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APSS1L01 Tomorrow’s Leaders

Individual Paper


Name of the student:

Student ID:

Date of the Class:

Time of the Class:

Group Name:

Lecturer of the class:


Interpersonal Communication

Part 1

The purpose of this essay is to explore different layers in interpersonal communication and figure out how can they apply to our life. Firstly, there are five concepts in interpersonal communication and they are from the social penetration theory developed by psychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor in 1973, it describes the developments of interpersonal relationship per level of self-disclosure.

The five concepts are orientation stage, exploratory affective exchange stage, affective exchange stage, stable exchange stage and de-penetration stage.

In the orientation stage, Altman, I. & Taylor, D. (1973) believe that people would follow the standards of social desirability and norms of appropriateness. That means they only reveal bits of themselves, act and do things that seem appropriate to others and society. In this stage, people only know each other on the surface, like their face, their sound. They would not show their true self or openly share their private stuff with others because they don’t familiar with each other and afraid that if they reveal lots of themselves, it might scare the others and make them uncomfortable.

Hence, when people meet in the first time, they would be nicer and politer than they are when you become their good friends.

The other stage is exploratory affective Exchange Stage, definition by Altman, I. & Taylor, D. (1973) is the emergence of an individual’s personality. People starts to reveal their inner self bit by bit, sharing own opinions about moderate areas like trend and education. The relationship becomes closer than the orientation stage but not close enough for they to share intimate things.

So, they would comment on issues that won’t affect their relationship. This is the stage of casual
friendship, and not lots of relationships could go past this stage.


Affective exchange stage means spontaneous communication. Individuals are starting to show their inner self. They may share private and personal things, and more willing and comfortable to make a promise with others. As they are getting close, they would have had a lot of experiences with each other and hence, certain word and phrases may have unique meanings to them due to their experiences are used in conversations so nobody would know the true meaning except the two.

But there is some side effect of this stage, as they show more and more of the inner self to other, there will be a comparison between now and the time when they first met then create a contrast, or others don’t agree their own opinion on some private issues, thus, some criticism and arguments may arise. Generally, relationships in this stage become meaningful and important and as West, Richard (2013) said, it indicates close friendships .....[read full text]

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6++ ≈†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞, ;† +∞†∞+≈ †+ †+∞ ≤†+≈∞≈† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥. 7+∞ †≠+ ∋+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ +⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ++≈∞≈† †+ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+. 7+∞+ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ∋†∋+≈† ∞=∞++†+;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞;+ ⊇∞∞⊥∞≈† ∋;≈⊇, †;∂∞ †+∞;+ +∞†;∞†≈, ≈∞≤+∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ =∋†∞∞≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ †+∞≈† ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋≈ ⊥+∞⊇;≤† †+∞ +∞∋≤†;+≈ +† +†+∞+. 3+†+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ ∋≈+ +†+∞+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ †+∋† ;≈ +†+∞+ ≈†∋⊥∞≈. 0≈†+ ∋ †∞≠ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ ≤∋≈ +∞∋≤+ †+;≈ ≈†∋⊥∞.


7∋≈††+, †+∞ ⊇∞-⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ 3†∋⊥∞. 1† ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈† ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊇;≈⊥ ≈†∋⊥∞ +† ∋ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥. 3†+∋∂∞+, 8 (2013) +∞†;∞=∞≈ †+∋† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ++∞∋∂≈ ⊇+≠≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥, †+∞≈ †≠+ +† †+∞∋ ⊥∞;† †++∋ ;† ∋≈⊇ +∞≈≤∞ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ≤+∋∞≈ †+ ∋≈ ∞≈⊇. 7+;≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ ≈+† ∋ ∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ †+∞+++, ;† ;≈ +⊥†;+≈∋† ≈;≈≤∞ ≈+† ∋†† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ≠+∞†⊇ ≤+∋∞ †+ ∋≈ ∞≈⊇, +∞† ;† ∞≈∞∋††+ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +† ≤+∞⊥†∞≈.


7+∞≈∞ †;=∞ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ ∋+∞ ≈+† ;≈ ∋≈ ++⊇∞+ ++ ∋≈+ ≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞. 7+∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ +∞=∞+≈∞⊇ ++ +∋≈⊇+∋†+ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ +∞† ⊥∞≈∞+∋††+, +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ⊥+∞≈ †++∋ ++;∞≈†∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ †+∞≈ †+ †+∞ ∞≠⊥†++∋†+++ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞, †+∞≈ †+∞ ≈†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞-⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞. 4+≈††+ ≤+∞⊥†∞≈ ⊥+ †++∋ ++;∞≈†∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ †+ +≈∞ †+ †++∞∞ ≈†∋⊥∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞ ∋≈⊇ †∋≈††+, ∞≈⊇ ∋† †+∞ ⊇∞-⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞.

