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WHY DID HITLER COME TO POWER IN 1933?

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Hitlers rise to power 1933 “Looking back at the three years preceding 30 January 1933, Hitler’s rise to power was far from inevitable.” If you look at the time before Hitler became chancellor of the Germany, there are several, many reasons which are to blame. Some of these are factor which come from the ‘outside’, but some others can also be considered as mistakes made by different people or the government. Many of these factors were avoidable, so in conclusion also Hitler’s and the Nazi’s rise to power was not inevitable, but instead preventable.…
How did Hitler gain and consolidate power in Nazi Germany On September 1st 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland, this was the first invasion in world war two and was the catalysis for the Allied nations to begin their defence of Europe leading to a six-year war that ended in their favour. However, we can look at Germany as a country that was under such heavy Nazi influence they had no choice but to go along with Adolf Hitler’s plans of war, prejudice and horror due to Hitler’s profound ability in propaganda and public talks they were eased into a…

WHY DID HITLER COME TO POWER IN 1933?

Hitler was appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. He was the leader of the largest party in the Reichstag and also had the support of much of the conservative right who had dominated Germany politically since 1929. The explanation as to why this happened can be advanced in three stages. First, Nazism was fortunate in that the Weimar Republic (formed in 1919 and ended in 1933) had become a flawed structure which contained a destabilised and increasingly volatile population.

Second, Nazism emerged as a dynamic movement which was capable of gaining support from a substantial part of the disillusioned electorate. And third, the conservative right provided a channel which enabled the new dynamic to penetrate and force open the flawed structure. The rise of Hitler depended directly on the vulnerability of the Weimar Republic. Although in many respects an advanced democracy, the Republic was politically flawed and susceptible to economic crisis.There were practical difficulties arising out of the constitution.

Proportional representation, without a threshold, produced a multiplicity of parties, encouraged splinter groups and made coalition governments inevitable, with all the potential for internal disagreement which these so often carry. This was exacerbated at certain points in the history of the Republic by economic crises, especially those of 1921–3 and 1929–31. The collapse of democracy in 1929 was due to the interaction of the two processes.

The Great Coalition—which comprised the Social Democratic Party (SPD), the Centre, the People’s Party (DVP) and the Democratic Party (DDP)— was already in disarray before 1929 but was brought down by the disagreement between the SPD and the Centre over proposals to cut unemployment benefit. The results were the decline of party politics and the growth of authoritarian government with less and less recourse to the Reichstag.

As will be seen, this was an ideal situation for the Nazi Party. The crisis of the democratic Republic saw the alienation of substantial numbers of the German people. The radical left became bitter opponents because of the Government’s ruthless suppression of the 1919 revolt of the Spartacus League, the incipient Communist Party. The result was that the Communists could at no stage be relied upon to support the SPD against any offensive from the conservative right.

The latter became increasingly likely with the triumph of the ‘stab in the back’ myth. This claim that republican politicians cravenly surrendered to the Allies in November 1918—against the wish of the German army—was started by Hindenburg in 1919 and combined with criticism of the Treaty of Versailles in a devastating attack on the whole rati.....[read full text]

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3∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ †≠+ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ∞≠†+∞∋∞≈ †∋+ †+∞ ≈∞⊥⊥++†∞+≈ +† †+∞ ∋+⊇∞+∋†∞ †;+∞+∋† ⊥∋+†;∞≈ (†+∞ 820 ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 880) ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 308. 3∞† ≈∞+≈†∋≈†;∋† ≈∞∋+∞+≈ +† †+∞≈∞ ∞=∞≈†∞∋††+ ∋+∋≈⊇+≈∞⊇ †+∞;+ ≈++∋∋† ⊥∋+†+ ∋††∞⊥;∋≈≤∞≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† †+∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† ∞≤+≈+∋;≤ ≤+;≈;≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥∋+∞≈† ;≈∋+;†;†+ +† †+∞ ≤+∋†;†;+≈≈ †+ ⊇∞∋† ≠;†+ ;†. 7+∞ 4∋=; 0∋+†+ †∞††+ ∞≠⊥†+;†∞⊇ †+∞≈∞ ††∋≠≈ ∋≈⊇ †+;≈ ⊇;≈;††∞≈;+≈∋∞≈†.

