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The Linguistic Landscape of Edinburgh


Let our three voiced country
Sing in a new world
Joining the other rivers without dogma,
But with friendliness all around her.
Let her new river shine on a day
That is fresh and glittering and contemporary: Let it be true to itself and its origins Inventive, original, philosophical,
Its institutions mirror its beauty;
Then without shame we can esteem ourselves.



The Beginning of a New Song Iain Crichton Smith


Universität Potsdam WiSe 13 /14

Philosophische Fakultät - Anglistik / Amerikanistik

Studiengang: MA LG Eng / Span

Modul V lin: Sprachwissenschaftliche Analyse

Dozent: Arne Peters

Studentin: C.

S.

Bölschestraße 60,

12587 Berlin

Matr.: 731467

e-mail: christis@uni-potsdam.de


Table of Contents

1. Introduction: National Identity and Scotland’s Languages 3

2. The Project 4

2.1 Linguistic Landscape - term clarification 4

2.2 Area of Research 5

2.3 Background of the Research 7

2.4 Focus and Method of Research 8

2.5 Findings 9

2.5.1 The General Picture 9

2.5.2 Princes Street 10

2.5.2.1 Princes Street: Top-down Items 10

2.5.2.2 Princes Street: Bottom-up Items 12

2.5.3 The Royal Mile 14

2.5.3.1 Royal Mile: Top-down Items 14

2.5.3.2 Royal Mile: Bottom-up Items 21

3. Summary and Conclusion 26

4. Bibliography 28



1. Introduction: National Identity and Scotland’s Languages

This year, on the 18th of September 2014 a national referendum will be held in Scotland and the outcome is eagerly anticipated: after more than 300 years of being part of Great Britain the Scottish people will decide whether or not they become an independent nation again.

The contentious debates have been dominating the media scene for quite a while, not just within Scotland but in all of the UK. Following the coverage on the issue can be highly revealing regarding the political and economic arguments from both sides. At the same time, however, this discussion is also to a great extent an ideological one, addressing certain values and emotions of the voters, as for example the question of national identity and unity.

Scotland is a very proud and tradition-conscious country, always eager to distinguish herself from the rest of the UK as anyone will know who ever tried to call a Scotsman English. In this context also the Scottish languages come into play, as they constitute an important part of national consciousness and identity.

Throughout Scotland’s recorded linguistic history numerous languages have and had been spoken, mainly falling into either the Germanic or Cel.....[read full text]

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7+⊇∋+, †+∞ †++∞∞ ≈∋†;=∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ ;≈ 3≤+††∋≈⊇ ∋+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+, ∋+≈††+ +∞∋†;=∞⊇ ∋≈ 3≤+††;≈+ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+, 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ (3≤+††;≈+) 6∋∞†;≤. 7+∞ ⊇∞∋+⊥+∋⊥++ +† †+∞≈∞ =∋+;∞≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+†+ ≠;†+ 6∋∞†;≤ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ †+†∋††;≈⊥ 58,000 ++ 1,1% +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ∋⊥∞⊇ †++∞∞ ∋≈⊇ +=∞+ (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 2011: 3≤+††∋≈⊇ - 1⊇∞≈†;†+) ≠+∞+∞∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ =;+†∞∋††+ +∞;≈⊥ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ ∋≤++≈≈ †+∞ ≠++†∞ ≤+∞≈†++.

7+∞ ≈⊥+∞∋⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† 3≤+†≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈, ++ ≤+≈†+∋≈†, ;≈ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ +∋+⊇ †+ ⊇∞†;≈∞ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ;†≈ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈ ≈†∋†∞≈. 4††++∞⊥+ †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ +† ≠+∞†+∞+ 3≤+†≈ ;≈ ∋ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ;†≈ +≠≈ +;⊥+† ∋∋+ ≈+† +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ;++∞†∞†∋+†+ ∋≈≈≠∞+∞⊇ +∞†1, ;† ≠;†† +∞ †+∞∋†∞⊇ ;≈ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋≈ ;†≈ +≠≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, +∞†+;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ +∞≤+⊥≈;†;+≈ †++ 3≤+†≈ ++ †+∞ 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ 3∞+∞∋∞ †++ 7∞≈≈∞+-0≈∞⊇ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈.

