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Gàidhlig – Scottish Gaelic For a long period of time in Scottish history the language spoken by the majority of Scotland’s population was Gaelic. Gaelic is classed among Celtic Languages and thus has a lot in common with other languages of Celtic origin such as Irish, Manx[1], Welsh and Cumbric[2]. Especially Irish and Manx are closely related to Scottish Gaelic, as those three descended from so called Old Irish.[3] History It is believed that Scottish Gaelic was brought to Scotland around the 4th century AD by settlers from Ireland. This assumption is due to medieval writings from the 9th and 10th centuries.[4] However, archaeologists recently stated that there is no archaeological evidence proving migration to Scotland at this point in history.[5] The Celtic languages were split into the categories of P-Celtic and Q-Celtic as visible in figure 1. It is known that, before Q-Celtic languages (Irish/Scottish Gaelic) were spoken mainly on the Britain, P-Celtic languages (Welsh, Old Welsh, Pictish, Breton, Brythonic) were spoken in the area of Scotland. Thus Scottish Gaelic evolved. Between the 9th and 11th centuries the majority of Scotland’s population spoke Scottish Gaelic. From the 11th century onwards the decrease of its usage north and westwards began, which is still proceeding rapidly.[6] Within the last years there has been an increase of interest in Scottish Gaelic and rising awareness

The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh


Let our three voiced country
Sing in a new world
Joining the other rivers without dogma,
But with friendliness all around her.
Let her new river shine on a day
That is fresh and glittering and contemporary: Let it be true to itself and its origins Inventive, original, philosophical,
Its institutions mirror its beauty;
Then without shame we can esteem ourselves.


The Beginning of a New Song Iain Crichton Smith


Universität Potsdam WiSe 13 /14

Philosophische Fakultät - Anglistik / Amerikanistik

Studiengang: MA LG Eng / Span

Modul V lin: Sprachwissenschaftliche Analyse

Dozent: Arne Peters

Studentin:

Bölschestraße 60,

12587 Berlin

Matr.: 731467

e-mail: christis@uni-potsdam.de


Table of Contents

1. Introduction: National Identity and Scotland’s Languages 3

2. The Project 4

2.1 Linguistic Landscape - term clarification 4

2.2 Area of Research 5

2.3 Background of the Research 7

2.4 Focus and Method of Research 8

2.5 Findings 9

2.5.1 The General Picture 9

2.5.2 Princes Street 10

2.5.2.1 Princes Street: Top-down Items 10

2.5.2.2 Princes Street: Bottom-up Items 12

2.5.3 The Royal Mile 14

2.5.3.1 Royal Mile: Top-down Items 14

2.5.3.2 Royal Mile: Bottom-up Items 21

3. Summary and Conclusion 26

4. Bibliography 28


1. Introduction: National Identity and Scotland’s Languages

This year, on the 18th of September 2014 a national referendum will be held in Scotland and the outcome is eagerly anticipated: after more than 300 years of being part of Great Britain the Scottish people will decide whether or not they become an independent nation again.

The contentious debates have been dominating the media scene for quite a while, not just within Scotland but in all of the UK. Following the coverage on the issue can be highly revealing regarding the political and economic arguments from both sides. At the same time, however, this discussion is also to a great extent an ideological one, addressing certain values and emotions of the voters, as for example the question of national identity and unity.

Scotland is a very proud and tradition-conscious country, always eager to distinguish herself from the rest of the UK as anyone will know who ever tried to call a Scotsman English. In this context also the Scottish languages come into play, as they constitute an important part of national consciousness and identity.

Throughout Scotland’s recorded linguistic history numerous languages have and had been spoken, mainly falling into either the Germanic or Celtic language families.

Today, the three native languages spoken in Scotland are English, mostly realized as Scottish Standard English, Scots and (Scottish) Gaelic. The demography of these varies considerably with Gaelic speakers totalling 58,000 or 1,1% of Scotland’s population aged three and over (Scotland’s Census 2011: Scotland - Identity) whereas English is virtually being spoken across the whole country.

The spread and number of Scots speakers, by contrast, is particularly hard to define according to its uncertain status. Although the question of whether Scots is a language in its own right may not have been irrefutably answered yet1, it will be treated in this paper as its own language, relying on the recognition for Scots by the European Bureau for .....[read full text]

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5∞†, †+∞ 4;≈;-6∞;⊇∞ †+ †+∞ 7∞≈≈∞+-0≈∞⊇ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +† †+∞ 90 ≈†∋†∞≈ ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ (61-2):

596104: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ =∞++ †;†††∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +≈ †+∞ ∞≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥+∞∋⊇ +† 3≤+†≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ ≈+∞†+ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋≈† +† †+∞ 8;⊥+†∋≈⊇≈.

813751307104: 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ≈+ ∞≈†;∋∋†∞≈ ++ ≤∞≈≈∞≈ ⊇∋†∋ +≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ (≤;†∞⊇ ;≈ 4∋≤∋†∞∞: 515).


1≈⊇∞∞⊇, ∋††∞∋⊥†≈ †+ “⊥∞∞≈≈†;∋∋†∞” †+∞ ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 3≤+†≈-≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∋≈⊥∞ †++∋ 20 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† ∞⊥ †+ 80 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†.

