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The new Colossus by Emma Lazarus - Analysis

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`The new Colossus´ by Emma Lazarus

Analysis


The Italian Sonnet `The new Colossus´ written by Emma Lazarus and released in 1883 deals with the Statue of Liberty in America and immigration to America in the 19th century. In the first stanza the Statue of Liberty is compared to the Colossus of Rhodes which is the “brazen giant of Greek fame” (l. 1). But by the use of the negation “not” in front of the quotation above it becomes obvious that the poet is not talking of the ancient Colossus, which depicted/represented the sun god Helios, and which stood at the entrance of the harbour of Rhodes with spread legs, letting the ships passing by below.

This is described in the first two lines.

From the last two lines of the stanza up to the end the Statue of Liberty is described and it is said where it is located, what it stands for and which symbolic meaning it has.  That is what the poem is about and what will be analysed in the following.

To begin with, the poem is a sonnet because it has two stanzas containing four lines and two stanzas containing three lines. It becomes evident that the poem is divided into two parts. The poem is grouped into two sense units, the first two - and the last two stanzas. Moreover the rhyme scheme backs up this effect because the first two stanzas build an enclosed rhyme with (the scheme) `a-b-b-a´ and the last two stanzas built an enclosed rhyme too, but with the scheme `c-d-c´ and `d-c-d´.

Moreover, an enjambment between line 4 of the first stanza and line 5 of the second stanza makes, clear once again, that these two stanzas belong together.

The rhyme scheme does not create the impression of regularity but is neither monotonous. It is just the case that the last two stanzas create a new metre of rhyme because in 1883 the people were still conservative and traditional. As a result, these two stanzas could represent the spirit of the new America which invites outsiders and poor people as immigr.....[read full text]

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1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈ †+ †+∋†, †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ∞†∞=∋†∞⊇ ≠+;≤+ ∞≈⊇∞+†;≈∞≈ †+∞ †∞∞†;≈⊥ +† +;⊥+ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇. 7+∞ ⊥+∞† ∋†≈+ ∋∋∂∞≈ ∞≈∞ +† †;⊥∞+∋†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ++∞†++;≤∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋∋∂∞ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ †+;≈∂ ∋++∞† ≠+∋† +∞ ++ ≈+∞ ;≈ +∞∋⊇;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †∞† +;∋ ++ +∞+ ∂∞∞⊥ ;† ;≈ ∋;≈⊇. 4++∞+=∞+, †+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ ∞≈;⊥∞∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ≈+† ∞=∞+++≈∞ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇≈ †+∞ +;⊇⊇∞≈ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ ;≈ ;†.

6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, †+∞ †;+≈† ≈†∋≈=∋ ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈† ≠+;≤+ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞≈ “†+∞ ++∋=∞≈ ⊥;∋≈† +† 6+∞∞∂ †∋∋∞”(†.1) ≠;†+ †+∞ “∋;⊥+†+ ≠+∋∋≈ ≠;†+ ∋ †++≤+” (†.4). 4∞∋≈† ;≈ †+∞ 0+†+≈≈∞≈ +† 5++⊇∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+. 3∞† †+∞ ≈∞⊥∋†;+≈ “≈+†” +∞†∞++;≈⊥ †+ “†+∞ ++∋=∞≈ ⊥;∋≈† […]” †∞+≈≈ ∋ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ ;≈†+ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈† ≠+;≤+ ≤+∞∋†∞≈ ⊥+†∋+;†+ ∋≈⊇ †∞≈≈;+≈. 4⊇⊇;†;+≈∋††+, †+∞ ≤+≈†+∋≈† +∞≈≈ +≈ †+ †;≈∞ 8 ≠+∞+∞ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ;≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇

7+∞ 0+†+≈≈∞≈ +† 5++⊇∞≈ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ +∞ ;≈≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +∞ ;≈ “+≈†+” ∋ †∋∋+∞≈ 6+∞∞∂ ≈†∋†∞∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ;≈ “∋ ∋;⊥+†+ ≠+∋∋≈” ∋≈⊇ †+∞ “4+†+∞+ +† 9≠;†∞≈”. 4≈ ∋ +∞≈∞††, †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ +∋≈ ∋++∞ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈≤∞ ;≈ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ≈+≤;∞†+ †+∋≈ †+∞ 0+†+≈≈∞≈ +† 5++⊇∞≈ ;.....

4++∞+=∞+, †+∞ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ ≠+;≤+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞≈ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ∋≈ “∋ ∋;⊥+†+ ≠+∋∋≈ ≠;†+ ∋ †++≤+” (†.4) †∞††≈ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ≠+∋† ;†, (†+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞,) ≈†∋≈⊇≈ †++ ∋≈⊇ ++≠ ;† ;≈ ≈∞∞≈ ++ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈. 4≈+†+∞+ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞≈ †+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞ ∋≈ ∋ “4+†+∞+ +† 9≠;†∞≈” ≈+ ;† ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋ ≈;≤∂≈∋∋∞ +† †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† ;≈ ≠+;††∞≈ ;≈ ≤∋⊥;†∋† †∞††∞+≈.