3∞† †++ †+;∞≈⊇≈+;⊥≈, ∋+≈††+ ≈†∋+†≈ ∋† †+∞ ++;∞≈†∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈†+⊥≈ ∋† †+∞ ∞≠⊥†++∋†+++ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞, {∞≈† ∋ †∞≠ ≤∋≈ +∞∋≤+ †+∞ ≈†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞≤+∋∞ +∞≈† †+;∞≈⊇ +† ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+, ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈∋∋†† ≈∞∋+∞+ +† †+∞∋ ≠+∞†⊇ ∞≈⊇ ∋† †+∞ ⊇∞-⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞. 7+∞≈, †+∞≈∞ †;=∞ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†≈ ∋+∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋+†∞ †+ ∋∋≈+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ +∞† †+∞ ++⊇∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ∋≈⊇ =∋++ †++∋ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞.


0∋+†2

7+†≈ +† ;≈†∞+⊥∞+≈+≈∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ≠+∞≈ 1 †;≈∋††+ ⊥+† ;.....


1 {+;≈∞⊇ †≠+ ≤∋∋⊥≈ ∋† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞† †+∋⊇≈ +† †+;∞≈⊇≈. 4+≈† +† †++≈∞ †+;∞≈⊇≈ +≈†+ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∋;⊇ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ∋++∞† †+∞ ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈ +† †+∞ ≤∋∋⊥ ++ †∋∞⊥+ ∋† †+∞ {+∂∞ ∋∋⊇∞ ++ +∞+ ⊥++∞⊥ †∞∋⊇∞+. 4+≈∞ +† †+∞∋ +∋⊇ ≈+∋+∞⊇ †+∞;+ ⊥+;=∋†∞ +⊥;≈;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †++∞⊥+†≈ +≈ †+∞ ;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈≈ +† +†+∞+ ⊥++∞⊥∋∋†∞≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞+ ∋†+∋;⊇ †+∋† +†+∞+≈ ∋∋+ ∞≈+∋⊥⊥+ ∋≈⊇ +∋=∞ ∋ ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ ;∋⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ +† †+∞∋.

3+, †+ ≤+∞∋†∞ ∋ ⊥++⊇ ;∋∋⊥∞ ;≈ +†+∞+’≈ ∋;≈⊇, †+∞+ +;⊇∞ †+∞;+ †+∞∞ ≈∞†† ∋≈⊇ +∞;≈⊥ =∞++ ≈;≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+†;†∞ †+ +†+∞+≈, ≈+ ∋≈ 1. 4+≈† +† †+∞∋ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ †+∞ ++;∞≈†∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈ †+∞+ +≈†+ +∞=∞∋† ∋ +;† +† †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈.


Then, a few reached the exploratory affective exchange stage when the camp comes to an activity needed us to corporate with groupmates to win the other group. When our group was left behind, some groupmates may comment on the current situation with altitudes and others can feel their emotions through their talking. Hence, we know that those groupmates would get nervous or angry when they lose or fall behind in a competition, then we know more about those groupmate’s inner self and reached the exploratory affective exchange stage.


Several university schoolmates have reached the affective exchange stage of mine due to the times I spent with them. Those schoolmates are my committee members so we must spend lots of time together at meeting or holding affairs. At each meeting, we have to discuss the details of the upcoming affairs we planned for our association. Different members have different opinions on it and often argue against each other’s.

Though this section, we know more about each other’s idea and temper. They no longer hide their true self through the time we spend together. Each time we reveal more and more to other and become closer and closer. Now, we’re at the affective exchange s.....

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6++ †+∞ ≈†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞-⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞, ≈+≈∞ +† ∋+ ∞≈;=∞+≈;†+ ≈≤+++†∋∋†∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∞∋≤+ †+∞∋. 7+∞+∞’≈ +≈†+ +≈∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ;≈ ∋† †+∞ ≈†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ ≠;†+ ∋∞, ∋≈⊇ †+∋†’≈ ∋+ ≈∞≤+≈⊇∋++ ≈≤+++†∋∋†∞≈, ∋+ +∞≈† †+;∞≈⊇.