7+∞ 2011 0∞≈≈∞≈ ⊇∞†;≈∞≈ 30 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† (1.5 ∋;††;+≈) +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ∋⊥∞⊇ †++∞∞ ∋≈⊇ +=∞+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ≠++ ≤∋≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 3≤+†≈. 4† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ ;† ;≈ ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞≈∞ †;⊥∞+∞≈ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ +∞ ≤∋+∞†∞††+ ⊥∞∋†;†;∞⊇ ∋≈ †+;≈ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ ≠∋≈ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ⊥+++†+ ∋≈≈≠∞+∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞ (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 2011: 3≤+††∋≈⊇ - 1⊇∞≈†;†+). 7+∞≈∞ ++≈≤∞+;†;∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊇∞∞ †+ 3≤+†≈ +∞;≈⊥ ∋≈ “∞≈†+≤∞≈∞⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ =∋+;∞†+” ≠+;≤+ ∋∋∂∞≈ ;† ⊇;††;≤∞†† †++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+ ;† †++∋ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ∋≈ 3≤+†≈-≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ (4∋≤∋†∞∞: 515).

0∞+†∋;≈, ++≠∞=∞+, ;≈ †+∞ ;≈≈;⊥+† †+∋† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ 6∋∞†;≤ ∋+∞ ∋∞≤+ ∋++∞ ≈∞+≈†∋≈†;∋† ;≈ ≈+∋∞ +∞⊥;+≈≈ †+∋≈ ;≈ +†+∞+≈, ≠;†+ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ≤∋⊥;†∋†, +∞;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤+∞≈≤;† ∋+∞∋ ≠;†+ †+∞ †+≠∞≈† ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ - ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ - †+∞ +;⊥+∞≈† ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∞≈;≈⊥ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +†+∞+ †+∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ ∋† ++∋∞ ({∞≈† +=∞+ 12 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†) (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 2011: 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ - 1⊇∞≈†;†+).

1† ∋∋+ +∞ +≠∞⊇ †+ †+∋† +∋≤∂⊥++∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +;⊥+∞+ ≈≤++†∋+†+ ;≈†∞+∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ∋;≈++;†+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+∞∋† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≈∞+=∞+≈ +† ≤∞+†∋;≈ +∞⊥;+≈≈ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇.

1† ;≈ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ †+∞≈∞ †≠+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ †+∋† ∋+∞ ≤+∋∋+≈†+, ∋∋+≈⊥ ∞≠⊥∞+†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †∋+∋∞≈, †;≈∂∞⊇ ≠;†+ 3≤+††;≈+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+. 3+ ≠+;†∞ †+∞+∞ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ ∞≠;≈† ⊥∞;†∞ ∋ =∋≈† ++⊇+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∞≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +†, †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, †+∞ +∞⊥;+≈≈ +† 6†∋≈⊥+≠, 4+∞+⊇∞∞≈, †+∞ 4++†+∞+≈ 1≈†∞≈ ++ †+∞ 0∞†∞+ 8∞++;⊇∞≈, ;† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈††+ +∋+⊇∞+ †+ †;≈⊇ ∋∋†∞+;∋† +≈ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ ≠+∞+∞ †+∞ =∋+;∋†;+≈≈ +† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ +≤≤∞++∞≈≤∞ +† 6∋∞†;≤ ∋+∞ .....

7+∞+∞†++∞ †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋;∋≈ †+ ⊥;=∞ ∋ ≤†+≈∞+ ;≈≈;⊥+† ;≈†+ †+∞ 7;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ 7∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≤;†+ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, †+≤∞≈;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ++†∞≈ †+∋† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ - ≠+∞+∞ †+∞≈⊇ - 6∋∞†;≤ ≈†;⊥ ;≈ ∋≈ +⊥⊥+≈∞⊇ †+ (3≤+††;≈+ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇) 9≈⊥†;≈+.

4††∞+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈;≈⊥ †+∞ †∞+∋ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋+≈† ≈∋†;∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ +≈ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+’≈ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞, †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇: 8+≠ =;†∋† ∋+∞ †+∞ †++∋∞+ +≈∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+†;≤ ;∋∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≤;†+ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ †∞≈≤†;+≈≈ ⊇+ †+∞+ †∞††;†, ≠+;≤+ ⊇+∋∋;≈≈ ⊇+ †+∞+ +≤≤∞⊥+?


2. 7+∞ 0++{∞≤†

2.1 7;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ 7∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ - †∞+∋ ≤†∋+;†;≤∋†;+≈

4≈ 6++†∞+, 4∋+†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 2∋≈ 4∞≈≈∞† (2012: 2 †.) ⊥+;≈† +∞†, †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ +≈ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ ;≈ +∋†+∞+ ≈∞≠, †++∞⊥+ ;† +∋≈ ⊥++≠≈ +∞∋∋+∂∋+†+ +=∞+ †+∞ †∋≈† +∞∋+≈.

Frequently being used in a rather general sense for the description and analysis of the language situation in a certain country, or for the presence and use of many languages in a larger geographic area, the concept of linguistic landscape can be also referred to as linguistic market, linguistic mosaic, ecology of languages or the linguistic situation. In those cases landscape refers to the social context in which more than one language is present, thus implying multilingualism (Gorter 2006: 1).

The notion of linguistic landscape has been used in several different ways, as Gorter (ebd.: f.) briefly outlines.

Therefore it is necessary to narrow the term down. A reference point for many of today’s developments as well as for this paper is the widely quoted definition of linguistic landscape by Landry and Bourhis (1997: 25, cited in: ebd.):

The language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on government buildings combines to form the linguistic landscape of a given territory, region, or urban agglomeration.

That is, linguistic landscapes are concerned with the use of language in its written form in the public sphere, or, as Bourhis and Landry (2002) specify: “it refers to language that is visible in a specified area” (cit.....

