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Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine

National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”

Faculty of Linguistics

Department of Theory, Practice and Translation of English



Abstract

on the History of English

on the topic

Typology of variants of pronunciation in modern English communication ”



Made by

T.

Daria

Group LA-53



Kyiv-2017

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1.Historical origin of English language……………………….…………3

Chapter 2.The English language and English-speaking countries…………………4

Chapter 3. The main variants of English………………………………………… .5

4.Typology of different English pronunciation and accents ………………………6

4.1 English English accents……………………………………………… .6

4.2 Received Pronunciation…………………………………………….… .8

4.3 Cockney………………………………………………………………….9

4.4 Estuary English (Southeast British)……………………………………10

4.5 Midlands English…………………………………………………… .10

4.6 Northern England English……………………………………… .……11

4.Geordie……………………………………………… ………… .…… 11

4.8 Welsh English…………………………………………………….….…12

4.9 Scottish English………………………………………………….….….13

4.10 Australian English………………………………………….….… .…13

4.11 New Zealand English………………………………………… …… 15

4.12 South African English…………………………………….… …… 16

4.13 American English……………………………………………… ……17

4.14 Canadian English……………………………………………… ……17



Conclusion



Bibliography………………………………………………………………………19



1.Historical origin of English language.

Historically, English originated from the fusion of closely related dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain by Germanic settlers (Anglo-Saxons) by the 5th century; the word English is derived from the name of the Angles, and ultimately from their ancestral region of Angeln (in what is now Schleswig-Holstein).

The language was also influenced early on by the Old Norse language through Viking invasions in the 9th and 10th centuries.

The Norman conquest of England in the 11th century gave rise to heavy borrowings from Norman French, and vocabulary and spelling conventions began to give the appearance of a close relationship with those of Latin-derived Romance languages (though English is not a Romance language itself) to what had then become Middle English.

The Great Vowel Shift that began in the south of England in the 15th century is one of the historical events that mark the emergence of Modern Engli.....[read full text]

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1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈ †+ ;†≈ 4≈⊥†+-3∋≠+≈ ∋≈⊇ 4++∋∋≈ 6+∞≈≤+ +++†≈, ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≈∞∋+∞+ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≠++⊇≈ ∋+∞ ≤+≈≈†+∞≤†∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ +∋≈;≈ +† +++†≈ †++∋ 7∋†;≈, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ 7∋†;≈ ;≈ ≈+∋∞ †++∋ ≠∋≈ †+∞ †;≈⊥∞∋ †+∋≈≤∋ +† †+∞ 0++;≈†;∋≈ 0+∞+≤+ ∋≈⊇ +† 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ ;≈†∞††∞≤†∞∋† †;†∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞∋∋;≈≈ †+∞ ≠∞††≈⊥+;≈⊥ +† ∋∞≤+ ∋+⊇∞+≈ ≈≤;∞≈†;†;≤ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈;≤∋† =+≤∋+∞†∋++.

0≠;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ∋≈≈;∋;†∋†;+≈ +† ≠++⊇≈ †++∋ ∋∋≈+ +†+∞+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ †+++∞⊥++∞† +;≈†+++, ∋+⊇∞+≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ ∋ =∞++ †∋+⊥∞ =+≤∋+∞†∋++, ≠;†+ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠ ∋≈⊇ ;++∞⊥∞†∋+ ≈⊥∞††;≈⊥, ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ +† =+≠∞†≈.

4+⊇∞+≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ +∋≈ ≈+† +≈†+ ∋≈≈;∋;†∋†∞⊇ ≠++⊇≈ †++∋ +†+∞+ 9∞++⊥∞∋≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, +∞† †++∋ ∋†† +=∞+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇. 7+∞ 0≠†++⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ 8;≤†;+≈∋++[1] †;≈†≈ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 250,000 ⊇;≈†;≈≤† ≠++⊇≈, ≈+† ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ ∋∋≈+ †∞≤+≈;≤∋† ≈≤;∞≈†;†;≤ ∋≈⊇ ≈†∋≈⊥ †∞+∋.