7+∞ ∞∋+†+ ⊇+≈∋∋;≤ +† 4∋=;≈∋, ;† ;≈ †+∞∞, +∋⊇ =∞++ †;∋;†∞⊇ ∋⊥⊥∞∋†. 7+;≈ ≠∋≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† ≠∋≈ ∋ ≈∋∋†† †+;≈⊥∞ ∋+=∞∋∞≈† ≈∞∞∂;≈⊥ ⊥+≠∞+ †+++∞⊥+ +∞=+†∞†;+≈. 1≈ 1923 8;††∞+ ∋††∞∋⊥†∞⊇ †+ ≈∞;=∞ ⊥+≠∞+ ;≈ 3∋=∋+;∋ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ 4∞≈;≤+ 0∞†≈≤+ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥+∞†∞⊇∞ †+ ∋∋+≤+;≈⊥ +≈ 3∞+†;≈: †+;≈ ∞≈⊇∞⊇ ;≈ ≤+∋⊥†∞†∞ †∋;†∞+∞. 3∞† †+∞ ≈∞≠ ⊇+≈∋∋;≤, ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∞⊇ ++ 8;††∞+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 1924 ∋≈⊇ 1926, ≠∋≈ †∋+ ∋++∞ ∞††∞≤†;=∞ ;≈ †∋∂;≈⊥ ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞ +† †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋≈ +† †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤.

7+∞ ;≈†∞≈†;+≈ ≠∋≈ †+ ≈∞∞∂ ⊥+≠∞+ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ≤+≈≈†;†∞†;+≈∋† ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ≠+;†∞, ;≈ †+∞ †+≈⊥∞+ †∞+∋, +∞≈++†;≈⊥ †+ +∞=+†∞†;+≈∋++ ≤+∋≈⊥∞: +∞=+†∞†;+≈ ≠+∞†⊇ †+††+≠ ⊥+≠∞+ +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ ∋≤+;∞=∞ ;†. 7+;≈ ≠∋≈ ∋++∞ †;∂∞†+ †+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ ∋≈ ∞†∞≤†++∋†∞ ≠++ ≠∞+∞ +≈ †+∞ ⊥+;≈† +† ∋+∋≈⊇+≈;≈⊥ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† †++∋††;∞≈ ≠;†++∞† ≠∋≈†;≈⊥ †+ ⊥+ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ∞≠⊥∞+;∞≈≤∞ +† ∋ +∞=+†∞†;+≈. 8;††∞+ ≠∋≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† ⊇;+∞≤††+ †+ ∞∋≤+ ≤†∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≤†++ ≠;†+;≈ †+;≈ ∞†∞≤†++∋†∞ ++ ∋∋∂;≈⊥ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ⊥†∞⊇⊥∞≈ ≤∋†≤∞†∋†∞⊇ †+ ;† ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋††+.

4† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞, +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ≈∞=∞+∋† ∋++∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ⊥+†;≤;∞≈ ∋≈ ∋ ∋∞∋≈≈ +† ≤∞††;≈⊥ †+++∞⊥+ ≤†∋≈≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈: †+∞≈∞ ≠∞+∞ +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ ∋ ≈∋†;+≈∋†;≈† +††∞≈≈;=∞ ∋⊥∋;≈≈† †+∞ ‘≈†∋+ ;≈ †+∞ +∋≤∂’ ∋≈⊇ 2∞+≈∋;††∞≈, ∋ =+̈†∂;≈≤+ ∞∋⊥+∋≈;≈ +≈ †+∞ ≈∞∞⊇ †++ 6∞+∋∋≈ ∞≠⊥∋≈≈;+≈ †+++∞⊥+ 7∞+∞≈≈+∋∞∋, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ;⊇∞≈†;†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ‘+∋≤∞ ∞≈∞∋;∞≈’ †;∂∞ †+∞ 1∞≠≈. 7+;≈ ⊇∞∋† ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+ †+ ⊥∋+†+ ⊥+†;≤+ ∋∞∋≈† †+∋† †+∞ 43840 +∞≤∋∋∞ †+∞ +≈†+ ⊥∋+†+ ;≈ †+∞ 3∞;∋∋+ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤ ∋+†∞ †+ ⊥++{∞≤† ∋≈ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† †+ ∋†† ≈∞≤†++≈ +† †+∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋†;+≈.