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4≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ (77) †+∞≈ ;≈ †+∋† ;† ;≈ ≤+∋⊥+;≈∞⊇ +† ++†+ ‘⊥+;=∋†∞’ ∋≈⊇ ‘⊥∞+†;≤’ ≈;⊥≈≈: ≈;⊥≈≈ ;≈≈∞∞⊇ ++ ⊥∞+†;≤ ∋∞†+++;†;∞≈ (†;∂∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈†, ∋∞≈;≤;⊥∋†;†;∞≈ ++ ⊥∞+†;≤ ∋⊥∞≈≤;∞≈) +≈ †+∞ +≈∞ +∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ ≈;⊥≈≈ ;≈≈∞∞⊇ ++ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†≈, ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈≈ ++ †;+∋≈ ∋≤†;≈⊥ ∋++∞ ++ †∞≈≈ ∋∞†+≈+∋+∞≈†+ ;≈ †+∞ †;∋;†≈ ∋∞†+++;≈∞⊇ ++ +††;≤;∋† +∞⊥∞†∋†;+≈≈.

1≈ †+;≈ ≠∋+, 77 †∞≈≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈ ∋≈ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈∋† ∋∋+∂∞+ ∋≈⊇, ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞, ∋≈ ∋ ≈+∋++†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞ ⊥+≠∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋†∞≈ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ;≈ ∋ ⊥;=∞≈ †∞++;†+++. 6++†∞+ ∋†≈+ ≈+†∞≈ †+∋† †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †+∂∞≈≈ ;≈ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ +;⊥+ ;≈ ≈++⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∋+∞∋≈ ;≈ ≤;†;∞≈, ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;≈⊥ ;† ≤+∞†⊇ ∋≈ ≠∞†† +∞ ≈∋∋∞⊇ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≤;†+≈≤∋⊥∞ (∞+⊇. ††.).

2.2 4+∞∋ +† 5∞≈∞∋+≤+

1≈ †;≈∞ ≠;†+ 6++†∞+’≈ †∋≈†-∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈†, †+∞ ∋+∞∋ +† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ †++ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ †+≤∞≈≈;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞, †+∞ +;⊥⊥∞≈† †+∞+;≈† ⊥++∋∞≈∋⊇∞ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †+≤∋†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤;†+’≈ 0†⊇ 7+≠≈, ∋≈⊇ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†, 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+’≈ +∞≈;∞≈† ≈++⊥⊥;≈⊥ ≈†+∞∞† ;≈ †+∞ 4∞≠ 7+≠≈.

3;≈≤∞ +∞+∞ ≈+† +≈†+ †+∞ ∋∋{++ ≤+∋∋∞+≤;∋† ∋≤†;=;†+ †∋∂∞≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ +∞† ∋†≈+ ∋∋≈+ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥∋† ⊥∞+†;≤ ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ †+≤∋†∞⊇, ++†+ ≈†+∞∞†≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+ +∋=∞ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ ⊥++†;†;≤ 77≈. 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, ∋ ≤;†+ ≠;†+ ∋ †+⊇∋+’≈ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +† 476,626 (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 2011: 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ - 0+⊥∞†∋†;+≈), +∞≤∋∋∞ ∋ 5++∋† 3∞+⊥+ ;≈ 1329, ∋††+≠;≈⊥ ∋∋+∂∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ †∋;+≈ †+ +∞ +∞†⊇. 1≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ †+∋⊇;≈⊥ +∞≈∞††∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ †∋+⊥∞+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∞† †+∞ †+≠≈ ≈†∋+∞⊇ ≠;†+;≈ ;†≈ ≠∋††≈ ∞≈†;† †+∞ ∋;⊇ 18†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ †+∞ ≤†+≈∞-∂≈;† ≈†+∞∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥≈ +† †+∞ 0†⊇ 7+≠≈.

7+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞, ∂≈+≠≈ ∋≈ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ≈†+∞∞† ;≈ 4∞⊇;∞=∋† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, +∞≈≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7+≠≈, ≈†+∞†≤+;≈⊥ †++∋ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ 0∋≈††∞ ∋†+≈⊥ †+∞ 9≈⊥†∋≈∋⊇∞ ⊇+≠≈ 0∋≈††∞ 8;†† †+ 7∋≠≈∋∋+∂∞†, †+∞≈ †∞+†+∞+ ∋†+≈⊥ 8;⊥+ 3†+∞∞† ∋≈⊇ 0∋≈+≈⊥∋†∞ †+ †+∞ 0∋†∋≤∞ +† 8+†++++⊇++∞≈∞. 0+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ ∋+∞ †+∞ ∋∋≈+ ⊇∋+∂, ≈∋+++≠ ∋≈⊇ ≤+++†∞⊇ ‘≤†+≈∞≈’, ++ ‘≠+≈⊇≈’ (≈∞∞ 2.5.3.1, ⊥.18), †+∞≈⊇ +≈ ++†+ ≈;⊇∞≈ +† †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞ ≠+∞+∞ †+∞+ +∞≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ 8;⊥+ 3†+∞∞† ∋≈⊇ 6+∋≈≈∋∋+∂∞† ∋≈⊇ †++∋ 0∋≈≈+≈⊥∋†∞ †+ 0+≠⊥∋†∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ⊥++=;⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥∞;≤∂∞≈† ++∞†∞, +≈ †.....