7+∞ ≠++⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊇∞+;=∞≈ †++∋ †+∞ ∞⊥+≈+∋ 4≈⊥†∞, †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ +† ∋ 6∞+∋∋≈;≤ †+;+∞ †++∞⊥+† †+ ++;⊥;≈∋†∞ †++∋ †+∞ 4≈⊥∞†≈ ∋+∞∋ +† 1∞††∋≈⊇, ≈+≠ ;≈ ≈++†+∞+≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+.

6++ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ∞†+∋+†+⊥;∞≈ +† †+∞≈∞ ≠++⊇≈, ≈∞∞ †+∞ ∋+†;≤†∞≈ 4≈⊥∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ 4≈⊥†∞≈.

2. 7+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+-≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈

4⊥⊥++≠;∋∋†∞†+ 375 ∋;††;+≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋++∞≈⊇ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 50 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈, ≠+∞+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∞;†+∞+ †+∞ +††;≤;∋† ++ †+∞ ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

1† ;≈ †+∞ †+;+⊇ ∋+≈† ≤+∋∋+≈ ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ (+∞+;≈⊇ 4∋≈⊇∋+;≈ 0+;≈∞≈∞ ∋≈⊇ 3⊥∋≈;≈+). 7+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ≠+;≤+ ∞=+†=∞⊇ †++∋ ∋ ≤+∋+;≈∋†;+≈ +† 0†⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ 4≈⊥†+-3∋≠+≈ †+≈⊥∞∞, +∞⊥∋≈ †+ +∞ ≤+∋∋+≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋++∞≈⊇ †+∞ 5†+ ≤∞≈†∞++.

7+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋+∞ †+≤∋†∞⊇ ;≈ 4++†+ 4∋∞+;≤∋--†+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 3†∋†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 0∋≈∋⊇∋.

4††++∞⊥+ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 6+∞≈≤+ ∋+∞ ++†+ †+∞ +††;≤;∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ;≈ 0∋≈∋⊇∋, †∞††+ 85 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† †+∋† ≤+∞≈†++'≈ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+. 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈ †+ †+∞ 03 ∋≈⊇ 0∋≈∋⊇∋, ≈∞=∞+∋† 0∋+;++∞∋≈ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 9≈⊥†;≈+. 7+∞≈∞ ∋+∞ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ †+∞ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ †+∋† ≠∞+∞ ≤+†+≈;=∞⊇ ++ 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ 4≈†;⊥∞∋ ∋≈⊇ 3∋++∞⊇∋, †+∞ 3∋+∋∋∋≈, 3∋++∋⊇+≈, 1∋∋∋;≤∋, 6+∞≈∋⊇∋, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 7∞+.....

3∞+∋∞⊇∋, ≈†;†† ∋ ⊥∋+† +† 6+∞∋† 3+;†∋;≈, ≈⊥∞∋∂≈ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈ ⊇+∞≈ †+∞ †;≈+, 0∞≈†+∋† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ≤+∞≈†++ +† 3∞†;=∞.

7+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +∋≈ ;†≈ +++†≈ ;≈ ≈++†+∞+≈ 9∞++⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ ;† ;≈ †;††;≈⊥ †+∋† ;† ;≈ ≠;⊇∞†+ ≈⊥+∂∞≈ †+∞+∞.

4++∞ †+∋≈ 98 ⊥∞+≤∞≈† +† †+∞ +∞≈;⊇∞≈†≈ +† †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 9;≈⊥⊇+∋ (9≈⊥†∋≈⊇, 3≤+††∋≈⊇, 4++†+∞+≈ 1+∞†∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ 3∋†∞≈) ≈⊥∞∋∂ 9≈⊥†;≈+. 1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ †+∞ +††;≤;∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤ +† 1+∞†∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 1≈†∞ +† 4∋≈. 7+∞ 3+;†;≈+ 9∋⊥;+∞ +† †+∞ 19†+ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+†+ 20†+ ≤∞≈†∞+;∞≈ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+;†+ +† 4∋∞+;≤∋≈ ≤∞††∞+∞ ≈;≈≤∞ 3++†⊇ 3∋+ 11 +∋≈ +++∞⊥+† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+ ∋†† ≤++≈∞+≈ +† †+∞ ⊥†++∞.

