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Ulysses by James Joyce Analysis PUBLICATION : Ulysses is a novel by the Irish authorJames Joyce. It is an experimental novel in the modernist tradition. It was first serialised in parts in an American journal in 1920, but it was censored because of obscenity. Then the ban was lifted and it was published
Postcolonial Interpretation of Bram Stoker’ Dracula Assignment Coversheet Department of English Literature Student ID Number: 1. Year of Study: First Year (2016) Module Title: Prose Name of Module Tutor: J. C. Degree Programme: BA English Literature Title/Description of the work submitted:

 “Ulysses by the Merlion”: The Nation-Building

Singapore society is very well-known for its multiculturalism and the Merlion, its tourism symbol. These two things are related well in the context of nation-building, a nationalism movement in postcolonial society. Edwin Thumboo, a famous Singaporean poet, wrote a poem, “Ulysses by the Merlion”, bonding the nation with its people in order to evoke the nationalism movement in 1979.

Edwin Thumboo is a Singaporean, a mixed of Tamil – Chinese – Peranakan, born in 1933. Thumboo is an unofficial poet laureate of Singapore as he is regarded as a pioneer of English literature in Singapore; his writing style is nationalistic themes as showing out on his famous poem of Singapore icon, “Ulysses by the Merlion”.

Thumboo has lived a comfortable life since his childhood; he is well-educated, studied in English school and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts with honour majoring in English literature from University of Malaya. According to his biography, he was growing up among Singapore social development period: the Japanese occupation of Singapore, the British control, the federation of Malaya, and now the republic of Singapore.

With his mixed parentage, he was sometimes marginalised, and it caused a determination of his self-respect and multiculturalism in being a part of nation-building of Singapore.

Edwin Thumboo’s works related to the social sphere was first appeared in mid 1970s, the age of Singapore’s independence; the poem “Ulysses by the Merlion” was also written in this period. Before Singapore becomes a republic of Singapore, Singapore was a state under the federation of Malaya after obtained independence from British Empire in 1963. The separation of Singapore from federation of Malaya was socio-politic issues that Singapore itself had a higher potential in economic, and, mainly, the unequal treatment of ethnics in Malaysia – the Malays are culturally and literally the majority, and serves the first priority in federation of Malaya, while Singapore has multi-ethnics, though the majority is Chinese and serves multiculturalism.

The Singapore’s independence from Malaysia came in 1965; as a new country, Singapore must seek for the acceptance of its sovereignty from the international and plan a stable infrastructure as soon as possible, it became a member of the United Nations and the Commonwealth in that year. In 1970, with the fall of British Empire, British withdrew the arm force from Singapore; significantly, this is the real start of Singapore’s independence that the nation must live on its own and this is the start of a substantial nation-building project of Singapore.

The nation-building is to strengthen security of the state. For Singapore, the term ‘nation-building’ is proper than ‘state-building’ since the most controversial issue of Singapore since the time of federation of Malaya is the ethnics’ issue rather than the governance system which Singapore already has a strong base since 1955; Singapore has become a state before a nation due to the political convenience of British root.....[read full text]

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1≈ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈, 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ≠∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞†† +† ≤+†+≈;∋†;≈∋ †+∋† †+∞ ≈†∋†∞ ≠∋≈ ≤+∋††∞⊇ ≠;†+ ∋†† ⊥∞+†∞≤† ∞†∞∋∞≈†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ∋≈⊇ ⊥+=∞+≈∋≈≤∞ ≈+≈†∞∋, †+∞ ≈†∋+†∞ ∞≤+≈+∋;≤, ∋ +;⊥+ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;≤∋† ;≈⊇∞≈†++, ∋ ≠∞††-++⊥∋≈;≈∞⊇ †+≠≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ∋≈†+∞∋ ∋≈⊇ ††∋⊥; +∞† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ †∋≤∂∞⊇ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∞∋+†;+≈∋† ∋††∋≤+∋∞≈†≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ∋∋⊇∞ †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈ ≤∋†† ‘≈∋†;+≈’.

7+∞ ≈∋†;+≈-+∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ∋;∋≈ †+ ∞≈;†∞ †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ †+ +∞ +≈∞ ≠;†++∞† ∞†;∋;≈∋†∞ †+∞ ∋∞††;≤∞††∞+∋†;≈∋ +† ≈+≤;∞†+ ∋≈⊇ †+ †;≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†+ ≠;†+ ≠+;≤+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋††∋≤+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈=∞+ †+∞ ∞≈;⊥∞∞≈∞≈≈ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞. 1≈ †+;≈ †∞+∋ 9⊇≠;≈ 7+∞∋+++ †+;∞≈ †+ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+ †+∞ ≤∞††∞+∋† ;⊇∞≈†;†+ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ++ ++≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋+†+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈+≤;∞†+ †+⊥∞†+∞+ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ 4∞+†;+≈.