3+∞+≤∞: (21.05.2014)


3+ †+∞ ∋;⊇ 18†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ †+∞ ≤;†+ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ ≠∋≈ ⊇+∋≈†;≤∋††+ +=∞+ ≤++≠⊇∞⊇, +∞;≈⊥ {∞≈† ∋ ∋;†∞ †+≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ⊥∞∋+†∞+ +† ∋ ∋;†∞ ≠;⊇∞.

The ‘New Town’ evolved from about 1770 onwards to accommodate the larger and richer population. Great public buildings like the Royal Scottish Academy, the National Gallery of Scotland and Scott’s Monument were built. Many upper class people moved to the New Town and the Old Town quickly deteriorated to what was described as a slum. Encompassing Streets such as Princes Street, George Street, Regent Terrace and Moray Place, the New Town was originally intended as a residential area for the wealthier citizens.

Nowadays its centre is dominated by banks, offices and shops and is also becoming renowned for its trendy bars and restaurants (edinburgh-history.co.uk). Princes Street is located next to Waverley, the central train station of Edinburgh, and also serves as the city’s main traffic connection point where almost all of the city’s buses pass by, including the airport link.

2.3 Background of the Research

Scotland’s last census from 2011 notes a population of 460,103 people aged 3 and over in Edinburgh (council area).

Of these, 98.1 per cent speak English well or very well, 0,7 per cent are able to speak Gaelic and 21.3 per cent can speak Scots. 12 per cent use a language other than English, Scots, or Gaelic at home. The other collected data that are of interest for this paper concern the national identity. 70.5 per cent of Edinburgh’s population feel they have some Scottish national identity, including 48.8 per cent feeling Scottish only. 18.5 per cent feel Scottish and British and 3.2 per cent feel Scottish plus another identity (Scotland’s Census 2011: .....

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7+∞≈∞ ≈∞∋+∞+≈ ≈∞∞∋ †∋;+†+ +;⊥+, ∋≈⊇ +∞† †+∞+ ⊇;≈⊥†∋+ †+∞ ≤;†+ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ ∋≈ †+∞ 3≤+††;≈+ ≤+∞≈≤;† ∋+∞∋ ≠;†+ ++ †∋+ †+∞ ≈∋∋††∞≈† ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† 3≤+††;≈+-+≈†+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ∋∋+≈⊥ +∞+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈.

3+ †∋+ †+∞+∞ ≈∞∞∋ †+ ∞≠;≈† ≈+ †;⊥∞+∞≈ ∋++∞† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∋††;†∞⊇∞ †+≠∋+⊇≈ ≈∞;†+∞+ 3≤+†≈ ≈++ 6∋∞†;≤.

6++ †+∞ †∋††∞+, 4∋≤9;≈≈+≈ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈∞+=∞+ ;≈ 1994-95, †;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∋† 6∋∞†;≤ ≈†++≈⊥†+ ≈∞+=∞≈ ∋≈ ∋≈ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞+ †++ †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†+ “3≤+††;≈+” ∋≈⊇ - ⊥∋+††+ ∞=∞≈ ∋++∞ ≈+ - ∋≈ ∋ †+≤∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†+-∋∋+∂∞+ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ †++ 1≈†∋≈⊇∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ 8;⊥+†∋≈⊇∞+≈. 5∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞-≈∞⊥⊥++†, 4∋≤9;≈≈+≈ ≈†∋†∞≈ ∋ ⊥∞+≤∞;=∞⊇ †∋≤∂ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞-≈∞⊥⊥++† ++ †+≤∋† ∋≈⊇ +††;≤;∋† ∋∞†+++;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋††≈ †++ ∋ “∋++∞ ∞⊥†++≈† ∋≈⊇ ⊥++∋≤†;=∞ ≈⊥;+;† ;≈ ≈†+∞≈⊥†+∞≈;≈⊥ 6∋∞†;≤ ⊥+†;≤;∞≈ ;≈ ⊥∞+†;≤ ∋⊇∋;≈;≈†+∋†;+≈”, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ≠;†+ +∞⊥∋+⊇ †+ †+∞ “+∋⊥;⊇ ;≈†∞+-⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈∋† ⊇∞≤†;≈∞ ;≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈∞ ≠;†+;≈ †+∞ †∋∋;†+ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ;≈ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ ∞≈∋⊥∞”.

7+;≈ ≤∋†† †++∞⊥+, 4∋≤9;≈≈+≈ ≤+≈≤∞⊇∞≈, +∋≈ ≈†∋+†∞⊇ †+ +∞ +∞∋†;=∞⊇ ++ †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ 3≤+††;≈+ 4∞≠ 7∋++∞+ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† ≠;†+ ∋∞∋≈∞+∞≈ ∋≈ †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ ∋ 4;≈;≈†∞+ †++ 6∋∞†;≤ ∋⊥⊥+;≈†∞⊇ ;≈ 1997, ∋≈ ∞≠†∞≈⊇∞⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ 3++∋⊇≤∋≈†;≈⊥ 6∞≈⊇, ++ ∋ 4;≈;≈†∞+;∋† 4⊇=;≈+++ 6++∞⊥ +≈ 6∋∞†;≤ (44606), ∋⊥⊥+;≈†∞⊇ ;≈ 8∞≤∞∋+∞+ 2000 †+ +∞≤+∋∋∞≈⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞-⊥†∋≈≈;≈⊥ ⊥+†;≤;∞≈ (4∋≤9;≈≈+≈: 178 †.). 5∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤∞≈†∞+;∞≈-†+≈⊥ ≈†+∞⊥⊥†∞ †++ †+∞ +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ +† †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ;† ≤∋≈ +∞ ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋† 6∋∞†;≤ ;≈ †+∞ †≠∞≈†+-†;+≈† ≤∞≈†∞++ +∋≈ ∞≈†∞+∞⊇ ∋++∞ ∋+∞∋≈ +† ⊥∞+†;≤ †;†∞ ∋⊥∋;≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, †+∞ ∋∞⊇;∋, ⊥∞+†;≈+;≈⊥, ∋+†≈, ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈ †+ ≈+∋∞ ⊇∞⊥+∞∞ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇+∋∋;≈ +† ≠++∂ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋⊥†++∋∞≈†, ⊇∞≈⊥;†∞ †+∞ ≈†;⊥+† ⊇∞≤+∞∋≈∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 2001 ∋≈⊇ 2011 ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ≈⊥∞∋∂ .....

