<
>
swopdoc logo
Download
a) trade for free
b) buy for 9.97 $
Document category

Term paper
English Language

University, School

Universität Potsdam

Grade, Teacher, Year

Note: 1,0, Dozent: A.Peters, WS13/14

Author / Copyright
Text by Ida T. ©
Format: PDF
Size: 3.68 Mb
Without copy protection
Rating [details]

Rating 5.0 of 5.0 (1)
Networking:
0/0|0[0.0]|1/6







More documents
S.R.N. Scotland’s Royal Newspaper Scotland is Victorious! The War Against Norway is Over, as the Brave Men of Scotland Defeat the Enemy Armies. Artyom Karapetov, SRN WRITER Praise the heavens for the marvelous news of Scotland’s victory over the barbar- ian hoards of blood-thirsty brutes! Today, April 21, 1564, is a day of celebration of peace and glory! Over the tragic years of hunger and thirst, all of our countrymen have passed through a tedious battle for justice and peace; and at last our joint ef- forts have shown some prominent…
Gàidhlig – Scottish Gaelic For a long period of time in Scottish history the language spoken by the majority of Scotland’s population was Gaelic. Gaelic is classed among Celtic Languages and thus has a lot in common with other languages of Celtic origin such as Irish, Manx[1], Welsh and Cumbric[2]. Especially Irish and Manx are closely related to Scottish Gaelic, as those three descended from so called Old Irish.[3] History It is believed that Scottish Gaelic was brought to Scotland around the 4th century AD by settlers from Ireland.…

The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh


Let our three voiced country
Sing in a new world
Joining the other rivers without dogma,
But with friendliness all around her.
Let her new river shine on a day
That is fresh and glittering and contemporary: Let it be true to itself and its origins Inventive, original, philosophical,
Its institutions mirror its beauty;
Then without shame we can esteem ourselves.


The Beginning of a New Song Iain Crichton Smith


Universität Potsdam WiSe 13 /14

Philosophische Fakultät - Anglistik / Amerikanistik

Studiengang: MA LG Eng / Span

Modul V lin: Sprachwissenschaftliche Analyse

Dozent: Arne Peters

Studentin:

Bölschestraße 60,

12587 Berlin

Matr.: 731467

e-mail: christis@uni-potsdam.de


Table of Contents

1. Introduction: National Identity and Scotland’s Languages 3

2. The Project 4

2.1 Linguistic Landscape - term clarification 4

2.2 Area of Research 5

2.3 Background of the Research 7

2.4 Focus and Method of Research 8

2.5 Findings 9

2.5.1 The General Picture 9

2.5.2 Princes Street 10

2.5.2.1 Princes Street: Top-down Items 10

2.5.2.2 Princes Street: Bottom-up Items 12

2.5.3 The Royal Mile 14

2.5.3.1 Royal Mile: Top-down Items 14

2.5.3.2 Royal Mile: Bottom-up Items 21

3. Summary and Conclusion 26

4. Bibliography 28


1. Introduction: National Identity and Scotland’s Languages

This year, on the 18th of September 2014 a national referendum will be held in Scotland and the outcome is eagerly anticipated: after more than 300 years of being part of Great Britain the Scottish people will decide whether or not they become an independent nation again. The contentious debates have been dominating the media scene for quite a while, not just within Scotland but in all of the UK.

Following the coverage on the issue can be highly revealing regarding the political and economic arguments from both sides. At the same time, however, this discussion is also to a great extent an ideological one, addressing certain values and emotions of the voters, as for example the question of national identity and unity. Scotland is a very proud and tradition-conscious country, always eager to distinguish herself from the rest of the UK as anyone will know who ever tried to call a Scotsman English.

In this context also the Scottish languages come into play, as they constitute an important part of national consciousness and identity.

Throughout Scotland’s recorded linguistic history numerous languages have and had been spoken, mainly falling into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. Today, the three native languages spoken in Scotland are English, mostly realized as Scottish Standard English, Scots and (Scottish) Gaelic. The demography of these varies considerably with Gaelic speakers totalling 58,000 or 1,1% of Scotland’s population aged three and over (Scotland’s Census 2011: Scotland - Identity) whereas English is virtually being spoken across the whole country.

The spread and number of Scots speakers, by contrast, is particularly hard to define according to its uncertain status. Although the question of whether Scots is a language in its own right may not have been irrefutably answered yet1, it will be treated in this paper as its own language, relying on the recognition for Scots by the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages.

Yet, the Mini-Guide to the Lesser-Used Languages of the EC states at the same time (61-2):

REGION: There is very little information on the use and spread of Scots language which is spoken south and east of the Highlands.

DISTRIBUTION: There are no estimates or census data on the number of speakers (cited in Macafee: 515).