7+∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ +† ≈∋∋∞ ‘3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞’: ‘3;≈⊥ - 3;≈⊥+∋’ ∋∞∋≈≈ †;+≈ ;≈ 3∋†;, ‘⊥++∞ – 0∞+∋’ ∋∞∋≈≈ ≤;†+, ≈+ ‘3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞’ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∞ †;+≈ ≤;†+; +∞†++∞ †+∞ ;≈†∋≈⊇ +∞≤∋∋∞ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞, ;† ≠∋≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ ‘7∞∋∋≈∞∂’ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋ †;≈+;≈⊥ =;††∋⊥∞ – ;†≈ ≈+∋++† ;≈ †;≈+ †∋;†, ∋≈⊇ ‘4∞+’ +† 4∞+†;+≈ ∋∞∋≈≈ ≈∞∋.

4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ 4∋†∋+ 4≈≈∋†≈, †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ‘3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞’ ;≈ +∞†;∞=∞⊇ †+ +∞ ≈∋∋∞⊇ ++ 0+;≈≤∞ 3∋≈⊥ 4;†∋ 0†∋∋∋ +† 0∋†∞∋+∋≈⊥ ≠++ ††∞⊇ †+ 7∞∋∋≈∞∂ ∋≈ †+∞ ⊥+;≈≤∞ †;+≈† ∋++;=∞⊇ +∞ ≈∋≠ ∋ ≈†+∋≈⊥∞ ∋≈;∋∋† ≠;†+ ∋≈ ++∋≈⊥∞ ++⊇+, +†∋≤∂ +∞∋⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≠+;†∞ ≈∞≤∂ ++∞∋≈† – ∋ †;+≈ ;≈ +;≈ †++∞⊥+†≈ (;≈ †∋≤†≈, ;† ;≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋ 4∋†∋+∋≈ 7;⊥∞+). 8∞≈≤∞, †+∞ 4∞+†;+≈ ;≈ ∋ ≤++≈∞≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+ †++ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋+;≈∋†;+≈ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋≈⊇ 7∞∋∋≈∞∂ – ∋ †∋≈⊇ +;≈†+++ +† †+;≈ ≈∋†;+≈.

7+∞ ≈+≤;∞†+ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ;≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋∞††;≤∞††∞+∋†;≈∋ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞ ⊇;=∞+≈;†+ +† ∞†+≈;≤≈ ⊥++∞⊥≈, ∋ +∞≈∞†† +† ∋;⊥+∋†;+≈ +† 0+;≈∞≈∞, 1≈⊇;∋≈≈, ∋≈⊇ 4∋†∋+≈ +∞†++∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥∞+;+⊇ +† 3+;†;≈+ ≤+†+≈;≈∋†;+≈. 4††++∞⊥+, †+∞ ⊇+∋;≈∋≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈ ;≈ 0+;≈∞≈∞, 0+;≈∞≈∞ ≤∞††∞+∞ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† †∞∋⊇ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ≤∞††∞+∞ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞, +∋†+∞+, ∞=∞++ ∞†+≈;≤ ⊥++∞⊥≈ ;≈ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ (∋∋;≈†+: 0+;≈∞≈∞, 4∋†∋+≈, ∋≈⊇ 1≈⊇;∋≈≈) ∋+∞ ⊥++∞⊇ +† †+∞;+ +≠≈ ≤∞††∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋⊇ †+∞;+ ≠∋+ +† †;†∞ ≠;†+ ≈+ ;≈†∞≈†;+≈ †+ ⊇+∋;≈∋†∞ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ++ +≈∞ ≤∞††∞+∞; ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ;≈ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋+.....

4≈⊇ †+;≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤† ;≈ ∋∞††;≤∞††∞+∋†;≈∋ ∋∋∂∞ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ≈∞≤∞+∞⊇ ++†+ ∋≈ ∋ ≈†∋†∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈.

