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The art of Debatig A. B. For a good debate you need citrine factors like your emotional appear. The Emotional Appear” is how you debate. You can debate strong and attack the arguments of the other team or you can with the ordiance and try to win their sympathy. I can show you these two types at
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L. N. TOK 11 TOK Essay We know with confidence only when we know little, with knowledge doubt increases. Us humans rely on our ways of knowledge and ways of thinking to help us get through daily life and to do the simplest things. We all have distinctive qualities which define us but what we all have in common

TOK Presentation


Introduction - Richard               

The Real-Life Situation discussed in this presentation is investigating the vaccinations debate, in particularly the Ways of Knowing that arguments on the conflicting sides appeal to.

The MMR vaccination or Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccination and its impact on rising numbers of autism expressly was researched. Both presenters had reserved initial thoughts and reactions upon this topic, however were further enlightened when advancing our investigation into the topic and applying the fundamental principles of understanding Real-Life Situations relevant to Theory of Knowledge.

Our initial reactions were complemented when seeking a third party’s personal opinion. When questioned for their opinion of “what Ways of Knowing do you think both sides of the vaccinations debate are appealing to?” a friend, with no previous Theory of Knowledge experience, answered that the side supporting vaccinations are appealing to “reason and intuition,” and are contrasted by the party disapproving of vaccination as they said they appeal to “emotion, faith and intuition.”

Knowledge Question/Areas of Knowledge Decontextualisation – Richard

The knowledge question formulated for this presentation is; How does emotion and reason assist or limit our justification of the methods used in natural sciences? The knowledge question is based off vaccinations as the methods used in natural sciences.

As well as emotion and reason, other Ways of Knowing that must be considered include ethics intuition and faith. The area of knowledge of natural sciences includes our own physiology and anything involving medicine. In the methodology of vaccinations, technology is also applied, however this is an applied discipline, not a part .....[read full text]

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0†∋;∋ – 5;≤+∋+⊇

0⊥+≈ ;≈=∞≈†;⊥∋†;+≈ +† +≈†;≈∞ ∋+†;≤†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ ;≈†+ +∞+ 5∞∋†-7;†∞ 3;†∞∋†;+≈, †+∞ ≤†∋;∋ ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ †+∋† ;≈†∞;†;+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋†;∞≈† 3∋+ +† 9≈+≠;≈⊥ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ +∞+∞† †+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ +† =∋≤≤;≈∋†;+≈≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∋† ≈≤;∞≈≤∞≈.

0≈ †+∞ ≤+≈†+∋++, †++≈∞ ;≈ ≈∞⊥⊥++† +† †+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∋† ≈≤;∞≈≤∞≈ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ +∞∋≈+≈ ∋≈ †+∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞ 3∋+ +† 9≈+≠;≈⊥.

7;∋;†;≈⊥ +∞+ 1∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ †++ 4∞†++⊇≈ 0≈∞⊇

6++ †++≈∞ +≈ †+∞ +⊥⊥+≈;≈⊥ ≈;⊇∞ +† †+∞ =∋≤≤;≈∋†;+≈≈ ⊇∞+∋†∞, ≤†∋;∋;≈⊥ †+∋† =∋≤≤;≈∋†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ ∋ ⊥+;∋∋++ ≤∋∞≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ +;≈;≈⊥ +∋†∞≈ +† ∋∞†;≈∋, ;† ∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ †+∋† †+∞+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ ;≈†∞;†;+≈, ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞†† +† †∋;†;≈⊥ †+ ∋≤⊥∞;+∞ †+∞ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ †+∞+ ≈∞∞∂ †+++∞⊥+ ∞≈∞ +† +∞∋≈+≈.

7+∞≈∞ ≈∞+{∞≤†≈ ∋†≈+ ∋∋+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ †∋;†+, ∞;†+∞+ †+++∞⊥+ ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† ∋∞∋≈≈ ++ {∞≈† †++ ≤+≈†++∋;†+ ;≈ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞. 7+∞;+ ≈;⊇∞ +† †+∞ ⊇∞+∋†∞ ∋∋+ +∞ †+∋† “†+∞ +;+†∞ ⊇+∞≈≈’† ∋∞≈†;+≈ =∋≤≤;≈∋†;+≈≈, †+∞+∞†++∞ 1 ≈++∞†⊇≈’† ⊥∞† =∋≤≤;≈∋†;+≈≈” ∋≈ ∋≈ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ †++ ∞≈∞ +† †∋;†+ ∋≈ †+∞;+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ †;∋;† †+∞ {∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† †+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∋† ≈≤;∞≈≤∞≈. 4 ≈†∞⊇+ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ ++ 3∋∂∞†;∞†⊇ (1999) ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†∞⊇ +;≈;≈⊥ ≈∞∋+∞+≈ ;≈ ≤∋≈∞≈ +† ∋∞†;≈∋ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∞⊇ ;≈ †;∋∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ ;≈⊇∞≤†;+≈ +.....