Indeed, attempts to “guesstimate” the proportion of Scotland’s Scots-speaking population range from 20 per cent up to 80 per cent. The 2011 Census defines 30 per cent (1.5 million) of Scotland’s aged three and over population who can speak Scots. At the same time it is stated that these figures need to be carefully qualified as this question was relatively poorly answered in the questionnaire (Scotland’s Census 2011: .....[read full text]

Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

In line with Gorter’s last-mentioned statement, the area of research for this paper has been focussing on the Royal Mile, the biggest tourist promenade which is located in the city’s Old Town, and on Princes Street, Edinburgh’s busiest shopping street in the New Town. Since here not only the major commercial activity takes place but also many principal public institutions are located, both streets are expected to have particularly prolific LLs.

Edinburgh, a city with a today’s population of 476,626 (Scotland’s Census 2011: Edinburgh - Population), became a Royal Burgh in 1329, allowing markets and fairs to be held. Increased trading resulted in a larger population but the town stayed within its walls until the mid 18th century and so developed the close-knit streets and buildings of the Old Town. The Royal Mile, known as the main street in Medieval Edinburgh, runs through the Old Town, stretching from Edinburgh Castle along the Esplanade down Castle Hill to Lawnmarket, then further along High Street and Canongate to the Palace of Holyroodhouse.

Characteristic are the many dark, narrow and cobbled ‘closes’, or ‘wynds’ (see 2.5.3.1, p.18), found on both sides of the Royal Mile where they run between the High Street and Grassmarket and from Cannongate to Cowgate as well as providing the quickest route, on foot, to the New Town.

Source: (21.05.2014)


By the mid 18th century the city of Edinburgh was drastically over crowded, being just a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. The ‘New Town’ evolved from about 1770 onwards to accommodate the larger and richer population. Great public buildings like the Royal Scottish Academy, the National Gallery of Scotland and Scott’s Monument were built. Many upper class people moved to the New Town and the Old Town quickly deteriorated to what was described as a slum.

Encompassing Streets such as Princes Street, George Street, Regent Terrace and Moray Place, the New Town was originally intended as a residential area for the wealthier citizens. Nowadays its centre is dominated by banks, offices and shops and is also becoming renowned for its trendy bars and restaurants (edinburgh-history.co.uk). Princes Street is located next to Waverley, the central train station of Edinburgh, and also serves as the city’s main traffic connection point where almost all of the city’s buses pass by, including the airport link.

2.3 Background of the Research

Scotland’s last census from 2011 notes a population of 460,103 people aged 3 and over in Edinburgh (council area). Of these, 98.1 per cent speak English well or very well, 0,7 per cent are able to speak Gaelic and 21.3 per cent can speak Scots. 12 per cent use a language other than English, Scots, or Gaelic at home. The other collected data that are of interest for this paper concern the national identity. 70.5 per cent of Edinburgh’s population feel they have some Scottish national identity, including 48.8 per cent feeling Scottish only. 18.5 per cent feel Scottish and British and 3.2 per cent feel Scottish plus another identity (Scotland’s Census 2011: Edinburgh - Identity).

These numbers seem fairly high, and yet they display the city of Edinburgh as the Scottish council area with by far the smallest proportion of Scottish-only identity among her population.

So far there seem to exist no figures about Edinburghers and their attitude towards neither Scots nor Gaelic. For the latter, MacKinnon conducted a national survey in 1994-95, finding that Gaelic strongly serves as an identifier for the national identity “Scottish” and - partly even more so - as a local identity-marker particularly for Islanders and Highlanders.

Regarding language-support, MacKinnon states a perceived lack of language-support by local and official authorities and calls for a “more upfront and proactive spirit in strengthening Gaelic policies in public administration”, especially with regard to the “rapid inter-generational decline in language use within the family as well as .....

Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

That first distinction rests on the assumption that the former are expected to reflect the underlying power relations and a general commitment to the dominant culture while the latter are designed much more freely according to individual strategies. These strategies then in turn allow conclusions about rational considerations of the actors: Where lies the sign’s expected attractiveness to the public and clients and what are the actor’s aspirations to give expression to their identity through their choice of patterns that, in one way or another, represent their presentation of self to the public (ebd.: 7 ff.).

In this study are included street signs (closes respectively, ead.), commercial signs, billboards, signs on national and municipal institutions, trade names, and public notes. Following Rafael et al., the data themselves are firstly categorised according to the top-down versus bottom-up distinction and subsequently according to specific subareas of activity. Top-down signs then are coded according to their belonging to historical, cultural / educational, indicative / informative, legal institutions and street names.

Bottom-up items are coded according to categories such as professional (legal, medical, consulting), commercial (and subsequently, according to branches like food, hotels, (gastronomy), clothing, furniture etc.) and services (agencies like real estate, translation or manpower)2 (ebd.: 10 f.).

Apart from that coding there is also attention paid to the very languages appearing on the signs, their saliency, the relative size of fonts of the different languages, their order of appearance, location on the sign, and suchlike. At the centre of the research is, as indicated before, the relative importance of Scottish Standard English (SSE), Scots and Gaelic in the two LL sites investigated, that is the Royal Mile and Princes Street.