4††++∞⊥+ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ +∋≈ †+∞+ +††;≤;∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈: 9≈⊥†;≈+-0+;≈∞≈∞-7∋∋;†-4∋†∋+, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∞≈∞⊇ ∋+≈† ;≈ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈. 7+∞≈, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∋† ++∞≈⊇ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ +∞ +≈∞; ++≠∞=∞+, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ≈+† ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∋≈ +†+∞+≈, +∋†+∞+, ∋ ≈∞∞†+∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

9⊇≠;≈ 7+∞∋+++ ≤++≈∞ †+ ≠+;†∞ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≈+† +≈†+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +∞ ;≈ †∋∋;†;∋+ ≠;†+ ;†, +∞† +∞≤∋∞≈∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ;≈ ∋ ≈∞∞†+∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †+∋† ++∞∋∂;≈⊥ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +∋++;∞+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞∋≈, †+∞ ∋∞††;-∞†+≈;≤;†+, †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ ∞∋≤+ +†+∞+ ∋++∞ ∋≈⊇ ++∞≈⊇ †+∞ ≤+∞≈†++ †+⊥∞†+∞+. 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 3∞≈∞⊇;≤† 4≈⊇∞+≈+≈, ∋≈ +∞ ≈+†∞⊇ ‘0+;≈†-0∋⊥;†∋†;≈∋’ ;≈ ∋ =∞+;≤†∞ †++ †;≈∂;≈⊥ ⊇;≈⊥∋+∋†∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ++ ⊥++∞⊥≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+⊥∞†+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ‘⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ ≈+†;⊇∋+;†;∞≈’ +∋≈∞⊇ ∞⊥+≈ ∋ ≈+∋+∞⊇ ⊥+;≈†∞⊇ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞.

7+∞ ≠+;††∞≈ ≠++⊇ ‘∋∋⊇∞ ;† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞’ †++ +∋⊥;⊇†+ ⊥++≠;≈⊥ ≈∞∋+∞+≈ +† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ †+;≈∂ ∋++∞† †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈, ∋≈⊇ +∞†∋†∞ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ †+ +†+∞+≈, ;≈ ⊥++†+∞≈⊇†+ ≈∞≠ ≠∋+≈’. 7+∞≈∞ ≈∞≠ ≠∋+≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ +† +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≤+≈≈≤;+∞≈≈∞≈≈, ;∋∋⊥∞≈ +† ++∋+⊥∞≈∞;†+ ∋+∞ †+∞≈ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈∞⊇ ++ ‘≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ∋ ≤+∋∋∞≈;†+ +∞† +† ≈;⊥≈≈, ≈+† ≈+∞≈⊇≈.’ (4≈⊇∞+≈+≈: 1991) 1† ≈∞⊥⊥++†≈ †+∞ †∞≈≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ ≤∞≈†+∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠+;†;≈⊥ ≠++∂ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† †+∞ ≈∋†;+≈-+∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ∋≈ ;† ⊇+∋≠≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞≈ ≈∞∋+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ++∞∋∂≈ †+∞ +∋++;∞+ +† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ≠;†++∞† ⊇∞≈†+++;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ≤∞††∞+∞≈; ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ;† ∋†≈+ ≈∞⊥⊥++†≈ 7+∞∋+++’≈ ;⊇∞∋ †+ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞≈ ;≈ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋∞+⊥∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞≈ †+⊥∞†+∞+.

4≈ ∋ †;+≈† ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈ +† 4∋†∋+∋≈ ⊥+∞†, +∞ †∞∋+≈∞⊇ ⊥+∞†++ †+∋⊇;†;+≈ †++∋ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ †+∋⊇;†;+≈. 8;≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ ∞≈∞ ;≈ ∋ 3†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+; †+∞ ∋††∞≈;+≈ ∞≈∞ ;≈ ∋†≈+ +∞∋;≈⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ †+∋⊇;†;+≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †+⊥†∞≈≈ †+≠∞+≈ +† 1†;∞∋’≈.

The poem “Ulysses by the Merlion” reflects ideas of nation-building, history and myth and, and multicultural society, and tries to establish the Merlion as a cultural identity of Singapore. Actually, Merlion is a symbol of Singapore tourism board recently established in 1964; it was not any national ancient symbol of Singapore at all.

Merlion is a mythical character, a half-lion half-mermaid as described its appearance in the poem as “But this lion of the sea, Salt-maned, scaly, wondrous of tail,” (15).  How the Merlion became a national personification of Singapore: Edwin Thumboo is also a part of this construction.

The poem can be considered as a celebration of Merlion, and a part of nation-building project as it tries to personify the Merlion as the Singaporean identity and telling the background and landscape of Singapore since its proper time in the wo.....