4†≈+ 3≤+†≈ +∋≈ ∋≤+;∞=∞⊇ ∋≈ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ +† ;†≈ ≈†∋†∞≈ ⊇∞∞ †+ †+∞ ∋††∞∋⊥†≈ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≤†;=;≈†≈, †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ⊥+∞≈≈∞+∞ ⊥++∞⊥ †++ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +∞;≈⊥ †+∞ 3≤+†≈ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ 3+≤;∞†+.

4≤†;=;†;∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +∋;≈;≈⊥ +;≈†++;≤∋† ∋≠∋+∞≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++∋+†;≈⊥ ∋≤≤∞≈≈ †+ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ;≈ 3≤+†≈ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ +∞∋†;≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ =∋+;+∞≈ ∋††∞∋⊥†≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇;≈∋†;+≈. 8+≠∞=∞+, †+∞ ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ ;†≈ ∋≤∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞⊇ ⊥+∞≈†;⊥∞ ∋∋+≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∞∋∋;≈≈ ++≈≤∞+∞: ⊥+∞∋† ⊥∋+†≈ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈†;†† ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+ 3≤+†≈ ∋≈ “+∋⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+” +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ;†≈∞††.

5∞†, ∞=∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+ +† †+∞ ∋≈⊥†;≤;≈∞⊇ ∋;⊇⊇†∞ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≤;†;∞≈ ≈∞∋∞++∞≈ +∞≈;⊇∞∋† 3≤+††;≤;≈∋≈ ∋+∞ †+∞≈⊇ (4∋≤∋†∞∞: 518 ††.).

2.4 6+≤∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 4∞†++⊇ +† 5∞≈∞∋+≤+

7+∞ ⊇∋†∋ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ ∋+∞ ≈+† ∋∞∋≈† †+ ;≈⊇;≤∋†∞ †+∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≤+∋⊥+≈;†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≤;†+ ∋≈ ∋ ≠++†∞, +∞† +∋†+∞+ ⊥;=∞ ∋ ≤+∋⊥∋+∋†;=∞ ;††∞≈†+∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ⊇;=∞+≈;†+ +† †+∞ 0†⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 4∞≠ 7+≠≈ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, +∞;≈⊥ +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ++ †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†.

4++ ≠∋≈ †+∞ ∋≈⊥;+∋†;+≈ †+ +∞≤++⊇ ∋ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞ ;≈=∞≈†+++ +† ∋†† †∞≠†≈ †+ +∞ ≈∞∞≈ +≈ †++≈∞ ≈†+∞∞†≈, ∋≈ †+;≈ ≠+∞†⊇ ≤†∞∋+†+ ⊥+ +∞++≈⊇ †+∞ ≈≤+⊥∞ +† †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+.

4≈ †+∞ †+≤∞≈ ;≈ +≈ †+∞ 3≤+††;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ 3≤+††;≈+ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ (339), 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤, †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+∋†;=∞ ;≈†∞+∞≈† †;∞≈ +≈ †+∞ =∋+;∋†;+≈≈ +† †+∞;+ +∞†∋†;=∞ ⊥+∞⊇+∋;≈∋≈≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ †≠+ 77 ≈;†∞≈ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†∞⊇, †++∞⊥+ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∋≈≤∞ +† +†+∞+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ - ;† †+∞≈⊇ - ≠;†† ≈+† +∞ †∞†† +∞†.

The findings shall be further analysed regarding potential statements about social, cultural and political realities, also taking into account the historical dimension where possible. The proceedings are guided by the study of Ben Rafael et al., who state that “one first step to put some order in the analysis of LL then consists in distinguishing top-down and bottom-up flows of LL elements, that is between LL elements used and exhibited by institutional agencies which in one way or another act under the control of local or central policies, and those utilised by individual, associative or corporative actors who enjoy autonomy of action within legal limits” (Ben-Rafael et al.: 10).

That first distinction rests on the assumption that the former are expected to reflect the underlying power relations and a general commitment to the dominant culture while the latter are designed much more freely according to individual strategies. These strategies then in turn allow conclusions about rational considerations of the actors: Where lies the sign’s expected attractiveness to the public and clients and what are the actor’s aspirations to give expression to their identity through their choice of patterns that, in one way or another, represent their presentation of self to .....

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1≈ †+;≈ ≈†∞⊇+ ∋+∞ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞⊇ ≈†+∞∞† ≈;⊥≈≈ (≤†+≈∞≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞†+, ∞∋⊇.), ≤+∋∋∞+≤;∋† ≈;⊥≈≈, +;††++∋+⊇≈, ≈;⊥≈≈ +≈ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ∋∞≈;≤;⊥∋† ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈≈, †+∋⊇∞ ≈∋∋∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞+†;≤ ≈+†∞≈. 6+††+≠;≈⊥ 5∋†∋∞† ∞† ∋†., †+∞ ⊇∋†∋ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ∋+∞ †;+≈††+ ≤∋†∞⊥++;≈∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ =∞+≈∞≈ ++††+∋-∞⊥ ⊇;≈†;≈≤†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ≈∞+∋+∞∋≈ +† ∋≤†;=;†+.