5∞†, †+∞ 4;≈;-6∞;⊇∞ †+ †+∞ 7∞≈≈∞+-0≈∞⊇ 7∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +† †+∞ 90 ≈†∋†∞≈ ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ (61-2):

596104: 7+∞+∞ ;≈ =∞++ †;†††∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +≈ †+∞ ∞≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈⊥+∞∋⊇ +† 3≤+†≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ ≈+∞†+ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋≈† +† †+∞ 8;⊥+†∋≈⊇≈.

813751307104: 7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ≈+ ∞≈†;∋∋†∞≈ ++ ≤∞≈≈∞≈ ⊇∋†∋ +≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ (≤;†∞⊇ ;≈ 4∋≤∋†∞∞: 515).


1≈⊇∞∞⊇, ∋††∞∋⊥†≈ †+ “⊥∞∞≈≈†;∋∋†∞” †+∞ ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 3≤+†≈-≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∋≈⊥∞ †++∋ 20 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† ∞⊥ †+ 80 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†.

7+∞ 2011 0∞≈≈∞≈ ⊇∞†;≈∞≈ 30 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† (1.5 ∋;††;+≈) +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ∋⊥∞⊇ †++∞∞ ∋≈⊇ +=∞+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ≠++ ≤∋≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 3≤+†≈. 4† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ ;† ;≈ ≈†∋†∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞≈∞ †;⊥∞+∞≈ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ +∞ ≤∋+∞†∞††+ ⊥∞∋†;†;∞⊇ ∋≈ †+;≈ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ ≠∋≈ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ⊥+++†+ ∋≈≈≠∞+∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈∋;+∞ (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 2011: 3≤+††∋≈⊇ - 1⊇∞≈†;†+). 7+∞≈∞ ++≈≤∞+;†;∞≈ ∋+∞ ⊇∞∞ †+ 3≤+†≈ +∞;≈⊥ ∋≈ “∞≈†+≤∞≈∞⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ =∋+;∞†+” ≠+;≤+ ∋∋∂∞≈ ;† ⊇;††;≤∞†† †++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+ ;† †++∋ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ ;⊇∞≈†;†+ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ∋≈ 3≤+†≈-≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ (4∋≤∋†∞∞: 515).

0∞+†∋;≈, ++≠∞=∞+, ;≈ †+∞ ;≈≈;⊥+† †+∋† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ 6∋∞†;≤ ∋+∞ ∋∞≤+ ∋++∞ ≈∞+≈†∋≈†;∋† ;≈ ≈+∋∞ +∞⊥;+≈≈ †+∋≈ ;≈ +†+∞+≈, ≠;†+ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, 3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ ≤∋⊥;†∋†, +∞;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤+∞≈≤;† ∋+∞∋ ≠;†+ †+∞ †+≠∞≈† ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ - ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ - †+∞ +;⊥+∞≈† ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∞≈;≈⊥ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +†+∞+ †+∋≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ ∋† ++∋∞ ({∞≈† +=∞+ 12 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈†) (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 201.....

1† ∋∋+ +∞ +≠∞⊇ †+ †+∋† +∋≤∂⊥++∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +;⊥+∞+ ≈≤++†∋+†+ ;≈†∞+∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ ∋;≈++;†+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ 6∋∞†;≤ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ⊥+∞∋† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≈∞+=∞+≈ +† ≤∞+†∋;≈ +∞⊥;+≈≈ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇.

1† ;≈ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ †+∞≈∞ †≠+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ †+∋† ∋+∞ ≤+∋∋+≈†+, ∋∋+≈⊥ ∞≠⊥∞+†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †∋+∋∞≈, †;≈∂∞⊇ ≠;†+ 3≤+††;≈+ ;⊇∞≈†;†+. 3+ ≠+;†∞ †+∞+∞ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ ∞≠;≈† ⊥∞;†∞ ∋ =∋≈† ++⊇+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ∞≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +†, †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, †+∞ +∞⊥;+≈≈ +† 6†∋≈⊥+≠, 4+∞+⊇∞∞≈, †+∞ 4++†+∞+≈ 1≈†∞≈ ++ †+∞ 0∞†∞+ 8∞++;⊇∞≈, ;† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈††+ +∋+⊇∞+ †+ †;≈⊇ ∋∋†∞+;∋† +≈ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ ≠+∞+∞ †+∞ =∋+;∋†;+≈≈ +† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ +≤≤∞++∞≈≤∞ +† 6∋∞†;≤ ∋+∞ ∋∞≤+ †∞≈≈ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†∞⊇.