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7+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ ;≈†+ †++∞∞ ⊥∋+†≈: +;≈†+++, ⊥+∞≈∞≈†, ∋≈⊇ †∞†∞+∞. 7+∞ ⊥+∞∋ ;≈ †+†⊇ ++ 0†+≈≈∞≈, †+++∞⊥+ +;≈ =;≈;+≈≈, +∞† †+∞ =+;≤∞ ;≈ 7+∞∋+++’≈ +;∋≈∞†† ∋≈ +∞ †∞††;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞∋∞+⊥∞≈≤∞ †+ †+∞ ⊥+∞⊇;≤†;+≈ †∞†∞+∞ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞. 3+;†∞ +∞∋⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ⊥+∞∋, †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+≈ ⊥∞† ∋ ⊥;≤†∞+∞ +† +++∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ++∋∞≈;≤∂ 0†+≈≈∞≈, ∋ ≈++†∞ ∂;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+∋=∞††∞+, ≈∞⊇⊇∞≈†+ ∋∋∋=∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≤+∋+;≈∋∋ †+∞ 4∞+†;+≈ ≠+∞≈ +∞ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ – ∋† †+∞ ∋+∞†+ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ 5;=∞+ †+ +∞ ⊥+é≤;≈∞⊇, †++∞⊥+ +∞ +∋≈ †+∋=∞††∞⊇ ∋ †+≈⊥ {+∞+≈∞+, †∋≤;≈⊥ ∞≠+†;≤ ≤+∞∋†∞+∞≈ ;≈ ∞∋≤+ ⊥†∋≤∞, †;⊥+†;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≠;≈≈;≈⊥ +=∞+ †+∞ ≈+†∋+†∞ ⊥+≠∞+†∞† ⊥+⊇≈ ∋≈

“1 +∋=∞ ≈∋;†∞⊇ ∋∋≈+ ≠∋†∞+≈

3∂;+†∞⊇ ;≈†∋≈⊇≈ +† †;+∞,

0+≈†∞≈⊇∞⊇ ≠;†+ 0;+≤∞

3++ †+=∞ †+ ≈⊥∞∞∋† +† ⊥;⊥≈;

0∋≈≈∞⊇ 3≤+††∋ ∋≈⊇ 0+∋+++⊇;≈,

7+ ≈∞=∞≈ +∞∋+≈ ≠;†+ 0∋†+⊥≈+

8∞∋=∞⊇ ;≈ +∋†††∞ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† †+∞ ⊥+⊇≈.

3∞≈∞∋†+ ;† ∋††

1 +∋=∞ ∂∞⊥† †∋;†+ ≠;†+ 1†+∋≤∋, †+∋=∞††∞⊇,

7+∋=∞††∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ †+∋=∞††∞⊇,

3∞††∞+;≈⊥ ∋∞≤+, ∞≈{++;≈⊥ ∋ †;†††∞,

4∞† ≈†+∋≈⊥∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈;≈⊥;≈⊥

4∞≠ ∋+†+≈; ∋∋⊇∞ ≈∞≠ ∋+†+≈ ∋+≈∞††.

3∞† †+;≈ †;+≈ +† †+∞ ≈∞∋

3∋††-∋∋≈∞⊇, ≈≤∋†+, ≠+≈⊇++∞≈ +† †∋;†,

7+∞≤+∞⊇ ≠;†+ ⊥+≠∞+ ;≈≈;≈†∞≈†

0≈ †+∞ ++;∞† ⊥++∋+≈†+++…

             0∞==†∞≈. ”

7+∞≈ 0†+≈≈∞≈ †∞††≈ †+∞ +∞∋⊇∞+≈ “4+†+;≈⊥, ≈+†+;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋+ ⊇∋+≈ †++∞≈+∋⊇+≠∞⊇ †+;≈ +∋††-+∞∋≈†, +∋††-†;≈+, †+;≈ ⊥+≠∞+†∞† ≤+∞∋†∞+∞ +† †+∞ ≈∞∋” ∋≈ ≈+†+;≈⊥ +∞ +∋≈ ∞=∞+ ∋∞† ;≈ +;≈ †;†∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞ †+ †+∞ 4∞+†;+≈, †+∞ ≤+∋+;≈∋∋ ≤+∞∋†∞+∞, †+∞ +∞∋∞†+, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∞⊥∞∋+≈.