1≈ †+∞ ≠++⊇≈ +† 7.0+;†⊇∞+≈, †+∞ 4∋=;≈ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈⊥∞∋∂ ‘†+∞ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞ +† ++†+ †+∋≈≈≤∞≈⊇∞≈† ≤†∋≈≈ ++ ∞=∞≈ ≈∋†;+≈∋† ≈+†;⊇∋+;†+ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞≤†∋+;∋≈ ≈⊥∞≤;∋† ;≈†∞+∞≈†’.9 7+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ≠∋≈ ≤∋++;∞⊇ +∞†, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ∋††∞+ 1928, ++ ∋≈ ∞††∞≤†;=∞ ⊥++⊥∋⊥∋≈⊇∋ ∋∋≤+;≈∞, ++⊥∋≈;≈∞⊇ ++ 6+∞++∞†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞†;=∞+∞⊇ ++ ∋ ≈†+†∞ +† ++∋†+++ ≠+;≤+ ≈;≈⊥†∞⊇ 8;††∞+ +∞† †++∋ †+∞ ∋++∞ ≈†∋;⊇ .....

8;††∞+ ≠∋≈ †+∞+∞†++∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ≤+≈=∞+† ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞≈ ;≈†+ ⊥+≈;†;=∞≈, †+ †∞+≈ +∞≈∞≈†∋∞≈† ∋⊥∋;≈≈† †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤ ;≈†+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++ †+∞ 4∋=; ∋+=∞∋∞≈†. 3+∞+∞ ⊇;⊇ †+;≈ ≤+∋∞ †++∋? 4 ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+†∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≤∋++;∞⊇ +∞† +≈ †+∞ ⊇∞†∞≤†;+≈ †+ †+∞ 43840 ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋†∞ 1920≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+†+ 1930≈. 7+∞ ;≈;†;∋† †∞≈⊇∞≈≤+ ≠∋≈ †+ ≈∞∞ 4∋=;≈∋ ∋≈ +∋=;≈⊥ ∋≈ ∋⊥⊥∞∋† ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ †+ †+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈, ≠;†+ ∋;≈++;†+ ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈≈ †++∋ †+∞ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤†∋≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †++∋ †+∞ ∞⊥⊥∞+ †∞=∞†≈ +† ≈+≤;∞†+—≈∞;†+∞+ +† ≠++∋ ≠∞+∞ ∋≈ =+†∋†;†∞ ;≈ †+∋≈≈†∞++;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ∋††∞⊥;∋≈≤∞.

7+∞ +=∞+∋†† ∞∋⊥+∋≈;≈ +† †+;≈ +∋≈ ≈+≠ +∞∞≈ ∋+⊇;†;∞⊇ ;≈ †∋=+∞+ +† ∋ ∋++∞ ≠;⊇∞≈⊥+∞∋⊇ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++ 8;††∞+. 1† ;≈ ≈†;†† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+ ≈∋+ †+∋† †+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈ ∋∋⊇∞ ∞⊥ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ≈;≈⊥†∞ ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† 4∋=; ≈∞⊥⊥++†, ∋≈⊇ †+∋† †+∞;+ ⊇∞†∞≤†;+≈ †++∋ †+∞;+ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† ⊥∋+†;∞≈ ≠∋≈ =;†∋††+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ;≈ ≤+≈=∞+†;≈⊥ 4∋=;≈∋ ;≈†+ ∋ ∋∋≈≈ ∋+=∞∋∞≈†. 1≈;†;∋††+ †+∞+ +∋⊇ =+†∞⊇ ;≈ †∋+⊥∞ ≈∞∋+∞+≈ †++ †+∞ 880 ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 820, ∋††++∞⊥+ ≈+∋∞ ∋†≈+ ≈∞⊥⊥++†∞⊇ †+∞ 8420 ∋≈⊇, ;† †+∞+ ≠∞+∞ 0∋†++†;≤, †+∞ 0∞≈†+∞.