1† ;≈ +∋+∞ ≈⊥+† ≠+∞+∞ †+∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ⊇+∞≈≈'† +∋=∞ ∋† †∞∋≈† ∋ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞. 4∋{++ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ +∞†≈;⊇∞ +† 9∞++⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ 4++†+ 4∋∞+;≤∋ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ 4∞≈†+∋†;∋, 4;⊥∞+;∋, 4∞≠ 5∞∋†∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ 3+∞†+ 4†+;≤∋. 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∋†≈+ †+∞ ⊥+;∋∋++ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ;≈ ≈∞≤+ ⊇;=∞+≈∞ †+≤∋†∞≈ ∋≈ 6∞∋∋, 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 0+;†;⊥⊥;≈∞≈. 7++∞⊥+ +≈†+ ∋ ∋;≈++;†+ +† †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ (12 ⊥∞+≤∞≈†) ;≈ 1≈⊇;∋ ≈⊥∞∋∂ 9≈⊥†;≈+, †+∋† ≈†;†† ∋∋+∞≈†≈ †+ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ 125 ∋;††;+≈≈ ⊥∞+≈+≈≈ ;≈ †+∋† ⊇∞≈≈∞†+-⊥+⊥∞†∋†∞⊇ ≤+∞≈†++. [2]

3. 7+∞ ∋∋;≈ =∋+;∋≈†≈ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+

Nowadays two main types of English are spoken in the English-speaking world: British English and American English.

According to British dialectologists the following variants of English are referred to the English-based group: English English, Welsh English, Australian English, New Zealand English; to the American-based group: United States English, Canadian English, Scottish English and Ireland English fall somewhere between the two, being somewhat by themselves[3].

According to M.

Sokolova and others, English English, Welsh English, Scottish English and Northern Irish English should be better combined into the British English subgroup, on the ground of political, geographical, cultural unity which brought more similarities - than differences for those variants of pronunciation.

The principal types of English pronunciation and their interrelations may be graphically represen.....

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4. 7+⊥+†+⊥+ +† ⊇;††∞+∞≈† 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊥++≈∞≈≤;∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈

4.1 9≈⊥†;≈+ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈

5+∞⊥+†+ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ †+∞ ≈+≈-50 ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ +† 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇ ∋∋+ +∞ ⊥++∞⊥∞⊇ †;∂∞ †+;≈:

1. 3+∞†+∞+≈ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈.

2. 4++†+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ 4;⊇†∋≈⊇ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈.

1≈ =+≠∞†≈

0≈∞ +† †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞≈∞ ⊥++∞⊥≈ +† ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ ;≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++≈∞∋∞ ;≈=∞≈†+++ — †+∞ ⊥+∞≈∞≈≤∞ ++ ∋+≈∞≈≤∞ +† ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ ⊥++≈∞∋∞≈.

7+⊥;≤∋††+, †+∞ =+≠∞† [∋] ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† +≤≤∞+ ;≈ †+∞ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ +† †+∞ ≈++†+; ∞.⊥.

3+∞†+ 4++†+

+†++⊇ [+†ʌ⊇] [+†∞⊇]

+≈∞ [≠ʌ≈] [≠+≈]

+∞† [+ʌ†] [+ә†]

3∞ ≤∋≈ ∋†≈+ ≈+†∞ †+∋† ∋∋≈+ ≈++†+∞+≈ ≈⊥∞∋∂∞+≈ ≠+;†∞ †+∞+ ⊇+ ≈+† +∋=∞ [ʌ] +∋=∞ [∞:] +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ [∞] ;≈ ≠++⊇≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ +++∂, +++∂, †++∂.

7+∞+ †+∞+∞†++∞ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+ ⊥∋;+≈ †;∂∞ +++∂ ∋≈⊇ +∞≤∂, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ †+∞ ≈+∞†+ ≈+∞≈⊇ [+∞∂] ∋≈⊇ [+ʌ∂], ;≈ †+∞ 4++†+ ∋≈ [+∞:∂] ∋≈⊇ [+∞∂]:

3+∞†+ 4++†+

+++∂ [+∞∂] [+∞:∂]

+∞≤∂ [+ʌ∂] [+∞∂]

4≈+†+∞+ ≠∞††-∂≈+≠≈ †∞∋†∞+∞ ≠+;≤+ ⊇;≈†;≈⊥∞;≈+∞≈ ≈++†+∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+∞†+∞+≈ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ ≤+≈≤∞+≈≈ †+∞ =+≠∞†≈ [æ] ∋≈⊇ [∋:].