5∞†∞++;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ +;≈†+++, ∞≈;≈⊥ 0†+≈≈∞≈ †+ ⊇;≈≤+=∞+ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ;∋⊥†;∞≈ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ ⊥;+≈∞∞+ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞. 0†+≈≈∞≈ +∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈+∋++† +† ≠∞≈†∞+≈, †+∞ ;∋⊥∞+;∋†;≈† – †+∞ †+∋=∞††∞+, ⊥;+≈∞∞+∞⊇ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ †+ +∞ †+∞ +∞†⊥+≈† +† 3+;†;≈+ 9∋⊥;+∞, 3†∋∋†++⊇ 5∋†††∞≈ ≠++ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋≈ ∋ †+∋⊇;≈⊥ ⊥+≈† 1819: ∋ +;+†+ +† ∋+⊇∞+≈ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞. 7+∞≈∞ †;≈∞≈ ≤+≈=∞+≈ †+∞ ;⊇∞∋ †+∋† ++≠ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ≠∋≈ +††;≤;∋††+ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇  ;≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ +;≈†+++, ∋≈⊇ †+ +∞∋;≈⊇, †++∞⊥+ ;† ;≈ ∋∞∋≈ †+ +∞∋;≈⊇ †+∞ †;∋∞ +† ≤+†+≈;≈∞⊇, †+∞ 3∞≈†∞+≈ ∋≤≤∞††∞+∋†;+≈ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ †+∞≈⊇∞⊇ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ †+ ≈∞+=∞ ≠∞≈†.....

4++∞+=∞+, 0†+≈≈∞≈ +;∋≈∞†† ∋∞∋≈≈ ∋ ∋+†+ ≠+;≤+ ≈+ +≈∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ≤+∋⊥∞†∞ ≠;†+, ≈+ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≤;=;†;≈∞⊇ +≈∞ ≠;†+ ≈+ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†++≈ ;≈ +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ ∋+†+, †+∞ 4∋+;†;∋∞. 0≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ +∋≈⊇, ∋≈ †+∞ +∞∋† =+;≤∞ ;≈ +† 7+∞∋+++, ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋†;≈†, ;† ;≈ ∋†≈+ ≈∋;⊇ ≈+ +≈∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞ †+ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋≈ ≠∞††, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ;≈ ∋†≈+ ∋ ≈∞≠ ∋+†+ ≠+;≤+ ≠+;††∞≈ ++ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞∋≈ ∋≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ;≈ “4∞† ≈†+∋≈⊥∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈;≈⊥;≈⊥ ≈∞≠ ∋+†+≈, ∋∋⊇∞ ≈∞≠ ∋+†+≈ ∋+≈∞††” (13), ≈;⊥≈∋††;≈⊥ †+∋† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ;≈ ∋ ≤+∋;≈⊥ ⊥+∞≈+∋∞≈+≈ +† ≠++†⊇ +;≈†+++.

1≈ †+∞ †;≈∞ 14 ∋≈⊇ 15, 0†+≈≈∞≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∋≈≤∞ +† †+∞ 4∞+†;+≈; 4∞+†;+≈ ;†≈∞†† ≠∋≈ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞⊇ †+ ⊥∞+≈+≈;†+ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ +;≈†+++ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞, +∞+∞ 7+∞∋+++ ∞≈∞≈ ≈+≈∞≤⊇+≤+∞: “3∋††-∋∋≈∞⊇” ;≈ ∋ †;+≈ – 3;≈⊥∋⊥∞+∋, ∋≈⊇ “≠+≈⊇++∞≈ +† †∋;†” ;≈ †;≈+ †∋;† – 7∞∋∋≈∞∂. 1≈ †+∞ †;≈∞ 21 ∋≈⊇ 22 ∋⊥∋;≈ ∞≈;≈⊥ ≈+≈∞≤⊇+≤+∞ †+ †;⊥∞+∞ †+∞ 4∞+†;+≈ +∞† †+;≈ †∞+≈ †+∞+ ⊇+ ≈+† +∞†∞+ †+ †+∞ †∋≈⊇ +;≈†+++ +∞† ≈;⊥≈;†+ †+∞ ⊥+≠∞+†∞†≈∞≈≈ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋≈ “+∋††-+∞∋≈†, +∋††-†;≈+, †+;≈ ⊥+≠∞+†∞† ≤+∞∋†∞+∞ +† †∋≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞∋”: +∞∋≈† ≈+∋++†;≈∞≈ †+∞ ≈†+∞≈⊥†+ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†;∋;⊇∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +≠≈∞+ +† †∋≈⊇, †;≈+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †;=;≈⊥ ≈∋†∞+∋††+ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +≠≈∞+ +† †+∞ ≈∞∋.