3+∋∞ +;≈†++;∋≈≈, †;∂∞ 0+;†⊇∞+≈, +∋=∞ ∋+⊥∞∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ +∋≈;≈ †++ †+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞-≤†∋≈≈ ∋+=∞∋∞≈† †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ 43840 +∋⊇ +∞∞≈ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ †∋†∞ 1920≈, ∞=∞≈ +∞†++∞ †+∞ +≈≈∞† +† 8∞⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ †++∋ 1929.10 0†+∞+≈ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈ †+∋† †+∞ ††+≠ +≤≤∞++∞⊇ +≈†+ ∋††∞+ 1929, ∋∋∂;≈⊥ ;† ∋ ⊇;+∞≤† +∞≈∞†† +† †+∞ 6+∞∋† 8∞⊥+∞≈≈;+≈. 7+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈ †+∞≈⊇ ∞≈+∞∋+∋+†∞ †+∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† ∋ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ∞≤+≈+∋;≤ ≤+;≈;≈ ⊇∞≈†+++;≈⊥ †+∞ ∋⊥⊥∋+∞≈† +∞≤+=∞++ †++∋ †+∞ †;+≈†.

7+∞ ⊥≈+≤++†+⊥;≤∋† +†+≠ ≠∋≈ ≈+ ⊥++†+∞≈⊇ †+∋† †+∞+ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋≈ ∞≈≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ ∋+=∞ ∋≠∋+ †++∋ †+∞ ∋+⊇∞+∋†∞ ≤∞≈†+∞ †+ †+∞ +∋⊇;≤∋† †+;≈⊥∞. 1† ;≈, +† ≤+∞+≈∞, ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+ ≈+≈†+∞≈;≈∞ †+∞ †≠+ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈. 7+∞ +†⊇∞+ ≈∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞ ≤†∋≈≈, ≤+∋⊥+;≈;≈⊥ ∋+†;≈∋≈≈, ≈∋∋†† +∞†∋;†∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞∋≈∋≈† †∋+∋∞+≈, †++∋∞⊇ †+∞ ≤++∞ +† †+∞ ∋;⊇⊇†∞-≤†∋≈≈ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++ 8;††∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞+∞ †+++≠;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† +∞+;≈⊇ +;∋ +∞†++∞ †+∞ 8∞⊥+∞≈≈;+≈.

Theirs was a disillusionment with the structure and policies of the Republic itself. To these was added the weight of much of the new middle class—non-manual employees, civil servants and teachers—who aligned themselves with Nazism as a result of the Depression. It is possible that they were moving in this direction anyway. But the simple fact is that the NSDAP secured only 12 seats in the Reichstag election of 1928; it therefore took the Depression to convert a trickle of middle- class support into a flood.

There is a deeper controversy over the connection between Nazism and the working class. It was once strongly argued that the working class remained largely loyal to the parties of the left which, in any case, had a distinctively proletarian appeal. The Communist Party (KPD) was especially class-based and its support actually increased during the Reichstag elections of 1930 and 1932. Although the SPD lost seats, it came nowhere near the collapse suffered by the parties of the centre, clearly indicating that it retained th.....

