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INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING WORK AND TIME STUDY TO REDUCE HIGH WORK IN PROGRESS (WIP) AT KEDAI NO 4 MAK LONG SALTED FISH , bt. Ab , b. , b. and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia *Email: ABSTRACT This project is the study of how industrial engineering tools is being applied to Kedai no 4 Mak Long Salted Fish in order to improve the productivity of the salted fish production. Four production workstations are being studied by using the time study and work study to determine the time cycle…

10th Form

Unit Theme: We and the Environment

Topic: Trash: It lasts a Long Time!

Level: pre-intermediate; intermediate

Objectives: - to develop students’ listening and speaking skills;

-to activate the use of phrases expressing personal opinions,

agreement and disagreement;

-to introduce vocabulary on a certain topic ;

- to practise working in pairs and small groups;

- to widen students’ outlook;

-to teach careful attitude to environment

Materials: PowerPoint presentation; handouts; cards with new vocabulary; the song by Michael Jackson “Earthsong”


  1. Warm-up/ Introduction

The song by Michael Jackson “Earthsong” (I part):

What about sunrise

What about rain

What about all the things

That you said we were to gain…

What about killing fields

Is there a time

What about all the things

That you said was yours and mine…

Did you ever stop to notice

All the blood we’ve shed before

Did you ever stop to notice

The crying Earth, the weeping shores?

What is this song about? (students’ answers)

What shall we talk about today? Michael Jackson in his song asks us: “Did you ever stop to notice the crying Earth? What does he mean? . Our Earth is fragile and it needs our protection. What environmental problems did we speak about at the previous lessons? (students’ answers – pollution of air, water, soil, greenhouse effect, destruction of wildlife, shortage of natural resources and so on).

The Earth is a big place with big problems. Today we shall stop at one more very important problem. It is not pleasant, you can’t solve it alone, but there are things you can do to help. So what is it?

PowerPoint presentation slide “A landfill/a dump”

Every town or city has a landfill in order to handle waste. Landfills cover large areas and thousands of tons of refuse are buried there every day. When a landfill is full a city will need to look for another place for its garbage. How can we help make landfill space last longer? Thus, the theme of our lesson today is

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  1. Introduction of new vocabulary

Before speaking about this problem I’d like to introduce some new words that will help us to speak on this problem. You will get two cards – one card with a word and another with definition, but preparing for the lesson I mixed them up. Your task is to find the definition for your word and to find a word the definition of which you have.

Please, stand up and try to do it! (mingling activity)

Cards with the vocabulary on the topic:

  1. A dump// a landfill – an area of land where rubbish or waste material are put.

  2. Trash// garbage// rubbish// refuse// waste – things that you do not want any more; material or food that is not needed and is thrown away

  3. To decompose – to be slowly destroyed by natural chemical processes.

  4. Decomposition – the process of destruction.

  5. To handle – to deal with or to control something.

  6. To fill up – to make something completely full.

  7. To disappear – to become impossible to see or to find.

  8. To disintegrate – to break into many small pieces.

After the task is done, the vocabulary is checked with the help of PowerPoint presentation, students repeat the words after the teacher giving examples of their use.

So landfills and abundancy/plenty of trash has become a real problem.

Here I have brought some items of trash. Let’s see what I have (students identify things: a banana, paper,a cotton rag,a wool sock,a cigarette butt, a leather boot, a tin can, a plastic bag, a plastic cup, a glass bottle). Do you often throw them away?

Decomposition of these refuse takes time. What will happen to these items if they end up in a landfill? Will all of them disappear or will they continue to take up space in the landfill? Which item if any may never decompose?

Step 1: the students are given worksheets “ Items of trash – decomposition order (from the shortest to the longest 1-10)” – look at the appendix - with a task to think it over individually and complete the chart .

Step 2: the students are arranged into pairs and are given cards with items of trash and decomposition times – see the appendix. The task is to match the items with the times discussing their ideas or guesses, using new vocabulary and phrases of agreeing/disagreeing and expressing personal opinions (they are displayed on the posters).

Step 3: the students are grouped into fours and are given worksheets “Items of trash – Decomposition Times” – see the appendix. Their task is to discuss their previous results, to come to agreement, to make a joint decision and complete the worksheet with decomposition times.

The groups present their results and then they are checked with the results of scientists.

  1. Summarizing. Feedback. Home assignment.

Do the data we have learned today say anything to you?

Is it important to limit the production of waste by community?

What do you know about the solid waste management practices of reducing, reusing and recycling? It will be the theme of our next lesson.

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