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Final thesis
Linguistics

University, School

Peking University,Beijing

Grade, Teacher, Year

2013,Prof. Dr. Gao Yanmei

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Final Paper

English Words in cultural Context

Formation and Influence of English Loanwords in Modern German

School of Foreign Languages


Contents

1.   The history of the loanwords in German. 3

2.   The formation of the English loanwords in German. 4

3.   The application of the English loanwords in German. 5

4.   The influence of English loanwords 7

5.   The influence on German language. 7

6.   The influence on German society 7

7.   Summary 8

8.   References: 8

Abstract: With the development of economy and the exchange of culture, German has borrowed a large amount of English words, which has great impacts on German language itself and its society. These English words were either borrowed completely or changed according to the lexical rules of German.

This paper analyzes the lexical formation of English words in German and makes a conclusion on its impacts on various aspects.

Key words: loanwords, formation and influence, morphology

1.   The history of the loanwords in German

German is the official languages of Germany and Austria. Also it’s one of the four official languages of Switzerland. It belongs to the West Germanic language under the Indo-European language family under Germanic. Since the location of Germany is very unique as a central country in Europe, its boundaries changed frequently due to several large tribal migrations.

Also due to the long-term political disintegration of the state, the process of German as the unified language was quite tortuous.

During 12-16th centurywith the help of Reformation, the German dialects were popularized and developed. The appearance of the German translation of Bible laid the foundation of the development of the standard German. The standard pronunciation of Modern German was formed in the 19th century.

In 1880 Konrad Duden published his German orthographic dictionary and in 1901 after the correction, it became the only rul.....[read full text]

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c.     Loanwords from other languages of the world, mainly oriental languages

2.   The formation of the English loanwords in German

There are allegedly about 3500 same words in French and English, while there are 8000 in German and English. English vocabulary has become commonplace in German political, economic, cultural, scientific fields and daily life. Generally speaking, the loanwords can be divided into four kinds: full loans, which means the spelling and meaning are the same; innovation loans, which are recreated on the basis of loan; transfer loans, which change the form on the basis of loan; section loans, which are formed from two languages.

2.1.              Full loans, similar to Aliens in English

The main method is full loans. These kind of vocabulary came into German straightly, both the spelling and the meaning hasn’t changed. For example: Computer, Internet, E-mail, Song, Manager, Hobby, Shopping and so on.

2.2.              Innovation loans, similar to Translation loans in English

The loanwords borrowed in this way are not copied directly from English, but according to the meaning of the word they are innovated in accordance with the formation principles of German compound words. The morpheme of these words comes from English and derives new words due to the German word formation.

For example, the verb googeln (which means search in the Internet) from google, einscannen (same meaning of scan)from scan; the noun Chatter (the people who likes chatting)from chat; Userin (the female user)from user and so on. These words are combined with a prefix or suffix on the basis of foreign words.

2.3.               Transfer loans

Transfer loans refer to the English words, which only remain their basic form after entering the German vocabulary, some lexical and syntactic features disappeared. For example, Board-karte from Boading-card. And the German infinitive verb are all ended with -en/-n, but in English there’s no such kind of rule, therefore when some English verbs enter into German, -en/-n are added to the end, in according to meet the needs of verb conjugation, for instance, checken(check), chatten(chat), stoppen(stop), joggen(jog), boomen(boom), buchen(boo.....

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3.2.              Information and media fields

For example, Newsletter(), Media Corner(媒体角), High Definition Television(高清电视), Audiodateien(频文件),Hifi-Qualität(高保真品), TV-Shows(电视秀), Filmstoffe(电影素材) etc.

3.3.              Art, Entertainment and Sport fields

For example, Designobjekte(设计作品), Die Visual Gallery(视觉画廊), Beach-Partys(滩聚会), Filmhaus(电影之乡), Science-Fiction-Streifen(科幻片), die Hollywoodgren(好莱坞大腕), Champions League(军联赛), Fan-Shop(球迷商店) etc.

3.4.              Science and Technology fields and cultural fields

For example, Chip-Riese(芯片巨), Hightech-Wunder(高科技奇迹), das Immunsysterm(免疫系), Innovationskraft(创新力), Literaturtempel(文学殿堂), Multikultur(多元文化), Graduiertenschulen(研究生院) etc.

3.5.              Politics and economics fields

For example, Enduring Freedom(持久和平), Imagebildung(形象大使), Live-Blick(实时观察), Politik-News(政治新), Mobile Summit(动峰会), eine Boombranche(蓬勃发展的行业), Boom(经济的兴旺发展), World Energy Dialogue(世界能源对话), Solarindustrie(太阳能工), Jobmotor(业发动机) etc.


English loanwords exist in many areas. They especially play an important role in the expression of new things, to a certain extent. It shows the impact of the English loanwords in the society of German language.


4.   The influence of English loanwords

The permeation of English loanwords in every life and work aspect of German people is certainly having a huge impact on the German language vocabulary and language norms. Some scholars believe that with the development of society, the language is also developing and tends to simplify, the exchange of different languages will be more and more.

The trend of melange is irresistible, so the loanwords have played a certain role in the development of German language. However, some scholars have advocated the German purification movement from the beginning of the 19th century. They want to replace or remove some unnecessary English loanwords .....

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In addition, part of English loanwords force in science and technology field, to become most efficient and fastest method of communication, which brings convenience to people, and promote the technological and economic exchanges.



7.   Summary

In summary, English loanwords expand the German vocabulary and open up a new realm of German language. Of course, English loanwords also bring some confusion in German, cause German learners and user’s great difficulties. However, according to the law of the development of language, this is not only conducive to the enrichment and development of national languages, but also promotes the cultural exchange and cooperation among countries in the world. I believe that, conforming to the natural tendency of language development, no-excessive interference is the sensible attitude that linguistic strategy should  take towards foreign language.

8.   References:

德国 [M]. 莎西埃德出版社和德国外交部出版,2007,19 -49.
陈晓春.语史概述[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2005,1-650-5161 .....

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