7+∞ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ †∞≈⊇≈ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ †+∞ ⊥∞∋†;†;∞≈ +† ∋ +∞∋† ∋+†+∞+, ∞=∞≈ †++∞⊥+ ;† ;≈ {∞≈† ∋∋⊇∞ +† ≈†+≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋≈’† ∋+=∞. 1≈ †+∋† ≤∋≈∞ †+∞ “4+†+∞+ +† 9≠;†∞≈” ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋ ⊥∞+≈+≈;†;≤∋†;+≈. 7+;≈ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ≈∞⊥⊥++†∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋† ⊥++≈+∞≈ “+∞+” (††.5-7). 4≈ ∋ +∞≈∞††, †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ;≈ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈+∋++†, ;† ⊥∞+≈+≈;†;∞≈ †+∞ =;≈;+≈ +† †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈ ∋† †+∋† †;∋∞, †+ †∞† +∞†∞⊥∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†≈;⊇∞+≈ ;∋∋;⊥+∋†∞ ;≈†+ †+∞;+ ≤+∞≈†++ †+ †++∋ ∋ ≈+≤;∞†+ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈∞≠ ≈∋†;+≈.

7+;≈ ;⊇∞∋ ;≈ +∋≤∂∞⊇ ∞⊥ ++ †+∞ ∋††;†∞+∋†;+≈ ;≈ “≠++†⊇-≠;⊇∞ ≠∞†≤+∋∞” (†.7) †+ ⊥†+≠ ;≈ †+∞ “+∞∋≤+≈-+∋≈⊇” +† †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+. 1† ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞† †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ∂∞∞⊥ †+∞ ≠++⊇≈ ;≈ ∋;≈⊇.

6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, ;≈ †;≈∞ 7, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋≈+†+∞+ ⊥∞+≈+≈;†;≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ ≠+;≤+ ≈∋+≈  †+∋† “+∞+ ∋;†⊇ ∞+∞≈ ≤+∋∋∋≈⊇” +∞† †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ +† ≈†+≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋≈’† +∋=∞ ∋;†⊇ ∞+∞≈ †+∋† ≤+∋∋∋≈⊇. 7+;≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ ⊥;=∞≈ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ †+∞ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+ +† ∋ ≠∋+∋- +∞∋+†∞⊇ +∞† ∋†≈+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞⊇ ⊥∞+≈+≈.

Then, in line 8 the reader is confronted with a metaphorical meaning: “The air-bridged harbour that twin cities frame”. This sentence lets the reader think about its meaning because it is very difficult understand the message. The twin cities the poet refers to are New York and Brooklyn because Brooklyn was a separate city and with the air-bridge the Brooklyn Bridge could be meant which was opened the same year when Emma Lazarus released her poem.

In the past, bridges were innovative and as a result, readers and immigrants were attracted by the image of a modern new country called America which dev.....

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6∞+†+∞+∋++∞, ;≈ ††. 9 †† ;† ≈∞∞∋≈ ∋≈ ;†  †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ≈⊥∞∋∂≈ ⊇;+∞≤††+ †+ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ∋ ≈†∋†∞∞ ;≈ ≈+† ∋+†∞ †+ ≈⊥∞∋∂. 3∞† ;† ;≈ ≈∋;⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞ “≤+;∞≈ […] ≠;†+ ≈;†∞≈† †;⊥≈” ,≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈† ∋≈⊇ ≈++∞†⊇ †∞† †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ;∋∋⊥;≈∞ †+∋† †+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞ ;≈ ≈∞+;+∞≈ ∋++∞† ;†≈ ≠++⊇≈ +∞† ≤∋≈’† ≤++ ;† +∞† †+∞⊇ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† ;≈ ∋ ≈†∋†∞∞.

4++∞+=∞+, †+∞ ≈†∋†∞∞ ≈∞∋∋+≈≈ †+∞ †;+∞⊇, ⊥+++ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊇⊇†∞⊇ ∋∋≈≈∞≈ (††.10-11) †+ ≤+∋∞ †+ 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋+† ∋ ≈∞≠ †;†∞. 7+∞≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ ∞≈∞∋∞+∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞: “6;=∞ ∋∞ ++∞+ †;+∞⊇, ++∞+ ⊥+++, ++∞+ +∞⊇⊇†∞⊇ ∋∋≈≈∞≈ […]” †+∞ ⊥+∞† ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞≈ 9∞++⊥∞ †+ †∞† †+∞;+ †;+∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;∋∋;⊥+∋†∞ †+ 4∋∞+;≤∋. 7+∞ ∞≈∞∋∞+∋†;+≈ ≈†+∞≈≈∞≈/ ∞≈⊇∞+†;≈∞≈ †+∋† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈ +≈†+ +≈∞ ⊥++∞⊥ +† †+∞ 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ ≈+≤;∞†+ †+ ≤+∋∞ †+ 4∋∞+;≤∋.

