new immigrants. The immigrants from Europe coming from 1890-1920 played a huge role in changing the face of the U.S.A. to the multicultural and fascinating society it is nowadays. But what were the reasons for these immigrants in the late 19th century and early 1900s to come over the Atlantic Ocean to the United States?
By 1910, 70% of the immigrants coming to the U.S.A. came from the Southern and Eastern Europe. The important countries were Italy, Poland, Greece and Russia. After the outbreak of WWI in 1914 numbers of immigrants dropped but dramatically increased after 1918 again. There are several different economical, political and social reasons for immigrants to come to the United States.
An important reason for many Jewish immigrants who fled from Eastern Europe to America were the Jew-pogroms in Europe. From 1880-1924 over two million Jews fled from the Russian Empire to America. Important pogroms are the Odessa pogroms (1821-1905), the Warsaw pogrom (1881), the Kishinev pogrom (1903) and the Kiev pogrom (1905).
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As a closely connected people with a hard working attitude the Jews influenced the American economy in a unique way and in their mostly democratic politic views they also influenced American politics. Today in the state of New York, 9.1% of its population are Jewish. The Anti-Jewish pogroms in Eastern Europe are a social reason for emigration to the United States.
Another big group of immigrants coming to the U.S.A. were the Italians. The emigration of Italians is called Italian Diaspora. From 1880-1920, over four million Italians left their country in search of better economic opportunities, the majority from 1900-1914. The immigrants came from rural areas in southern and north-eastern Italy.
Important reasons were the shortage of farmland, lawlessness, heavy taxes and diseases like Cholera and Pellagra. In the U.S.A. the mostly uneducated and poor Italians searched economical opportunities and the freedom of the Mafia. Most Italians settled down in the big cities of the east coast, and formed ethnic neighbourhoods, which still stand – Little Italy. The Italian immigrants influenced American lifestyle and culture dramatically.
Now a day, over 17.8 million Americans have ancestors from Italy. The reasons for Italian emigration were mainly economic.
Immigration played a huge rule in the second phase of industrialization in the U.S.A. and in the new citizens employers could find cheap labour once again. The immigrants also brought new economical, political and social ideas due to their reasons of coming to “The Land of the Free” which changed the face of American society.
The hopes and reasons for the immigrants are shown above, but in usual the new life in America was not perfect at all. The Europeans often faced hazardous working conditions and low wages in industry and once again nativism took place in the U.S.