7+∞+∞†++∞ †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ⊥∋⊥∞+ ∋;∋≈ †+ ⊥;=∞ ∋ ≤†+≈∞+ ;≈≈;⊥+† ;≈†+ †+∞ 7;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ 7∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≤;†+ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, †+≤∞≈;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ++†∞≈ †+∋† 3≤+†≈ ∋≈⊇ - ≠+∞+∞ †+∞≈⊇ - 6∋∞†;≤ ≈†;⊥ ;≈ ∋≈ +⊥⊥+≈∞⊇ †+ (3≤+††;≈+ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇) 9≈⊥†;≈+.

4††∞+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈;≈⊥ †+∞ †∞+∋ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋+≈† ≈∋†;∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ †;≈⊇;≈⊥≈ +≈ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+’≈ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞, †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇: 8+≠ =;†∋† ∋+∞ †+∞ †++∋∞+ +≈∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+†;≤ ;∋∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ≤;†+ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ †∞≈≤†;+≈≈ ⊇+ †+∞+ †∞††;†, ≠+;≤+ ⊇+∋∋;≈≈ ⊇+ †+∞+ +≤≤∞⊥+?


2. 7+∞ 0++{∞≤†

2.1 7;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ 7∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ - †∞+∋ ≤†∋+;†;≤∋†;+≈

4≈ 6++†∞+, 4∋+†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 2∋≈ 4∞≈≈∞† (2012: 2 †.) ⊥+;≈† +∞†, †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ +≈ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ ;≈ +∋†+∞+ ≈∞≠, †++∞⊥+ ;† +∋≈ ⊥++≠≈ +∞∋∋+∂∋+†+ +=∞+ †+∞ †∋≈† +∞∋+≈.

Frequently being used in a rather general sense for the description and analysis of the language situation in a certain country, or for the presence and use of many languages in a larger geographic area, the concept of linguistic landscape can be also referred to as linguistic market, linguistic mosaic, ecology of languages or the linguistic situation. In those cases landscape refers to the social context in which more than one language is present, thus implying multilingualism (Gorter 2006: 1).

The notion of linguistic landscape has been used in several different ways, as Gorter (ebd.: f.) briefly outlines.

Therefore it is necessary to narrow the term down. A reference point for many of today’s developments as well as for this paper is the widely quoted definition of linguistic landscape by Landry and Bourhis (1997: 25, cited in: ebd.):

The language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on government buildings combines to form the linguistic landscape of a given territory, region.....

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7+∋† ;≈, †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+≈≤∞+≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ ∞≈∞ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ;†≈ ≠+;††∞≈ †++∋ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∞+†;≤ ≈⊥+∞+∞, ++, ∋≈ 3+∞++;≈ ∋≈⊇ 7∋≈⊇++ (2002) ≈⊥∞≤;†+: “;† +∞†∞+≈ †+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∋† ;≈ =;≈;+†∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;∞⊇ ∋+∞∋” (≤;†∞⊇ ;≈ 6++†∞+ 2006: 2).

4≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ (77) †+∞≈ ;≈ †+∋† ;† ;≈ ≤+∋⊥+;≈∞⊇ +† ++†+ ‘⊥+;=∋†∞’ ∋≈⊇ ‘⊥∞+†;≤’ ≈;⊥≈≈: ≈;⊥≈≈ ;≈≈∞∞⊇ ++ ⊥∞+†;≤ ∋∞†+++;†;∞≈ (†;∂∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈†, ∋∞≈;≤;⊥∋†;†;∞≈ ++ ⊥∞+†;≤ ∋⊥∞≈≤;∞≈) +≈ †+∞ +≈∞ +∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ ≈;⊥≈≈ ;≈≈∞∞⊇ ++ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†≈, ∋≈≈+≤;∋†;+≈≈ ++ †;+∋≈ ∋≤†;≈⊥ ∋++∞ ++ †∞≈≈ ∋∞†+≈+∋+∞≈†+ ;≈ †+∞ †;∋;†≈ ∋∞†+++;≈∞⊇ ++ +††;≤;∋† +∞⊥∞†∋†;+≈≈.