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7+∞ ⊥++†∞†∋+;∋†, ++ †+;≈ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈, ≠∋≈ †∞≈≈ ⊇+∋≠≈ †+ 4∋=;≈∋ +∞≤∋∞≈∞, ;≈ †+∞ ≠++⊇≈ +† 0.8.3†∋≤+∞+∋, ‘7+∞ 0∋+†+ ≠∋≈ ∞≈∋+†∞ †+ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+ ∋ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≠++∂;≈⊥-≤†∋≈≈ ≤+≈≈†;†∞∞≈≤+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ ;† ⊇;⊇ ≈+† ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ ∋ ≤++∞+∞≈† ;≈†∞+⊥+∞†∋†;+≈ +† “6∞+∋∋≈ 3+≤;∋†;≈∋”.’ 7+;≈ ≠∋≈ ⊥∋+††+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ 8;††∞+’≈ ‘;≈≈∋†∞ ≤+≈†∞∋⊥† ∋≈⊇ ⊇;≈†+∞≈† +† †+∞ ⊥++†∞†∋+;∋† +∞∋∋;≈∞⊇ ⊥∋+∋∋+∞≈†’.11 0†+∞+ +;≈†++;∋≈≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 4∞+†+∞+⊥∞+, ∋+∞ ≈+† ≤+≈=;≈≤∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ‘∋;⊇⊇†∞-≤†∋≈≈ †+∞≈;≈’ +† 4∋=;≈∋.125∞≤∞≈† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ +∋≈ †∞≈⊇∞⊇ †+ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †+∞ =;∞≠ †+∋† ≠++∂;≈⊥-≤†∋≈≈ ;≈⊥∞† ≠∋≈ ≈∞+≈†∋≈†;∋†.

3†∞⊇;∞≈ +† 4∋=; ∋∞∋+∞+≈+;⊥ +∞≤++⊇≈ ≈++≠ ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ †;∂∞ 40 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† +† †+∞ ∋∞∋+∞+≈+;⊥ ≤+∋;≈⊥ †++∋ †+∞ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤†∋≈≈, ≠+;†∞ 60 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† +† †+∞ 34 ≠∞+∞ +† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ++;⊥;≈≈. 0∋+∋††∞† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ +≈ ∞†∞≤†++∋† †+∞≈⊇≈ +∋≈, †+++∞⊥+ ≤+∋⊥∞†∞+ ∋≈∋†+≈;≈ +† ≈†∋†;≈†;≤∋† ⊇∋†∋, ⊥++⊇∞≤∞⊇ =∞++ ≈;∋;†∋+ =+†;≈⊥ +∞≈∞††≈. 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 6;≈≤+∞+, ‘∋ ⊥++⊇ 40 ⊥∞+ ≤∞≈† +† †+∞ 43840’≈ =+†∞+≈ ≠∞+∞ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤†∋≈≈, +∞∋∋+∂∋+†+ ≈;∋;†∋+ †+ †+∞ ⊥++⊥++†;+≈ +† ≠++∂∞+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∋+†+ ;†≈∞††’.13 7+∞ †;∂∞†+ ≈+≈†+∞≈;≈ +∞+∞ ;≈ †+∋† †+∞ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤†∋≈≈ ≈∞=∞+ ≤∋∋∞ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ †+∞ †∋+⊥∞≈† ++⊇+ +† ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++ 4∋=;≈∋.

1≈ †+∋† +∞≈⊥∞≤†, †+∞ ++;⊥;≈∋† =;∞≠≈ ≈∞∞∋ ≤+++∞≤†. 0≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ +∋≈⊇, ;† ;≈ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+ +=∞+∞≈†;∋∋†∞ †+∞ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞⊇ †++∋††+ +† †+∞ ≠++∂;≈⊥ ≤†∋≈≈ †+ †+∞ ⊥∋+†;∞≈ +† †+∞ †∞††. 4††∞+ 1928 ≈∞+≈†∋≈†;∋† ≈+;††≈ ⊇;⊇ +≤≤∞+: †+∞ ⊥++≠†+ +† †+∞ 0+∋∋∞≈;≈†≈ ≠∋≈ ∋++∞ †+∋≈ +††≈∞† ++ †+∞ ⊇∞≤†;≈∞ +† †+∞ 308. 7+∞ †∋††∞+ ≈++∋≈∂ ++ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∋ ⊥∞∋+†∞+ ∋≈⊇ ∋ †+;+⊇: ∋∋≈+ +† †+∞≈∞ †+≈† =+†∞≈ ∋†∋+≈† ≤∞+†∋;≈†+ ≠∞≈† ≈†+∋;⊥+† †+ †+∞ 4∋=;≈.