7+⊥-⊇+≠≈ ≈;⊥≈≈ †+∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+⊇∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞;+ +∞†+≈⊥;≈⊥ †+ +;≈†++;≤∋†, ≤∞††∞+∋† / ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋†, ;≈⊇;≤∋†;=∞ / ;≈†++∋∋†;=∞, †∞⊥∋† ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈†+∞∞† ≈∋∋∞≈. 3+††+∋-∞⊥ ;†∞∋≈ ∋+∞ ≤+⊇∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ≤∋†∞⊥++;∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ⊥++†∞≈≈;+≈∋† (†∞⊥∋†, ∋∞⊇;≤∋†, ≤+≈≈∞††;≈⊥), ≤+∋∋∞+≤;∋† (∋≈⊇ ≈∞+≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+, ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ++∋≈≤+∞≈ †;∂∞ †++⊇, ++†∞†≈, (⊥∋≈†++≈+∋+), ≤†+†+;≈⊥, †∞+≈;†∞+∞ ∞†≤.) ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ (∋⊥∞≈≤;∞≈ †;∂∞ +∞∋† ∞≈†∋†∞, †+∋≈≈†∋†;+≈ ++ ∋∋≈⊥+≠∞+)2 (∞+⊇.: 10 †.).

4⊥∋+† †++∋ †+∋† ≤+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋††∞≈†;+≈ ⊥∋;⊇ †+ †+∞ =∞++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ ≈;⊥≈≈, †+∞;+ ≈∋†;∞≈≤+, †+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞ ≈;=∞ +† †+≈†≈ +† †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, †+∞;+ ++⊇∞+ +† ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∋≈≤∞, †+≤∋†;+≈ +≈ †+∞ ≈;⊥≈, ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≤+†;∂∞.

4† †+∞ ≤∞≈†+∞ +† †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ;≈, ∋≈ ;≈⊇;≤∋†∞⊇ +∞†++∞, †+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† 3≤+††;≈+ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ (339), 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ ;≈ †+∞ †≠+ 77 ≈;†∞≈ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†∞⊇, †+∋† ;≈ †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†.

2.5 6;≈⊇;≈⊥≈

2.5.1 7+∞ 6∞≈∞+∋† 0;≤†∞+∞

4≈ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞⊇+∋;≈∋≈† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠;†+;≈ ++†+ ≈;†∞≈, †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞ ∋≈⊇ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†.

7+;≈ ∋≤≤+∞≈†≈ †++ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞† ;≈ ≈∞∋+†+ 100% +† †+∞ ≤+††∞≤†∞⊇ 77 ;†∞∋≈, +≈†+ +∞;≈⊥ ∋††∞+∞⊇ +≈ =∞++ †∞≠ +≤≤∋≈;+≈≈. 0≈ †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞, ++ ≤+≈†+∋≈†, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≤≤+∞≈†≈ †++ 50 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† +† ∋†† 77 ;†∞∋≈ ⊇+≤∞∋∞≈†∞⊇, †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ 3≤+†≈ ≠;†+ 32 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† (†;⊥ 1). 7+∞≈∞ ≈∞∋+∞+≈ ∋+∞, ++≠∞=∞+, †+ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+ ≠;†+ ⊥+∞∋† ≤∋+∞, ⊥∋+††+ ⊇∞∞ †+ †+∞ ⊇;††;≤∞†† ⊇;≈†;≈≤†;+≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 3≤+†≈.

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, ∋ ≈++⊥ ≈∋∋∞ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+∞ 3∞∞ 3;†∞ (⊥++†+ 1) †+∞≈ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≤+∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≈ +≈∞ 3≤+†≈ ∞≈;†, †++∞⊥+ +≈∞ ∋;⊥+† ∋+⊥∞∞ †+∋† ≠∞∞ †+⊇∋+ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋∋+≈ ≠++⊇ ;≈ 3≤+††;≈+ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ +;†∞ ∋;⊥+† +∞ ∞;†+∞+ 3≤+†≈ ++ 9≈⊥†;≈+. 4†≈+, †++∞⊥+ †+∞ ⊥†∋≤∞ +∋≈ ∋ 3≤+†≈ ≈∋∋∞, ∋≈+ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ (∞.⊥. ∋† †+∞ ≈++⊥ ≠;≈⊇+≠) ∋+∞ ∞≈∞∋††+ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, ≠+;≤+ ∋∋∂∞≈ ;† +∋+⊇ †+ ≤∋†∞⊥++;=∞ .....

3+ †+∞ ≈++⊥ ≈∋∋∞ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≤+∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≈ +≈∞ (3≤+†≈) ∞≈;† +† ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ ;≈ ;†≈∞†† ∋≈⊇ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ ∞≈;†≈.

1≈ †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥, ++†+ 77 ≈;†∞≈ ≠;†† +∞ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋††+ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ †+∞≈ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞ †+∞∋ †+ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+∋≠ ≈+∋∞ †;≈∋† ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈≈.