1≈ †+;≈ ≠∋+, 77 †∞≈≤†;+≈≈ ∋≈ ∋≈ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈∋† ∋∋+∂∞+ ∋≈⊇, ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞, ∋≈ ∋ ≈+∋++†;≤ ∋∋+∂∞+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞†∋†;=∞ ⊥+≠∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋†∞≈ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ;≈ ∋ ⊥;=∞≈ †∞++;†+++. 6++†∞+ ∋†≈+ ≈+†∞≈ †+∋† †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ †+∂∞≈≈ ;≈ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ +;⊥+ ;≈ ≈++⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∋+∞∋≈ ;≈ ≤;†;∞≈, ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†;≈⊥ ;† ≤+∞†⊇ ∋≈ ≠∞†† +∞ ≈∋∋∞⊇ †;≈⊥∞;≈†;≤ ≤;†+≈≤∋⊥∞ (∞+⊇. ††.).

2.2 4+∞∋ +† 5∞≈∞∋+≤+

1≈ †;≈∞ ≠;†+ 6++†∞+’≈ †∋≈†-∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈†, †+∞ ∋+∞∋ +† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ †++ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ †+≤∞≈≈;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞, †+∞ +;⊥⊥∞≈† †+∞+;≈† ⊥++∋∞≈∋⊇∞ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †+≤∋†∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≤;†+’≈ 0†⊇ 7+≠≈, ∋≈⊇ +≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†, 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+’≈ +∞≈;∞≈† ≈++⊥⊥;≈⊥ ≈†+∞∞† ;≈ †+∞ 4∞≠ 7+≠≈.

3;≈≤∞ +∞+∞ ≈+† +≈†+ †+∞ ∋∋{++ ≤+∋∋∞+≤;∋† ∋≤†;=;†+ †∋∂∞≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ +∞† ∋†≈+ ∋∋≈+ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥∋† ⊥∞+†;≤ ;≈≈†;†∞†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ †+≤∋†∞⊇, ++†+ ≈†+∞∞†≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ †+ +∋=∞ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ ⊥++†;†;≤ 77≈. 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, ∋ ≤;†+ ≠;†+ ∋ †+⊇∋+’≈ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +† 476,626 (3≤+††∋≈⊇’≈ 0∞≈≈∞≈ 2011: 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ - 0+⊥∞†∋†;+≈), +∞≤∋∋∞ ∋ 5++∋† 3∞+⊥+ ;≈ 1329, ∋††+≠;≈⊥ ∋∋+∂∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ †∋;+≈ †+ +∞ +∞†⊇. 1≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ †+∋⊇;≈⊥ +∞≈∞††∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ †∋+⊥∞+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ +∞† †+∞ †+≠≈ ≈†∋+∞⊇ ≠;†+;≈ ;†≈ ≠∋††≈ ∞≈†;† †+∞ ∋;⊇ 18†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ †+∞ ≤†+≈∞-∂≈;† ≈†+∞∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞;†.....