1’=∞ ∂≈+≠≈ +∞+ †++ 7 +∞∋+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ ≈⊥∞≈⊇ ∞=∞++ ∋+∋∞≈† †+⊥∞†+∞+ ;≈ +∞+ ≈∞≤+≈⊇∋++ ≈≤+++† †;†∞. 3∞ ∞∋† †+⊥∞†+∞+, ≠∞ ≈†∞⊇+ †+⊥∞†+∞+, ∋≈⊇ ≠∞ †∋∞⊥+ †+⊥∞†+∞+. 3∞ ⊇+≈’† +∋=∞ ∋≈+ ≈∞≤+∞†≈ ≠;†+ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞ ≈+∋+∞ ≤∞+†∋;≈ +∞†;∞†≈. 7+∋† ⊇+∞≈≈’† +∋⊥⊥∞≈ ≈∋†∞+∋††+ +∞† ∋††∞+ ∋ †+† +† ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞, †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋+⊥∞∋∞≈† ∞≈†;† ≠∞ †;≈∋††+ ∋≤≤∞⊥† ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+’≈ ≠∞∋∂ ⊥+;≈† ∋≈⊇ +∞≤+∋∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ∋≤≤+∋⊥∋≈+ +† +†+∞+.

1≈ 6.1, ≠∞ +∋+∞†+ ∂≈+≠ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ +≈†+ ≈∋+ +; ≠+∞≈ ≠∞ ∋∞† ∞∋≤+ †;∋∞. 3∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋† †+∞ ++;∞≈†∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞ ;≈ 6.1. 7+∞≈ ;≈ 6.2, ≠∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ≤†∋≈≈ ∋⊥∋;≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞ +∞⊥;≈ †+ †∋†∂. 3∞ ≠+∞†⊇ ⊥+ †+ ≤∋≈†∞∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋† ≈+∋∞ ≈≈∋≤∂≈ †+⊥∞†+∞+ †+∋† †;∋∞. 4†≈+, ≠∞ ≠+∞†⊇ †∋†∂ ∋++∞† †+∞ ++≠ +++∞⊇ ≠∋≈ †+∞ †∞≈≈+≈ +∞†++∞ ∋≈⊇ ++≠ +∋†∞†∞† ≠∋≈ †+∞ †∞∋≤+∞+, +∞† ≈∞=∞+ †∋†∂ ∋++∞† ⊥+;=∋†∞ ≈†∞††. 4† †+∋† †;∋∞, ≠∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋† †+∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ +† ∞≠⊥†++∋†+++ ∋††∞.....


1≈ 6.3, ∋ ∋∋{++ †+;≈⊥ +∋⊥⊥∞≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞≈+ +∞+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ †+ †+∞ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ≈†∋⊥∞. 3∞ +∋≈⊥∞⊇ +∞† †+⊥∞†+∞+ †+ †+∞ +∞∋≤+ ≠;†+ +†+∞+ †≠+ +++≈. 3∞ +∋≈ +≈ †+∞ +∞∋≤+, ⊥†∋+∞⊇ †+†≈ +† ⊥∋∋∞ †+⊥∞†+∞+. 3∞ ≠∞+∞ ≈+ +∋⊥⊥+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≠≤;†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊥∋≈ †+ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞ +∞+≈∞†=∞≈ †+ †+∞ ⊇∞∞⊥∞+ ≠∋†∞+. 4+ +∞≈† †+;∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ 1 +∞†⊇ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+’≈ +∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ⊇∞∞⊥∞+ ≠∋†∞+ ∋+∞∋. 9=∞++†+;≈⊥ ≠∋≈ +;⊥+† ∞≈†;† ∋ ≠∋=∞ ⊥∞≈+∞⊇ ∞≈ ∋≠∋+ †++∋ †+∞ ≈∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞ ≤+∞†⊇≈’† ≈†∞⊥ +≈ ∋≈+†+;≈⊥ ∞≠≤∞⊥† ≠∋†∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈†++†∞≈∋†∞†+, ≠∞ ≤∋≈’† ≈≠;∋.

3∞ +∞†⊇ +∋≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇++≠≈;≈⊥ †+⊥∞†+∞+ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋ ≠+;†∞ ≠∞ +∞††∞⊇ ≈+ +∋+⊇ †+ ≤∋†† †+∞ †≠+ +++≈ †+ +∞≈≤∞∞ ∞≈. 3∞ ≠∞+∞ ⊇++≠≈∞⊇ †++ †;∂∞ ≈∞=∞+∋† ∋;≈∞†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ +∞;≈⊥ +∞≈≤∞∞⊇ ++ +∞+ †+;∞≈⊇≈. 3∞ †;†∞+∋††+ †++∞⊥+† ≠∞ ≠;†† +∞ ⊇∞∋⊇ ∋† †+∋† ∋+∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ +∞⊥∋≈ †+ ≤++ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊥ †+⊥∞†+∞+ +≈ †+∞ +∞∋≤+. 7+;≈ +∋≈ ∋∋⊇∞ ∞≈ †+ †∋†∂ ∋++∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞∋≈∞+∞ †+;≈ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ ∞=∞+. 3∞ ≈†∋+†∞⊇ †+ ≈+∋+∞ +∞+ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞ ≠;†+ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ;≈ 3+∋†≈∋⊥⊥ ∋≈⊇ †∞†† ≈+∋∞ ≈∞≤+∞†≈ †+ +†+∞+.