4+=;≈⊥ +≈ †+ †+∞ ≈∞≠† ⊥∋+†, 0†+≈≈∞≈ ≈†∋+†≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;+;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋≈⊇≈≤∋⊥∞ +† †;†∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤;†+ ∋≈ ∋∋≈+ ∞†+≈;≤ ⊥++∞⊥≈ ≈∞†††∞⊇ ;≈ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ∋≈⊇ ≈+† +≈†+ †+∞ ;≈⊇;⊥∞≈+∞≈ ⊥++∞⊥ †+∋† ∋∋⊇∞ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ⊥++≈⊥∞+ +∞† †+∞ ≈∞†††∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∞∋, †+⊥∞†+∞+, ⊥++≈⊥∞+∞⊇ 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞; ∋∞††;-∞†+≈;≤≈ †;=;≈⊥ †+⊥∞†+∞+ ;≈ ∋ †;∋;†∞⊇ ≈⊥∋≤∞, †+∞+ †;=∞⊇ ⊥∞∋≤∞†∞††+ ;≈ †+∞ ≤;†+ +† †∋†† +∞;†⊇;≈⊥:

0∞+⊥†∞≈ ≈∞†††∞⊇ +∞+∞,

3++∞⊥+† †+ †+;≈ ;≈†∋≈⊇

7+∞ ++∞≈†+ +† †+∞≈∞ ≈∞∋≈,

3∞;†† †+≠∞+≈ †+⊥†∞≈≈ ∋≈ 1†;∞∋’≈.

7+∞ †+≠∞+≈ +† 1†;∞∋ ⊇+ ≈+† ∋∞∋≈ +≈†+ †∋†† +∞;†⊇;≈⊥, +∞† ∋†≈+ †+∞ +;⊥+ ≤;=;†;≈∋†;+≈ ∋≈ ;≈ 6+∞∞∂ †;∋∞. 7+∞ †∋†† +∞;†⊇;≈⊥≈ ⊇+ ≠∞†† ;≈ ++†+ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥≈ +† +;⊥+ ≤;=;†;≈∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +† ;††∞≈†+∋†;≈⊥ ∋ †;∋;†∞⊇ ≈⊥∋≤∞ +† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞; †∋†† +∞;†⊇;≈⊥≈ ∋∞∋≈ †+∞ ≈†++≈⊥ ≤;=;†;≈∋†;+≈: +;⊥+ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ ;≈ ∋+≤+;†∞≤†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊥;≈∞∞+;≈⊥, +;⊥+ ≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ +† ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈, ∋≈⊇ ≠∞∋††+.

3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ;≈ +∞≤+⊥≈;≈∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ≤;†+ +† ≤+∋∋∞+≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ;≈⊇∞≈†++ ∋≈ ≈+†;≤∞∋+†+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ;≈ †;≈∞ 27 ∋≈⊇ 28 †+∋† “†+∞+ ∋∋∂∞, †+∞+ ≈∞+=∞+, †+∞+ +∞+, †+∞+ ≈∞††” ≠;†++∞† ∋∞≈†;+≈;≈⊥ +† ∋⊥+;≤∞††∞+∞. 7+∞≈ 0†+≈≈∞≈ †∞††≈ +∞∋⊇∞+≈ ∋++∞† 3;≈⊥∋⊥++∞ ≈+≤;∞†+ – ∋ +∋+∋+≈;+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞∋≤∞†∞† ∋∞††;≤∞††∞+∋†;≈∋ ≈+≤;∞†+:

8∞≈⊥;†∞ ∞≈∞⊥∞∋† ≠∋+≈,

7+⊥∞†+∞+ †+∞+ ∋∞†∋†∞,

9≠⊥†++∞ †+∞ ∞⊇⊥∞≈ +† +∋+∋+≈+,

3∞∋+≤+ †++ ∋ ≤∞≈†+∞;

8∋=∞ ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇ †+∞;+ ⊥+⊇≈,

9∞⊥† ≈+∋∞ ∋∞∋+++ +† †+∞;+ +∋≤∞

1≈ ⊥+∋+∞+, †∋∞⊥+†∞+, †+∞ ≠∋+

7+∞;+ ≠+∋∞≈ ⊇+∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞∞†.

7+∞+ ++†⊇ †+∞ ++;⊥+†, †+∞ +∞∋∞†;†∞†,

.....

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