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Peking University,Beijing

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2013,Prof. Dr. Gao Yanmei

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Final Paper

English Words in cultural Context

Formation and Influence of English Loanwords in Modern German

School of Foreign Languages


Contents

1.   The history of the loanwords in German. 3

2.   The formation of the English loanwords in German. 4

3.   The application of the English loanwords in German. 5

4.   The influence of English loanwords 7

5.   The influence on German language. 7

6.   The influence on German society 7

7.   Summary 8

8.   References: 8

Abstract: With the development of economy and the exchange of culture, German has borrowed a large amount of English words, which has great impacts on German language itself and its society. These English words were either borrowed completely or changed according to the lexical rules of German. This paper analyzes the lexical formation of English words in German and makes a conclusion on its impacts on various aspects.

Key words: loanwords, formation and influence, morphology

1.   The history of the loanwords in German

German is the official languages of Germany and Austria. Also it’s one of the four official languages of Switzerland. It belongs to the West Germanic language under the Indo-European language family under Germanic. Since the location of Germany is very unique as a central country in Europe, its boundaries changed frequently due to several large tribal migrations.

Also due to the long-term political disintegration of the state, the process of German as the unified language was quite tortuous.

During 12-16th centurywith the help of Reformation, the German dialects were popularized and developed. The appearance of the German translation of Bible laid the foundation of the development of the standard German. The standard pronunciation of Modern German was formed in the 19th century. In 1880 Konrad Duden published his German orthographic dictionary and in 1901 after the correction, it became the only rule of the standard German.

Before the 19th century, German was mainly affected by Latin, Greek, Italian and French, and borrowed lots of vocabulary from military, law, food culture, art and the other fields. In the early 19th century, the British industrial revolution brought about the development of s.....[read full text]

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8∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ †;+≈† +∋†† +† †+∞ 20†+ ≤∞≈†∞++, †+∞ 0≈;†∞⊇ 3†∋†∞≈ ≠∋≈ ;≈ †+∞ =∋≈ +† ∞≤+≈+∋;≤≈, ≈≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †;∞†⊇≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇, ≠+;≤+ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋ †∋+⊥∞ ;≈††∞≠ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ;≈†+ 6∞+∋∋≈ =+≤∋+∞†∋++. 7+ ≈∞∋ ∞⊥, †+∞ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈ ≤+∋∞ †++∋ †++∞∞ ∋∋;≈ ⊥∋+†≈:

∋.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∋≈≠++⊇≈ †++∋ 5+∋∋≈≤∞, 7∋†;≈ ∋≈⊇ 3†∋=;≤ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈

7+∋≈≠++⊇≈ †++∋ 5+∋∋≈≤∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ 6+∞≈≤+, 1†∋†;∋≈, 3⊥∋≈;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 0++†∞⊥∞∞≈∞. 4∋+≈⊥ †+∞≈∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈, 6∞+∋∋≈ ≠∋+ ∋††∞≤†∞⊇ ++ 6+∞≈≤+ ∋+≈††+, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋+≈++⊥†;+≈ +† 6+∞≈≤+ ;≈ ∋∋;≈†+ ∋++∞† †+∞ =+≤∋+∞†∋++ +† ∂≈;⊥+† ≤∞††∞+∞. 3;†+ †+∞ †+∋⊇∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+ ∋≈⊇ 1†∋†+, ≈+∋∞ 1†∋†;∋≈ ≠++⊇≈ ≠∞+∞ ∋†≈+ +++†∞⊇ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈.

8∞∞ †+ †+∞ ⊥++⊥∋⊥∋†;+≈ +† +∞†;⊥;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +† ∋+≈∂ ≤∞††∞+∞, ;≈ †+∞ ∞∋+†+ 5†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ 7∋†;≈ ≤∋∋∞ ;≈†+ 6∞+∋∋≈ †;∞†⊇, ∋+≈† +† †+∞∋ ∋+∞ †+∞ =+≤∋+∞†∋++ ∋++∞† ⊥+†;†;≤≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†;⊥;+≈. 3∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+≠∞+†∞† ⊥+†;†;≤∋†, ∋;†;†∋++ ≈†+∞≈⊥†+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∋≈≈;+≈;≈† ⊥+†;≤+ +† †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈;≤ ⊥∞+⊥†∞≈, 3†∋=;≤ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ †++∋ ≈∞;⊥++++;≈⊥ ≤+∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋†≈+ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞⊇ 6∞+∋∋≈ ≈+∋∞++≠, +∞† ∋ †∞≠ ≠++⊇≈.

+.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∋≈≠++⊇≈ †++∋ 6∞+∋∋≈;≤ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †∋∋;†+

6∞+∋∋≈;≤ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ †∋∋;†+ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+, 8∞†≤+, 8∋≈;≈+, 3≠∞⊇;≈+, ∞†≤. 4∋+≈⊥ †+∞∋, 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋††∞≤†≈ 6∞+∋∋≈ ∋+≈†. 6∞+∋∋≈ ≈∞≠≈⊥∋⊥∞+ +∞≤∋∋∞ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ †+∋≈≈∋;††∞+ +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ =+≤∋+∞†∋++. 7+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ;≈ ∋++∞† †+ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈ †+∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ †++ †+∞ ⊇∞=∞.....