1≈ †+∞ †∋≈† ≈†∋≈=∋ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +≈≤∞ ∋++∞ ≤+∋∋∋≈⊇≈ 9∞++⊥∞ †+ ≈∞≈⊇ †+∞;+ ++∋∞†∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋⊥∞≈†-†+≈† †+ †+∞ ≈∞≠ ≤+∞≈†++. 4≈ ∋≈ ∞††∞≤† †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞∋†;=∞ †+∋† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ;≈ ∋††+∋≤†;≈⊥ †++ ≈∞≠ ;≈+∋+;†∋≈†≈ ≈∞+;+∞≈†+.  4≈ ∋≈ ∋⊇=;≤∞, †+∞ †+≤∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ;≈ ;≈⊇;+∞≤††+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞:  “1 †;†† ∋+ †∋∋⊥ +∞≈;⊇∞ †+∞ ⊥+†⊇∞≈ ⊇+++!”. (†. 14)

1≈ †+;≈ ≤∋≈∞, †+∞ ⊥+†⊇∞≈ ⊇+++ ≈†∋≈⊇≈ †++ 9††;≈ 1≈†∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †+∞ ≈+-≤∋††∞⊇ ∞≈†+∋≈≤∞ ++ ∂∞+ †+ †;=∞ ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋. 7+∞ ∋∞†∋⊥+++ “⊥+†⊇∞≈ ⊇+++” †++ 9††;≈ 1≈†∋≈⊇ ∞=+∂∞≈/≤∋∞≈∞≈ †+∋† †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ;≈ ⊥∞==†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞†† †+∞ ≈+≈≈∞† +∋≈ ∋≈ +⊥∞≈ ∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ +∋≈ †+ ;≈†++∋ +;∋≈∞†† ≠+;≤+ +∋≈ †+∞ ∞††∞≤† †+∋† +∞ ++ ≈+∞ ≠;†† ∂∞∞⊥ †+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ;≈ ∋;≈⊇. 7+;≈ ;≈ †+.....

4++∞+=∞+, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋ ≤+≈†+∋≈† +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ “++∋=∞≈ ⊥;∋≈†” ∋≈⊇ †+∞ “⊥+†⊇∞≈ ⊇+++” +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ⊥+†⊇ ;≈ ∋++∞ ⊥+∞≤;+∞≈ †+∋≈ ++∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞†† 9††;≈ 1≈†∋≈⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ;≈, †++∋ 9.7.’≈ ⊥+;≈† +† =;∞≠, ∋++∞ ⊥+∞≤;+∞≈ †+∋≈ †+∞ 0+†+≈≈∞≈ +† 5++⊇∞≈.

4†† ;≈ ∋††, †+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ ∋ ⊥+∞∋† ⊇∞∋† +† ;∋∋⊥∞++ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†+∋≈†≈ +∞† ∋†≈+ ∋∞†∋⊥+++≈. 7+∞ †;≈∋† ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ;≈ †+∋† ∋†† +∞†∞⊥∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ++∋∞†∞≈≈ ∋+∞ ;≈=;†∞⊇ †+ 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋≈⊇ ≠;†† +∞ ≠∞†≤+∋∞⊇ ≈;≈≤∞+∞†+. 3∞† ;≈ ∋+ +⊥;≈;+≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ;≈ ≈+† ≤+≈=;≈≤;≈⊥ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+⊇∋+ ≠∞ ∂≈+≠ †+∋† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞≈’† ∋≈⊇ ≠∞+∞≈’† †+∞∋†∞⊇ ∞⊥∞∋††+ ∋≈⊇ †∋;+†+ ;≈ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ 0∋≈† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †++∋ †+∞ 4†+;≤∋≈ ++;⊥;≈, †++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, ≠∞+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ≈†∋=∞≈ ∞≈†;† 1865 ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≠∞+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥+∞≈≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ +∞≈† +† †+∞ ≈+≤;∞†+.

4≈ ∋ +∞≈∞††, 4∋∞+;≤∋ ∋≈ ∋≈ +⊥∞≈-∋;≈⊇∞⊇ ≈∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∋≈† ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈† ;≈ ∋ ⊥;⊥∞ ⊇+∞∋∋. 7+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤†∋≈≈;†;∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥∋†+;+†;≤ ⊥+∞∋ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞ ∋∞†+++ +≈†+ ∋∞≈†;+≈≈ ⊥+≈;†;=∞ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋.

4≈ ∋ ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈, †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ≈∞∞≈ †+∞ 3†∋†∞∞ +† 7;+∞+†+ ∋≈ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈+∋++† +† 4∋∞+;≤∋ ≠+;≤+ ≈†∋≈⊇≈ †++ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ++⊥∞≈ †+∞ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈≈ +∋=∞. 6∞+†+∞+∋++∞ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ⊥∞† †+ ∂≈+≠ ∋≈+†+;≈⊥ ∋++∞† +∞∋∋≈ +;⊥+†≈ ∋+∞≈∞ ;≈ 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ +;≈†+++. 7+⊇∋+ ≠∞ ∂≈+≠ ≠+∋† +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ +∞† ∋† †+∞ †;∋∞ †+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ≠∋≈ +∞†∞∋≈∞⊇ ∋+≈† +† †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠++ ;∋∋;⊥+∋†∞⊇ ≠∞+∞ .....

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