7+∞≈, ∋††++∞⊥+ †+∞ 43840 ≠∋≈ ≈+† ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ ∋ ≠++∂;≈⊥-≤†∋≈≈ ⊥∋+†+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋∋{++;†+ +† ≠++∂∞+≈ +∞∋∋;≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ ⊥∋+†;∞≈ +† †+∞ †∞††, †+∞ ;≈††+≠ +† ≠++∂;≈⊥-≤†∋≈≈ ≈∞⊥⊥++† †++ 4∋=;≈∋ ≠∋≈ ≈†;†† ∋ =;†∋† †∋≤†++ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈=∞+≈;+≈ +† 4∋=;≈∋ ;≈†+ ∋ ∋∋≈≈ ∋+=∞∋∞≈†. 7+∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞≈ +† †+∞ ∞⊥⊥∞+ ≤†∋≈≈∞≈ †+ 4∋=;≈∋ ≠∞+∞ †∋+⊥∞†+ ⊥+∋⊥∋∋†;≤. 7∋≈⊇+≠≈∞+≈, +∞≈;≈∞≈≈∋∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∋†;≈†≈ ≈∋≠ ;≈ 8;††∞+ †+∞ ⊥++≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† ≈∋†∞†+ †++∋ †+∞ †++∞∋† +† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≈∋ ∋≈⊇ .....

4+⊥∞∋+†+, †+∞+ ≈∋≠ +∞++≈⊇ †+;≈ ∋≈⊇ †++∂∞⊇ †+ 4∋=;≈∋ †+ ⊇∞†;=∞+ +=∞+ †+ †+∞∋ ∋ ⊇;≈≤;⊥†;≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈†+∋;≈∞⊇ ≠++∂†++≤∞. 7+∞+ †++∂∞⊇ †+ 8;††∞+ †+ ∞≈⊇+ †+∞ ⊥++-†+∋⊇∞-∞≈;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞††∋+∞ ⊥+†;≤;∞≈ +† ∋+≈† +† †+∞ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈†≈ +† †+∞ 3∞;∋∋+ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤. 9=∞≈ †++≈∞ ≠++ ⊇;≈†+∞≈†∞⊇ †+∞ =;+†∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ =∞†⊥∋+;†;∞≈ +† †+∞ 4∋=; ∋+=∞∋∞≈† ≠∞+∞ ≈†;†† †;∂∞†+ †+ +∞ ≈∞⊥⊥++†;≈⊥ ;† ;≈⊇;+∞≤††+. 1† ≠∋≈ ∞≈†;∂∞†+ †+∋† †+∞ ∋†††∞∞≈† †∞=∞†≈ +† 6∞+∋∋≈ ≈+≤;∞†+ ∋††∞+ 1929 =+†∞⊇ ;≈ ≈;⊥≈;†;≤∋≈† ≈∞∋+∞+≈ †++ ∋≈+ ⊥∋+†+ †+ †+∞ †∞†† +† †+∞ 8420, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 8420 ;†≈∞†† ≠∋≈ ;≈ ≤†+≈∞ ≤+††∋+++∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ 43840 ∋††∞+ 8∞⊥∞≈+∞+⊥ ∋≈≈∞∋∞⊇ †+∞ †∞∋⊇∞+≈+;⊥.