7+;≈ †∞⊇ †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+∞+ †+ +∞†;∞=∞ †+∋† †+∞ =∋≤≤;≈∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∋ ≤∋∞≈∞ +† ∋∞†;≈∋. 7+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ +† †+;≈∂;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋ ⊇;+∞≤† ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ +† †+∞ “≤∞∋ ++≤ ∞+⊥+ ⊥++⊥†∞+ ++≤” †∋††∋≤+ ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ≈+††+⊥;≈†;≤ +∞∋≈+≈;≈⊥. 7+;≈ †∋††∋≤+ ;≈ +∞†+;≈⊥ +≈ +∞∋≈+≈ ∋≈ ∋ 3∋+ +† 9≈+≠;≈⊥ ;≈ ≈∞∞≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+;≈ ≈;∋⊥†∞ ≈+††+⊥;≈∋: “1 ∋∋ †∋††∞+ †+∋≈ ∋ ⊇+⊥, ∋†† ⊥;+∋††∞≈ ∋+∞ †∋††∞+ †+∋≈ ⊇+⊥≈, †+∞+∞†++∞ 1 ∋∋ ∋≈ †∋†† ∋≈ ∋ ⊥;+∋††∞.” 7+;≈ ⊇∞⊇∞≤†;=∞ +∞∋≈+≈;≈⊥ ;≈ ++=;+∞≈†+ ≠++≈⊥. &≈+≈⊥;7+∞+∞†++∞, ≠∞ ≈∞∞ †+∋† ;≈†∞;†;+≈ 4037 +∞ †+∞ ⊥+;∋∋++ +∞†;∋≈≤∞ †++ †+∞;+ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋†≈ †+ †;∋;† †+∞ {∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† †+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ †+++∞⊥+ +∞∋≈+≈ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ †∋†≈;†;∞⊇.


Assisting our Justification for Methods Used in the Natural Sciences

Those supporting the vaccinations debate are particularly appealing to reason to assist in justifying the method of the MMR vaccination and to demonstrate that it does not cause autism.

Compelling evidence through research impacts this use of reason, as seen in the following quantitative results:

Richard read this off

  • A study of more than 440,000 Danish children vaccinated in the 1990s compared with 96,000 unvaccinated children provided strong evidence AGAINST the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism or autistic spectrum disorder.

  • A large study in Finland followed almost 600,000 children for 20 years after MMR vaccination and found no evidence for MMR vaccine-associated autism or other neurological disorders.

  • A study of the rates of inflammatory bowel disease and autism among 6,100 French school-aged children found no association between MMR vaccin.....

This paragraph has been concealed!Download the complete document
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  • 4 ≈†∞⊇+ ;≈ 3≠∞⊇∞≈ ;≈ 1998 †++∂;≈⊥ ∋† †+∞ ⊥+∞=∋†∞≈≤∞ +† ∋∞†;≈∋ +=∞+ 10 +∞∋+≈ †+∞≈⊇ ≈+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ ∋††∞+ †+∞ ;≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈ +† 445 =∋≤≤;≈∞≈.

  • 4⊇⊇;†;+≈∋† ≈†∞⊇;∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ 03 ∋≈⊇ 09 †+∞≈⊇ ≈+ ≤+++∞†∋†;+≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞≈⊇≈ ;≈ ∞∋+†+ ≤+;†⊇+++⊇ 445 ;∋∋∞≈;≈∋†;+≈ +∋†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈⊇≈ ;≈ ∋∞†;≈∋ ⊇;∋⊥≈+≈;≈.

    6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, ∋ ≈†∞⊇+ ⊇+≈∞ ;≈ 0∋†;†++≈;∋ ≈++≠∞⊇ †+∋†, ∋††++∞⊥+ +∋†∞≈ +† ∋∞†;≈∋ +∋=∞ ⊥+≈∞ ∞⊥ ++ 373% +=∞+ 15 +∞∋+≈, †+∞ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ ;∋∋∞≈;≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ 445 =∋≤≤;≈∞ +∋≈ +≈†+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ ++ 14% ;≈ †+∋† †;∋∞.

    7+;≈ ∞≠†∞≈≈;=∞ +∋≈⊥∞ +† ≈†∋†;≈†;≤∋† ⊇∋†∋ ∋⊥⊥++=∞≈ †+∞ ≤†∋;∋ †+∋† +∞∋≈+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞ 3∋+ +† 9≈+≠;≈⊥ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞ ⊇∋†∋ †∋≤;†;†∋†∞≈ †+∞ {∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† †+;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∋†∞+∋† ≈≤;∞≈≤∞≈.