≤.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∋≈≠++⊇≈ †++∋ +†+∞+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈ +† †+∞ ≠++†⊇, ∋∋;≈†+ ++;∞≈†∋† †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈

2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 7+∞ †++∋∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈

7+∞+∞ ∋+∞ ∋††∞⊥∞⊇†+ ∋++∞† 3500 ≈∋∋∞ ≠++⊇≈ ;≈ 6+∞≈≤+ ∋≈⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+, ≠+;†∞ †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ 8000 ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+. 9≈⊥†;≈+ =+≤∋+∞†∋++ +∋≈ +∞≤+∋∞ ≤+∋∋+≈⊥†∋≤∞ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈ ⊥+†;†;≤∋†, ∞≤+≈+∋;≤, ≤∞††∞+∋†, ≈≤;∞≈†;†;≤ †;∞†⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞. 6∞≈∞+∋††+ ≈⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥, †+∞ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ ;≈†+ †+∞+ ∂;≈⊇≈: †∞†† †+∋≈≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∞ ≈⊥∞††;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ ∋+∞ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞; ;≈≈+=∋†;+≈ †+∋≈≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ +∞≤+∞∋†∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ +∋≈;≈ +† †+∋≈; †+∋≈≈†∞+ †+∋≈≈, ≠+;≤+ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †+∞ †++∋ +≈ †+∞ +∋≈;≈ +† †+∋≈; ≈∞≤†;+≈ †+∋≈≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ †++∋∞⊇ †++∋ †≠+ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞≈.

2.1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 6∞†† †+∋≈≈, ≈;∋;†∋+ †+ 4†;∞≈≈ ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+

7+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∋∞†++⊇ ;≈ †∞†† †+∋≈≈. 7+∞≈∞ ∂;≈⊇ +† =+≤∋+∞†∋++ ≤∋∋∞ ;≈†+ 6∞+∋∋≈ ≈†+∋;⊥+††+, ++†+ †+∞ ≈⊥∞††;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ +∋≈≈’† ≤+∋≈⊥∞⊇. 6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞: 0+∋⊥∞†∞+, 1≈†∞+≈∞†, 9-∋∋;†, 3+≈⊥, 4∋≈∋⊥∞+, 8++++, 3++⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≈+ +≈.

2.2.              Innovation loans, similar to Translation loans in English

The loanwords borrowed in this way are not copied directly from English, but according to the meaning of the word they are innovated in accordance with the formation principles of German compound words. The morpheme of these words comes from English and derives new words due to the German word formation.

For example, the verb googeln (which means search in the Internet) from google, einscannen (same meaning of scan)from scan; the noun Chatter (the people who likes chatting)from chat; Userin (the female user)from user and so on.

These words are combined with a prefix or suffix on th.....

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2.3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;  7+∋≈≈†∞+ †+∋≈≈

7+∋≈≈†∞+ †+∋≈≈ +∞†∞+ †+ †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ≠++⊇≈, ≠+;≤+ +≈†+ +∞∋∋;≈ †+∞;+ +∋≈;≤ †++∋ ∋††∞+ ∞≈†∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ =+≤∋+∞†∋++, ≈+∋∞ †∞≠;≤∋† ∋≈⊇ ≈+≈†∋≤†;≤ †∞∋†∞+∞≈ ⊇;≈∋⊥⊥∞∋+∞⊇. 6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, 3+∋+⊇-∂∋+†∞ †++∋ 3+∋⊇;≈⊥-≤∋+⊇.

4≈⊇ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ ;≈†;≈;†;=∞ =∞++ ∋+∞ ∋†† ∞≈⊇∞⊇ ≠;†+ -∞≈/-≈, +∞† ;≈ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∞+∞’≈ ≈+ ≈∞≤+ ∂;≈⊇ +† +∞†∞, †+∞+∞†++∞ ≠+∞≈ ≈+∋∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ =∞++≈ ∞≈†∞+ ;≈†+ 6∞+∋∋≈, -∞≈/-≈ ∋+∞ ∋⊇⊇∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ∞≈⊇, ;≈ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ∋∞∞† †+∞ ≈∞∞⊇≈ +† =∞++ ≤+≈{∞⊥∋†;+≈, †++ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞, ≤+∞≤∂∞≈(≤+∞≤∂), ≤+∋††∞≈(≤+∋†), ≈†+⊥⊥∞≈(≈†+⊥), {+⊥⊥∞≈({+⊥), +++∋∞≈(+++∋), +∞≤+∞≈(+++∂)∋≈⊇ ∞†≤.

2.4.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;  3∞≤†;+≈ †+∋≈≈

1† ∋∞∋≈≈ †+∞ ∋++⊥+∞∋∞ +† ∋ ≠++⊇ ;≈ ⊥∋+† †++∋ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋+† †++∋ 6∞+∋∋≈. 6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞: 8∋∋+≈⊥+∋+(8∋∋+-6, ≈⊥+∋+-9≈); 7+⊥=∞+∂ä∞†∞+ (†+⊥-9≈, 2∞+∂ä∞†∞+-6); 0∋+†≈∞+≈≤+∋†† (⊥∋+†≈∞+-9≈, ≈≤+∋††-6); 3∞;†∞++;†⊇∞≈⊥≈≠++∂≈++⊥(3∞;†∞++;†⊇∞≈⊥-6, ≠++∂≈++⊥-9≈) ∞†≤.