8∞≈≤∞ †+∞ 4∋=;≈ +∞≈∞†;†∞⊇ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+†+ †++∋ †+∞ +∞≈⊥∞≤†∋+;†;†+, ⊥∞+†;≤;†+ ∋≈⊇, +† ≤+∞+≈∞, †∞≈⊇;≈⊥ +++∞⊥+† ++ ∋ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ ≈∋+++≠ +∞† +;⊥+†+ ;≈††∞∞≈†;∋† ≈∞≤†++ +† ≈+≤;∞†+. 4††∞+ 1928, †+∞+∞†++∞, 8;††∞+ ≈∞≤≤∞∞⊇∞⊇ ;≈ ≤+††∞≤†;≈⊥ †++ †+∞ 43840 ∋∞≤+ +† †+∞ ∞†∞≤†++∋†∞ ≠+;≤+ +∋⊇ +∞≤+∋∞ ⊇;≈;††∞≈;+≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤’≈ ∋∋≈;†∞≈† ⊇∞†;≤;∞≈≤;∞≈. 7+;≈ ≠∋≈ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† †++ 8;††∞+’≈ +;≈∞ †+ ⊥++∋;≈∞≈≤∞ +∞† ;† ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† †∞††+ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈ +;≈ +;≈∞ †+ ⊥+≠∞+.

4 †∞+†+∞+ ≈†∞⊥ ≠∋≈ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇—∋ ∋∞∋≈≈ +† †++≤;≈⊥ ∋ ≠∋+ ;≈ †+++∞⊥+ †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤’≈ †;≈≈∞+∞≈. 7+;≈ ≠∋≈ ⊥+∞∋††+ ∋≈≈;≈†∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊇+;†† †+ ∋∞†+++;†∋+;∋≈ +∞†∞ ∋††∞+ 1929 ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ⊇∞∋+≤+∋≤+ +† †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤ ≠∋≈ ≈+≈†∞∋∋†;≤∋††+ ∞≈⊇∞+∋;≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ +;⊥+†. 7+∞ †;+≈† ≈†∋⊥∞ ≠∋≈ †+∞ +∞≤+∞;†∋∞≈† +† 3+∞̈≈;≈⊥ †+ †++∋ ∋ ⊥+=∞+≈∋∞≈† +∋≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ 0∞≈†+∞ 0∋+†+; †∋≤∂;≈⊥ ∋ ∋∋{++;†+ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞;≤+≈†∋⊥ +∞ ≤∋∋∞ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥†+ †+ ⊇∞⊥∞≈⊇ +≈ †+∞ ∞≈∞ +† 4+†;≤†∞ 48 +† †+∞ 0+≈≈†;†∞†;+≈ ≠+;≤+ ∋∋⊇∞ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †∞⊥;≈†∋†;+≈ ++ ⊥+∞≈;⊇∞≈†;∋† ⊇∞≤+∞∞.

1≈ 1932 0∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 3≤+†∞;≤+∞+ ∋+∋≈⊇+≈∞⊇ ∋≈+ +∞∋∋;≈;≈⊥ ⊥+∞†∞≈≤∞ +† +∞†∋†;≈⊥ †+∞ ≤+∋≈≤∞††++≈+;⊥ †+ ∋ ⊥∋+†+ +∋≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ 5∞;≤+≈†∋⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋⊇∞ ∞≠∞≤∞†;=∞ ⊇∞≤+∞∞≈ †+∞ ≈++∋∋† †∞⊥;≈†∋†;=∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈. 8∞≈≤∞ ++ 1933 †+∞ ⊥++∞≈⊇ +∋⊇ +∞∞≈ ≠∞†† ⊥+∞⊥∋+∞⊇ †++ †+∞ ∞∋∞+⊥∞≈≤∞ +† ⊇;≤†∋†++≈+;⊥. 3∞† ≠++ ≠∞+∞ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ +;⊥+† ≠;††;≈⊥ †+ ∋††+≠ 8;††∞+ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +∋⊇;≤∋† +;⊥+† †+ +∞≈∞†;† †++∋ †+;≈? 7+∞ ∞≠⊥†∋≈∋†;+≈ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ +∞ †+∋† †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ +;⊥+† (≠+;≤+ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞⊇ †+∞ 8420, ≈+∋∞ +† †+∞ ∋+∋+ ≤+∋∋∋≈⊇, 0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† 8;≈⊇∞≈+∞+⊥ ∋≈⊇ 0+∋≈≤∞††++≈ 0∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ 3≤+†∞;≤+∞+) ;≈†∞≈⊇∞⊇ †+ ∞≈∞ 4∋=;≈∋ †++ †+∞;+ +≠≈ ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞.