3∞†++∞ †+∞ =+;≤∞†∞≈≈ †+;≤∋†;=∞≈ [†, θ, ≈] ∋≈⊇ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ≤+≈≈+≈∋≈† ≤†∞≈†∞+≈ ≤+≈†∋;≈;≈⊥ ;≈;†;∋† [≈] ++ [∋], [æ] ;≈ ⊥++≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ ;≈ †.....

3+∞†+ 4++†+

⊥∋†+ [⊥∋:θ] [⊥æθ]

⊇∋≈≤∞ [⊇∋:≈≈] [⊇æ≈≈]

1≈ †+∞ ≈+∞†+, ++≠∞=∞+, [æ] ;≈ +††∞≈ ⊥++≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ ∋≈ [∋:]:

50 3+∞†+

+∋⊇ [+æ⊇] [+∋:⊇]

0≈∞ ∋++∞ ∋∋{++ ≈++†+ — ≈+∞†+ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋†;≈⊥ †∞∋†∞+∞ ;≈=+†=∞≈ †+∞ †;≈∋† [;:] †;∂∞ ;≈ ≠++⊇≈ ≤;†+, ∋+≈∞+, ∞†≤.

1≈ †+∞ ≈++†+ +† 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇ †+∞+ +∋=∞ [2]. 1≈ †+∞ ≈+∞†+ +† 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇ †+∞≈∞ ≠++⊇≈ ∋+∞ ⊥++≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ ≠;†+ [;:], ∞.⊥.



3+∞†+ 4++†+

≤;†+ ['≈2†;:] [≈2†2]

∋+≈∞+ ['∋ʌ≈;:] ['∋+≈2]

1≈ ≤+≈≈+≈∋≈†≈

1† +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ∋++=∞ †+∋† ≈+∋∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ ∋+∞ &⊥∞+†;+++†;≤&⊥∞+†; ++ &⊥∞+†;+-†∞††&⊥∞+†; ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ∋+∞ ≈+≈-+++†;≤ ++ &⊥∞+†;+-†∞≈≈&⊥∞+†;.

5++†;≤ ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ ∋+∞ †++≈∞ ≠+;≤+ ∋≤†∞∋††+ ⊥++≈+∞≈≤∞ [+], ≤+++∞≈⊥+≈⊇;≈⊥ †+ ++†++⊥+∋⊥+;≤ &⊥∞+†;+&⊥∞+†; ;≈ ≠++⊇≈ †;∂∞ +∋+ ∋≈⊇ †∋+∋. 7+;≈ [+] ≈+∞≈⊇ ;≈ ⊥+≈†-=+≤∋†;≤ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋+≈† +††∞≈ +∞∋+⊇ ;≈ 3≤+††∋≈⊇, 1+∞†∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈+∞†+≠∞≈† +† 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇.

1≈ ∋+≈† +∞⊥;+≈∋† ∋≤≤∞≈†≈ †+∞ ⊥†+††∋† ≈†+⊥ ;≈ ∋++∞ ≠;⊇∞†+ ∞≈∞⊇ †+∋≈ ;≈ 50.

1≈ ≈+∋∞ ∋+∞∋≈, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ †+∞ ≈++†+-∞∋≈† +† 9≈⊥†∋≈⊇, 9∋≈† 4≈⊥†;∋ ∋≈⊇ 4++†+∞+≈ 1+∞†∋≈⊇, †+∞ ⊥†+††∋† ≈†+⊥ ∋∋+ ∋†≈+ +∞ ⊥++≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ ≈;∋∞††∋≈∞+∞≈†+ ≠;†+ †+∞ =+;≤∞†∞≈≈ [⊥, †, ∂], ∋+≈† ≈†+;∂;≈⊥†+ +∞†≠∞∞.....

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