8+≠∞=∞+, ≈+† ∋†† †+∞ †++∞;⊥≈ ≠++⊇≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇∞+;=∞⊇ ≈∞≠ ≠++⊇, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+ ≈†+;≤† +∞†∞ †+ †+††+≠, {∞≈† ;≈ ∋≤≤++⊇∋≈≤∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ ≤∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∋∋+≈ ∞≈∋⊥∞, ≠+;≤+ ∋∋∂∞≈ †++∞+†∞ †+ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ ∞≈∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋+≈∞+≈. 6++∋ †+∞≈∞ †+∞+ ≠∋+≈ +† †+∋≈;≈⊥ ≠++⊇≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ †+∞≈⊇ †+∋† 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ∋+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞†+ ≤+⊥;∞⊇ ;≈†+ 6∞+∋∋≈ =+≤∋+∞†∋++ ++ ⊥∋+† +† ;† †+++∞⊥+ ;≈≈+=∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∋≈≈†∞+.

7+ †+∞ †++∋∞+, ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞ 6∞+∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈ +† ≠++⊇ †++∋∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞†∞≈ +† ⊥+∋∋∋∋+ ∋+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†, †+∞+ ∋+∞ ++∞≈⊇ †+ +∋=∞ ≈+∋∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +≈ †+∞ 6∞+∋.....


3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;  7+∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈

3⊥∞∋∂;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ≠∞ ∋∞≈† †;+≈† ∂≈+≠ †+∞ ≤∞≈†+∋†;=∞⊇ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ +† †+∞≈∞ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈, ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ †+∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +† †+;≈ +∋≈⊥∞. 7+∞ 9≈⊥†;≈+ †+∋≈≠++⊇≈ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈ ;≈=+†=∞ ⊥+†;†;≤∋†, ∞≤+≈+∋;≤, ≤∞††∞+∋†, †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;≤∋† ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞, +∞† †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∋∋;≈†+ †+≤∞≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ †;∞†⊇≈ +∞†+≠.



3.1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 8∋;†+ †;†∞

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, 6ü≈†-3†∞+≈∞-5∞≈†∋∞+∋≈†(†;=∞-≈†∋+≈-+∞≈†∋∞+∋≈†=星级餐厅),  7+⊥-3†∋≈⊇++†(顶部=置), 8+†-8++-4∞†++⊇∞(热法), 3++∋†+≠≈ 8∋∋+∞+⊥(欣欣向荣的汉堡), 1≈†∞+≤;†+-2∞++;≈⊥⊇∞≈⊥∞≈(际=通),210-7+∞≈⊥∞≈(贵宾厅), 0++†∞≈ 8∋††∞≈⊥(冷淡的态度), ∞∋+†;+≈≈+∞;≤+( 满激情的) ∞†≤.

3.2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 1≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∞⊇;∋ †;∞†⊇≈

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, 4∞≠≈†∞††∞+(), 4∞⊇;∋ 0++≈∞+(媒=角), 8;⊥+ 8∞†;≈;†;+≈ 7∞†∞=;≈;+≈(高清电视), 4∞⊇;+⊇∋†∞;∞≈(频文=),8;†;-0∞∋†;†ä(高=真品), 72-3++≠≈(电视秀), 6;†∋≈†+††∞(电影素材) ∞†≤.

3.3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4+†, 9≈†∞+†∋;≈∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ 3⊥++† †;∞†⊇≈

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, 8∞≈;⊥≈++{∞∂†∞(设计=品), 8;∞ 2;≈∞∋† 6∋††∞++(视觉画廊), 3∞∋≤+-0∋+†+≈(滩聚=), 6;†∋+∋∞≈(电影==), 3≤;∞≈≤∞-6;≤†;+≈-3†+∞;†∞≈(科幻片), ⊇;∞ 8+††+≠++⊇⊥+∞≈(好莱坞大腕), 0+∋∋⊥;+≈≈ 7∞∋⊥∞∞(军联赛), 6∋≈-3++⊥(球迷商店) ∞†≤.

3.4.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 3≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ 7∞≤+≈+†+⊥+ †;∞†⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤∞††∞+∋† †;∞†⊇≈

6++ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞, 0+;⊥-5;∞≈∞(芯片巨), 8;⊥+†∞≤+-3∞≈⊇∞+(高科技奇迹), ⊇∋≈ 1∋∋∞≈≈+≈†∞+∋(免疫系), 1≈≈+=∋†;+≈≈∂+∋††(创新力), 7;†∞+∋†∞+†∞∋⊥∞(文学殿堂), 4∞††;∂∞††∞+(多元文化), 6+∋⊇∞;∞+†∞≈≈≤+∞†∞≈(研究生院) ∞†≤.

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