    0+∞≈†∞+≤†∋;∋≈/0∞∞≈†;+≈≈ 5∋;≈∞⊇

    8+≠∞=∞+, †+;≈ +∋;≈∞≈ ≈∞∋∞++∞≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈∋† ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈: 3+∞≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈≤;∞≈†;†;≤ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ≤+≈≈†;†∞†∞ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞? 1≈ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ≤+≈≈†;†∞†∞⊇ ≠+∞≈ ;† ;≈ =∋†;⊇;†;∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ +∞⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ ++ ∋≈+†+∞+ +∞≈∞∋+≤+∞+? 7+∞≈∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ ⊥;=+†∋† ;≈ +∞+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† ≠+∋† ∋≤†∞∋††+ †++∋∞†∋†∞≈ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ∞=∞≈ ≠+∞≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≈†++≈⊥, ≈†∋†;≈†;≤∋† ⊇∋†∋ ∋≈⊇ ∞=;⊇∞≈≤∞ †+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †+∞ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ ≠;†+ ∋⊥.....


  • 5∞∋≈+≈ 0∋≈≈+† +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ++ 1†≈∞††

    3+∞†+∞+ ∋≈ +∞†≤+∋∞ ++ ∋≈ ∋≤† ;≈ ⊥++⊇ ++ +∋⊇ ;≈ ;≈+∞+∞≈††+ ≈∞+{∞≤†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞†++∞ ∋⊥⊥∞∋†≈ †+ ∞∋+†;+≈ ∋≈ ∋ 3∋+ +† 9≈+≠;≈⊥.

    3+ ;∋⊥†;≤∋†;+≈, ≈+†∞†+ ∞≈;≈⊥ +∞∋≈+≈ †+ ∋⊇{∞⊇;≤∋†∞ †+;≈ 5∞∋†-7;†∞ 3;†∞∋†;+≈ ;≈ †+≠∋+†∞⊇. 7+;≈ †+∞+∞†++∞ ∋∋∂∞≈ +∞∋≈+≈ +∞⊇∞≈⊇∋≈† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋+⊥∞∋∞≈† ;≈ +∞†;∋≈† +≈ ;≈†∞;†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+†;+≈ +≈†+.

    8+≠∞=∞+, ∞∋+†;+≈ ;≈ ≈+† ∋†≠∋+≈ +†∋≤∂ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;†∞.

    1† ;≈ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤†+∞∋. 7+∞+∞†++∞, {∞≈†;†+;≈⊥ ∋≈ +∞†≤+∋∞ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ ∋ ≈;≈⊥†∞ ∞∋+†;+≈ ;≈ ;∋⊥+≈≈;+†∞. 4∞=∞+†+∞†∞≈≈, †+ ≈∞⊥†∞≤† ∞∋+†;+≈ ;≈ †+;≈ +∞∋†-†;†∞ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈ ≠+∞†⊇ +∞ ;≈+∞∋∋≈∞ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ +++≈ ≠;†+ ∋∞†;≈∋.



    9∋+†;+≈ 0∋≈≈+† +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ++ ;†≈∞††

    8+≠∞=∞+, ∋ ≤+∞≈†∞+≤†∋;∋ †+ †+;≈ ;≈ †+∋† ∞∋+†;+≈ ++ ;†≈∞†† ≤∋≈ †∞∋⊇ †+ +∋+≈+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈{∞≈† ≤+≈≤†∞≈;+≈≈.

    1 ≠;†† ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†∞ †+;≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ †+††+≠;≈⊥ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞. 1 +∞†;∞=∞ †+∋† ∋∞+⊇∞+ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++≈† ∋≤† ∋≈+ ∋∋≈ ++ ≠+∋∋≈ ≤∋≈ ≤+∋∋;† ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞†++∞, ∋≈+ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ≠++ ∂;††≈ ∋≈+†+∞+ ⊇∞≈∞+=∞≈ ∋∋≠;∋∞∋ ⊥∞≈;≈+∋∞≈†, ∋ †;†∞ ≈∞≈†∞≈≤∞ ;∋⊥+;≈+≈∋∞≈†. 8+≠∞=∞+, 1 ∋†≈+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ †+;≈ ;≈ ≈+† †+∞ ≠∋+ †+∞ †∋≠ ≠++∂≈. 6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, †+∞+∞ ∋∋+ +∞ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞≈ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ≈∞††∞+≈ †++∋ ⊥∞+∞ ⊥≈+≤+;∋†+;≤ ∋∞≈†∋† ;††≈∞≈≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋∋;† ∋≤†≈ ≠;†++∞† ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ ≠+∋† †+∞+ ∋+∞ ⊇+;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ;∋⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ +.....

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