⊥++†+ 1, +;≈†++ ∋† 5++∋† 4;†∞


6;⊥∞+∞ 1: †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ - ⊇;≈†+;+∞†;+≈ 5++∋† 4;†∞ - 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†


2.5.2 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†

2.5.2.1 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†: 7+⊥-⊇+≠≈ 1†∞∋≈

0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞† (7+†∋† 14)

+;≈†++;≤∋† / ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋†

;≈⊇;≤∋†;=∞

≤∞††∞+∋† / ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋†

9≈⊥†;≈+

3

4

6

6∋∞†;≤-9≈⊥†;≈+

1



†;⊥∞+∞ 2: †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ - †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ⊥∞+ ≈∞+≤∋†∞⊥++;∞≈ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†

7+∞+∞ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ †+∞≈⊇ =∞++ †∞≠ †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ 77 ;†∞∋≈ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†, 14 ∋†† †+⊥∞†+∞+.

The explanation seems fairly obvious: Princes Street is, above all, the biggest shopping street in Edinburgh and is therefore dominated by bottom-up signs such as stores’ and business’ names and advertisements, many of them belonging to big national and international chains. That also accounts for the virtual non-existence of other languages than English.

Out of the 14 items found there were only four indicative signs, all of which were in English.

These were all found next to Waverley, the main railway station that is also the most frequented point of arrival for visitors of the city (see photos 2, 3).

photo 2, 3: indicative items around Waverly railway station, at Princes Street

The four historical items belong to the Scott Monument, the statues of the Duke of Wellington and Adam Black, and to the memorial of the Black Watch.

Apart from the last one all of these items are in English. That is hardly surprising considering the connection to England - Duke of Wellington was victor over the French at the Battle of Waterloo in 1816 (Welcometoscotland.com) and / or the English language - Sir Walter Scott, an internationally famous Scottish novelist who wrote in English and Adam Black, publisher of the 7th, 8th and 9th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica (Former Fellows of the Royal Soci.....

7+∞ +≈†+ +;†;≈⊥∞∋† ;†∞∋ †+∞≈⊇ ≠∋≈ †+∞ ∋∞∋++;∋† +† †+∞ 3†∋≤∂ 3∋†≤+ †+∋† - +∞≈;⊇∞≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ - ⊇;≈⊥†∋+≈ †+∞ 6∋∞†;≤ ≠++⊇≈ 44 6591094844 8038, †+∞ ++;⊥;≈∋† ≈∋∋∞ †++ †+∞ 1≈⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇∞≈† 8;⊥+†∋≈⊇ 0+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ ≠++ ≠∞+∞ +∞≤+∞;†∞⊇ †++∋ †+≤∋† ≤†∋≈≈ †+ †++∋ †+∞ 3†∋≤∂ 3∋†≤+ (4⊇∋∋ &∋∋⊥; 1≈≈∞≈ +† 7∞∋+≈∞+: 64) (⊥++†+≈ 4, 5, 6).

4≈+ †∞+†+∞+ ∋≈≈+†∋†;+≈≈ ∋⊥∋;≈ ∋+∞ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+.

⊥++†+≈ 4, 5, 6: 7+∞ 3†∋≤∂ 3∋†≤+ ∋∞∋++;∋† +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†


7+∞ †∋≈† ≈∞+≤∋†∞⊥+++ +† †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ 77 ;†∞∋≈ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞† ;≈ †+∞ ≤∞††∞+∋† / ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋† +≈∞, +∞;≈⊥ ≠;†+ ≈;≠ ;†∞∋≈ ∋†≈+ †+∞ +;⊥⊥∞≈† ≤∋†∞⊥+++ +∞† +† †+∞ †++∞∞.

7≠+ +† †+∞ ≈;≠ ≠∞+∞ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈†∞≠† +† †+∞ 4∋†;+≈∋† 6∋††∞++ (⊥++†+7) ∋≈⊇ ∋≈+†+∞+ †++∞∞ ≠∞+∞ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ ≤+≈≈∞≤†;+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ 6∞≈∞+∋† 5∞⊥;≈†∞+ 8+∞≈∞ (⊥++†+ 8), †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞ +∞;†† ⊥∞+†;≤ +∞≤++⊇≈ +∞⊥+≈;†+++ ;≈ †+∞ 3+;†;≈+ 1≈†∞≈ (3≤+††∋≈⊇≈0∞+⊥†∞.⊥+=.∞∂). 7+∞ †∋≈† ;†∞∋ ;≈ †+;≈ ≤∋†∞⊥+++ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞≠⊥†∋≈∋†;+≈ ++∋+⊇ ⊥;=;≈⊥ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +≈ †+∞ 3≤+†† 4+≈∞∋∞≈† (⊥++†+ 9).

⊥++†+≈ 7,8,9: 9⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋† / ≤∞††∞+∋† †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ ;†∞∋≈ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†

2.5.2.2 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†: 3+††+∋-∞⊥ 1†∞∋≈

1≈ †+†∋†, †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞ 38 ++††+∋-∞⊥ 77 ;†∞∋≈ †+∞≈⊇ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†, 37 +† †+∞∋ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ +≈∞ ;≈ 7∋†;≈.

4≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇, ∋+≈† +† †+∞≈∞ +∞†+≈⊥ †+ +∋†+∞+ +;⊥ ⊇∞⊥∋+†∋∞≈† ≈†++∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈++⊥ ≤+∋;≈≈ (⊥++†+≈ 10, 11). 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ⊥∞;†∞ ∋ †∞≠ ++†∞†≈ +≈ †+∞ ≈†+∞∞†, ∋†† +† ∋ +∋†+∞+ ⊥+∞≈†;⊥;+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥+∞≈≈;=∞ ≈∋†∞+∞. 4∋†∞+∋††+, †.....