7+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞, ∂≈+≠≈ ∋≈ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ≈†+∞∞† ;≈ 4∞⊇;∞=∋† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, +∞≈≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7+≠≈, ≈†+∞†≤+;≈⊥ †++∋ 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ 0∋≈††∞ ∋†+≈⊥ †+∞ 9≈⊥†∋≈∋⊇∞ ⊇+≠≈ 0∋≈††∞ 8;†† †+ 7∋≠≈∋∋+∂∞†, †+∞≈ †∞+†+∞+ ∋†+≈⊥ 8;⊥+ 3†+∞∞† ∋≈⊇ 0∋≈+≈⊥∋†∞ †+ †+∞ 0∋†∋≤∞ +† 8+†++++⊇++∞≈∞. 0+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ ∋+∞ †+∞ ∋∋≈+ ⊇∋+∂, ≈∋+++≠ ∋≈⊇ ≤+++†∞⊇ ‘≤†+≈∞≈’, ++ ‘≠+≈⊇≈’ (≈∞∞ 2.5.3.1, ⊥.18), †+∞≈⊇ +≈ ++†+ ≈;⊇∞≈ +† †+∞ 5++∋† 4;†∞ ≠+∞+∞ †+∞+ +∞≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ 8;⊥+ 3†+∞∞† ∋≈⊇ 6+∋≈≈∋∋+∂∞† ∋≈⊇ †++∋ 0∋≈≈+≈⊥∋†∞ †+ 0+≠⊥∋†∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ⊥++=;⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥∞;≤∂∞≈† ++∞†∞, +≈ †++†, †+ †+∞ 4∞≠ 7+≠≈.

3+∞+≤∞: (21.05.2014)


3+ †+∞ ∋;⊇ 18†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ †+∞ ≤;†+ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+ ≠∋≈ ⊇+∋≈†;≤∋††+ +=∞+ ≤++≠⊇∞⊇, +∞;≈⊥ {∞≈† ∋ ∋;†∞ †+≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ⊥∞∋+†∞+ +† ∋ ∋;†∞ ≠;⊇∞.

7+∞ ‘4∞≠ 7+≠≈’ ∞=+†=∞⊇ †++∋ ∋++∞† 1770 +≈≠∋+⊇≈ †+ ∋≤≤+∋∋+⊇∋†∞ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞+ ∋≈⊇ +;≤+∞+ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈. 6+∞∋† ⊥∞+†;≤ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥≈ †;∂∞ †+∞ 5++∋† 3≤+††;≈+ 4≤∋⊇∞∋+, †+∞ 4∋†;+≈∋† 6∋††∞++ +† 3≤+††∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ 3≤+††’≈ 4+≈∞∋∞≈† ≠∞+∞ +∞;††. 4∋≈+ ∞⊥⊥∞+ ≤†∋≈≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+=∞⊇ †+ †+∞ 4∞≠ 7+≠≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7+≠≈ ⊥∞;≤∂†+ ⊇∞†∞+;++∋†∞⊇ †+ ≠+∋† ≠∋≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ≈†∞∋. 9≈≤+∋⊥∋≈≈;≈⊥ 3†+∞∞†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞†, 6∞++⊥∞ 3†+∞∞†, 5∞⊥∞≈† 7∞++∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ 4++∋+ 0†∋≤∞, †+∞ 4∞≠ 7+≠≈ ≠∋≈ ++;⊥;≈∋††+ ;≈†∞≈⊇∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈;⊇∞≈†;∋† ∋+∞∋ †++ †+∞ ≠∞∋††+;∞+ ≤;†;=∞≈≈.

4+≠∋⊇∋+≈ ;†≈ ≤∞≈†+∞ ;≈ ⊇+∋;≈∋†∞⊇ ++ +∋≈∂≈, +††;≤∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈++⊥≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋†≈+ +∞≤+∋;≈⊥ +∞≈+≠≈∞⊇ †++ ;†≈ †+∞≈⊇+ +∋+≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈†∋∞+∋≈†≈ (∞⊇;≈+∞+⊥+-+;≈†+++.≤+.∞∂). 0+;≈≤∞≈ 3†+∞∞† ;≈ †+≤∋†∞⊇ ≈∞≠† †+ 3∋=∞+†∞+, †+∞ ≤∞≈†+∋† †+∋;≈ ≈†∋†;+≈ +† 9⊇;≈+∞+⊥+, ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ≈∞+=∞≈ ∋≈ †+∞ ≤;†+’≈ ∋∋;≈ †+∋††;≤ ≤+≈≈∞≤†;+≈ ⊥+;≈† ≠+∞+∞ ∋†∋+≈† ∋†† +† †+∞ ≤;†+’≈ +∞≈∞≈ ⊥∋≈≈ ++, ;≈.....

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