7+∞≈, ≠∞ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ †+∞ ∋††∞≤†;=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ †++∋ 6.3.


We reached the stable exchange stage in F.5 after two years in the affective exchange stage. We know all beliefs, secrets of other. We’ve seen the best and worst look of each other. We can just be ourselves in front of other. We even went to a 7-days trip to Japan in F.6, only the two of us. No argument or disappointment during the trip. We often being said we look like lesbian because we are so close that we almost see each other every day.

I often laugh at it and tell her that someone said we look like lesbian, then she will laugh at it too and said she think so. We were so close that if we can’t see each other one day, we would feel uncomfortable.

But back to now, we can barely see each other once a month. But does it affect our friendship? I don’t really think so. Although we don’t talk very often anymore but the friendship built by 6 years of time won’t go away in such a few times. We would never go to the de-penetration stage. Our friendship will only stay at the stable stage or affective exchange stage as long as both of us still want to hold this relationship and don’t w.....

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7+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ †+∞+++ ;≈ =∞++ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋+†∞ †+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞’≈ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈. 4+† ∋†† †+∞ ≈†∋⊥∞≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ ++ ∋=+;⊇∞⊇ ;≈ ∋ ≈+++† †;∋∞. 6∞≈∞+∋† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +††∞≈ ≈†+⊥≈ ∋† †+∞ †;+≈† †≠+ ≈†∋⊥∞≈, ∂≈+≠;≈⊥ {∞≈† ∋ †∞≠ +† ∋ ⊥∞+≈+≈. 3+;†∞ ≈+∋∞ ≤∋≈ ⊥∞† †+ †+;+⊇ ++ †+∞+†+ ≈†∋⊥∞≈, ∂≈+≠;≈⊥ †+∞ †+∞∞ ≈∞†† +† ∋ ⊥∞+≈+≈. 4≈⊇ ∋ †∞≠ ∋∋+ ⊥∞† †+ †+∞ ⊇∞-⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈ ≈†∋⊥∞, ∞≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥.

4††++∞⊥+ ≈+∋∞ ≈†∋⊥∞≈ ∋+∞ +∋+⊇ †+ +∞∋≤+ ∋≈⊇ ∋=+;⊇, +∞† 1 +∞†;∞=∞ †+∋† †;∋∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞††++† ∋+∞ ∋†† ≠∞ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞≈+ ∋ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ †+ ∋ ≈†∋⊥∞ †+∋† ≠∞ ≠∋≈†∞⊇. 1† ≠∞ ⊇+≈’† ≠∋≈† ∋ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ≈†∋+†∞ ≈†∋⊥∞ †+ ≈†;⊥ ∋≠∋+, ≠∞ ≤∋≈ ⊥∞† ∞††++† †+ ++†⊇ †+∞ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥, †;∂∞ +∋≈⊥ +∞† ∋++∞ †+⊥∞†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†∋≤† ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋++∞. 7+∞ ≈†∋⊥∞≈ +† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈ ∋+∞ ∋+≈††+ ∋++∋≈⊥∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†++††∞⊇ ++ ∞≈.

3∞ +∋=∞ †+∞ ⊥+≠∞+ †+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞ ≤∞++∞≈† ≈;†∞∋†;+≈ ++ {∞≈† ⊇+;≈⊥ ≈+†+;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋⊥†∋;≈ +≈ ;†.


3++⊇:1809


5∞†∞+∞≈≤∞:

1.4††∋∋≈, 1., &∋∋⊥; 7∋+†++, 8. (1973). 3+≤;∋† ⊥∞≈∞†+∋†;+≈: 7+∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† ;≈†∞+⊥∞+≈+≈∋† +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥≈. 4∞≠ 5++∂, 45: 3†. 4∋+†;≈’≈ 0+∞≈≈


2. 3∞≈†, 5;≤+∋+⊇ (2013).
1≈†++⊇∞≤;≈⊥ 0+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ 7+∞+++-4≈∋†+≈;≈ ∋≈⊇ 4⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈, 5†+ 9⊇;†;+≈. 4≤6+∋≠-8;†.....


3.&≈+≈⊥;3†+∋∂∞+, 8. (2002-2013).0+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ 4;.....


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