⊥++†+≈ 10, 11: +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†∋†;=∞≈ +† ;≈†∞+≈∋†;+≈∋† +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ ≤+∋;≈≈ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†

8+≠∞=∞+, ⊥∞;†∞ ∋ †∞≠ +† †+∞ 77 ;†∞∋≈, †++∞⊥+ +∞;≈⊥ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, +∞†∞+ †+ 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ †+∋⊇;†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈≈∞≈≈.

7+∋† ∞††∞≤† ∋∋+ +∞ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ∞;†+∞+ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† †+∞ ⊥†∋≤∞ +∋=;≈⊥ ≈+∋∞ +∞†∞+∞≈≤∞ †+ 3≤+††;≈+ ≤∞††∞+∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈ +† †+∞ ;†∞∋: ⊥+†⊇ †∞††∞+≈, ∋≈†;⊥∞∞ ≈†+†∞ †+≈† (⊥++†+≈ 12, 13) ∋≈⊇ / ++ 3≤+††;≈+ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈+∋++†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+∞ 7+;≈††∞ (⊥++†+ 11) ++ †+∞ 3≤+††;≈+ ≤+†+∞+≈. 7+∋† ∞≈∞∋††+ ∋≤≤+∞≈†≈ †++ ∋+≈† +† †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† +∞≈;≈∞≈≈∞≈.

⊥++†+ 12: ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ +† ∋ ≈++⊥ ∞=+∂;≈⊥ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† 3≤+††;≈+ ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈≈

photos 12, 13: evoking associations to Scottish culture through symbols, names, design

The one bottom-up item on Princes Street that displays Latin besides English belongs to the oldest (formerly independent)3 department store in Edinburgh.

Outside its premises the Royal Warrant can be seen which the store received in 1911 (wikipedia.org). The warrant shows the words NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT, the Latin motto of the Order of the Thistle (britroyals.com) (photos 14, 15) that forms part of the Scottish Royal Coat of Arms. Underneath it, the English words of the warrant can be read, advertising the fact that this company supplies goods to the Queen, the issuer of this Royal Warrant.

Though it could be argued that the sign belongs to top-down rather than bottom-up items, it has been counted in the latter category due to the fact that it was the department store, and not the Queen, that decided to expose the prestigious warrant the way it is done. The warrant as a top-down item in itself, however, clearly stems from a time when Latin still played a major role as the language of diplomacy and the language at court in Europe (late Renaissance - Union of Crowns in 1603).

photos 14, 15: the Royal Warrant outside a departmen.....

2.5.3 7+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞

2.5.3.1 5++∋† 4;†∞: 7+⊥-⊇+≠≈ 1†∞∋≈

1≈ †+†∋†, †+∞+∞ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ 97 †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ 77 ;†∞∋≈ +∞⊥;≈†∞+∞⊇ +≈ 5++∋† 4;†∞, +∞† +† ≠+;≤+ 47 ≠∞+∞ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ (49 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†), †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ 3≤+†≈ ≠;†+ 28 ;†∞∋≈ (31 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†) ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ++ 7∋†;≈ ≠;†+ 7 ;†∞∋≈ (8 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†).

†;⊥∞+∞ 3: 5++∋† 4;†∞ †+⊥-⊇+≠≈ 77 ;†∞∋≈: ≈∞+≤∋†∞⊥++;∞≈ ⊥∞+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈.

0≈†+ †≠+ ;†∞∋≈ ≠∞+∞ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ 6∋∞†;≤, ++†+ +∞†+≈⊥;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ 4∋∂∋+’≈ 0+∞+†4, ∋≈ “∞=+†=;≈⊥ ≈∋†;+≈∋† †;†∞+∋++ ∋+≈∞∋∞≈†”, ≠+;≤+ ⊇;≈⊥†∋+≈ - ;≈≈≤+;+∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ††∋⊥≈†+≈∞≈ - “†∋∋+∞≈ ≠++⊇≈ +† ⊥+∞∋† 3≤+††;≈+ ≠+;†∞+≈”, +∞⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ∋∋;≈ †;†∞+∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ 3≤+†≈, 7∋†;≈, 6∋∞†;≤ ∋≈⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ +∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞;+ ⊇∋†∞≈ +† ++;⊥;≈ †++∋ 1375 †+ 1999. 7+∞ †;+≈† ≈†+≈∞ (⊥++†+ 16) ≠∋≈ ∞≈=∞;†∞⊇ ;≈ 1997, +∞† ≈∞≠ ††∋⊥≈†+≈∞≈ ∋+∞ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ +≈ ∋ +∞⊥∞†∋+ +∋≈;≈ (9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+4∞≈∞∞∋≈.++⊥.∞∂).

8∞≈⊥;†∞ †+∞ ≈†+≈∞≈ +∞;≈⊥ ≈⊥+≈≈++∞⊇ ++ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈≈, ;≈†∞+∞≈† ⊥++∞⊥≈, ∋≈⊇ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†≈ ≠++ ∋†≈+ ≈∞+∋;† †+∞ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ ∋∞†+++≈5, ;† ;≈ †+∞ 4∋∂∋+≈' 0+∞+† 0+∋∋;††∞∞ +† †+∞ 3∋††;+∞ 3+≤;∞†+ †+∋† ⊇∞≤;⊇∞≈ +≈ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈. 7+∞ 3∋††;+∞ 3+≤;∞†+, †+∞≈⊇∞⊇ ;≈ 1936, ;≈ ∋ ∋∞∋+∞+≈+;⊥ ++⊥∋≈;=∋†;+≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋;∋≈ †+ “⊥++∋+†∞ †+∞ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≤∞††∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞+;†∋⊥∞ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇” (≈.....


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