2.5 Findings

2.5.1 The General Picture

As expected, English is the predominant language within both sites, the Royal Mile and Princes Street. This accounts for Princes Street in nearly 100% of the collected LL items, only being altered on very few occasions. On the Royal Mile, by contrast, English accounts for 50 per cent of all LL items documented, followed by Scots with 32 per cent (fig 1). These numbers are, however, to consider with great care, partly due to the difficult distinction between English and Scots.

For example, a shop name such as the Wee Bite (photo 1) then has been counted as one Scots unit, though one might argue that wee today is a common word in Scottish Standard English and bite might be either Scots or English. Also, though the place has a Scots name, any further annotations (e.g. at the shop window) are usually in English, which makes it hard to categorize the item as one unit.

So the shop name has been counted as one (Scots) unit of analysis in itself and further annota.....

Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

The only bilingual item found was the memorial of the Black Watch that - besides English - displays the Gaelic words AM FREICEADAN DUBH, the original name for the Independent Highland Companies who were recruited from local clans to form the Black Watch (Adam & Innes of Learney: 64) (photos 4, 5, 6). Any further annotations again are in English.

photos 4, 5, 6: The Black Watch memorial on Princes Street


The last subcategory of top-down LL items found in Princes Street is the cultural / educational one, being with six items also the biggest category out of the three. Two of the six were found in the context of the National Gallery (photo7) and another three were found in connection with the General Register House (photo 8), the first purpose built public records repository in the British Isles (ScotlandsPeople.gov.uk).

The last item in this category is an explanation board giving information on the Scott Monument (photo 9).

photos 7,8,9: Educational / cultural top-down items on Princes Street

2.5.2.2 Princes Street: Bottom-up Items

In total, there were 38 bottom-up LL items found on Princes Street, 37 of them in English and one in Latin. As mentioned, most of these belong to rather big department stores and international shop chains (photos 10, 11). In addition, there are quite a few hotels on the street, all of a rather prestigious and impressive nature. Naturally, these all rely on English.

photos 10, 11: representatives of international business .....

Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

The warrant as a top-down item in itself, however, clearly stems from a time when Latin still played a major role as the language of diplomacy and the language at court in Europe (late Renaissance - Union of Crowns in 1603).

photos 14, 15: the Royal Warrant outside a department store on Princes Street

2.5.3 The Royal Mile

2.5.3.1 Royal Mile: Top-down Items

In total, there have been 97 top-down LL items registered on Royal Mile, out of which 47 were in English (49 per cent), followed by Scots with 28 items (31 per cent) and subsequently by Latin with 7 items (8 per cent).

figure 3: Royal Mile top-down LL items: subcategories per languages.

Only two items were found in Gaelic, both belonging to the Makar’s Court4, an “evolving national literary monument”, which displays - inscribed in the flagstones - “famous words of great Scottish writers”, representing Scotland’s main literary languages Scots, Latin, Gaelic and English and ranging in their dates of origin from 1375 to 1999. The first stone (photo 16) was unveiled in 1997, but new flagstones are added on a regular basis (EdinburghMuseums.org.uk).

Despite the stones being sponsored by organizations, interest groups, and individuals who also submit the respective authors5, it is the Makars' Court Committee of the Saltire Society that decides on the applications. The Saltire Society, founded in 1936, is a membership organization, which aims to “promote the understanding of the culture and heritage of Scotland” (saltiresociety.org.uk).

The Makar’s Court is situated next to the Scottish Writer’s Museum, forming part of the Lady Stair’s Close. Strictly speaking this means the inscriptions then don’t really belong to the Royal Mile, as one needs to actually turn off the Mile into the close in order to see them. Besides the two Gaelic items, there are 17 inscriptions in English, 15 in Scots, one in Latin, one in Scots and Latin (photo 17), and one .....

Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis
This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

The library is the only building registered that makes use of all three Scottish national languages.

photo 19, 20, 21: National Library

Various little boards along the Royal Mile give information (in English) on the history or architecture of the respective site at which they are placed. This accounts for certain buildings as well as closes and wynds. Though these informative plaques themselves are ranked among the subcategory of cultural / educational items, the sites they refer to are classed differently, given that they display any other LL items as their name or function.

So photos 22 and 23 show tablets giving educational information on the site, yet the signs labelling the sites themselves were grouped under ‘legal’ (City Chambers) and street names (Lady Stair’s Close photo 24).

photos 22, 23: Royal Mile top-down: information tablets at historical sites

photo 24: sign from the category street names

Surprisingly, there was only one bilingual item found in the category ‘legal’, the sign identifying the Electoral Commission, which displays the name in Gaelic as well as in English (photo 25). The other four items from that category are all in English (e.g. photo 26).

photos 25, 26: LL-items from th.....

This page(s) are not visible in the preview.
Please click on download.
Download The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh Scotland - National Identity and Scotland’s Language
Click on download to get complete and readable text
• This is a free of charge document sharing network
Upload a document and get this one for free
• No registration necessary, gratis

Legal info - Data privacy - Contact - Terms-Authors - Terms-Customers -
Swap+your+documents