They believed that the Republic had outlived its usefulness and that any return to the party politics of the 1920s was impossible. Instead, conservative constitutional theorists argued in Unsere Partei that the party system would eventually fracture and be replaced by a broad front. For this reason, the DNVP therefore aimed to create a broad ‘movement’ of the right which would also include the NSDAP.

The latter could, in fact, be used for its radical impetus. It had the capacity to destroy the Republic, but once that was achieved it would be brought into line with the more conservative objectives of the DNVP. The collaboration between the Nazis and the DNVP was crucial; Hiden goes so far as to say that it ‘played handmaiden to Adolf Hitler and his movement at the close of the 1920s’.14 This strategy, which eventually proved to be fatally flawed, provided Hitler with access power.His appointment as Chancellor was due to a fortuitous circumstance—the personal rivalry between the last two Chancellors, .....

7+∞ †∋††∞+ †∋≤∞⊇ ∋ ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ≤+;≈;≈ ≠+∞≈, ;≈ 1∋≈∞∋++ 1933, †+∞ 5∞;≤+≈†∋⊥ ≤+∋††∞≈⊥∞⊇ +;≈ ∞≈∞ +† 4+†;≤†∞ 48. 7+∞ 0+≈≈†;†∞†;+≈ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ∋ †++⊥++†∞ ;≈ †+∋† †+∞ 0+∞≈;⊇∞≈† ≤+∞†⊇ ⊇;≈≈+†=∞ †+∞ 5∞;≤+≈†∋⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋†† ∋≈ ∞†∞≤†;+≈. 3∞†, +∋=;≈⊥ ∋†+∞∋⊇+ ⊇+≈∞ †+;≈ †≠;≤∞ ;≈ 1932, 8;≈⊇∞≈+∞+⊥ ⊥+∞†∞++∞⊇ †+ †;≈⊇ ∋≈ ∋††∞+≈∋†;=∞ 0+∋≈≤∞††++. 7+;≈ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈≈ +;≈ +∞≤∞⊥†;=∞≈∞≈≈ †+ 0∋⊥∞≈’≈ +∞≤+∋∋∞≈⊇∋†;+≈ †+∋† 8;††∞+ ≈++∞†⊇ +∞ ∋⊥⊥+;≈†∞⊇, ≠;†+ +;∋≈∞†† ⊥;=∞≈ ∋ ≠∋†≤+;≈⊥ ++;∞† ∋≈ 2;≤∞-0+∋≈≤∞††++.

8∞≈≤∞ 8;††∞+ ≤∋∋∞ †+ ⊥+≠∞+ †∋+⊥∞†+ †+++∞⊥+ ∋ ≤+≈≈⊥;+∋≤+. 5∞† †+;≈ ⊇+∞≈ ≈+† ∋∞∋≈ †+∋† †+∞ 4∋=;≈ ⊇;⊇ †;†††∞ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ †+ ∋≤+;∞=∞ ;†. 7+∞ ≤+≈≈∞+=∋†;=∞ +;⊥+† ≠+∞†⊇ ≈+† +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ≈+ ≠;††;≈⊥ †+ ≤+††∋+++∋†∞ ≠;†+ ∋ ≠∞∋∂ †+;≈⊥∞ ⊥++∞⊥. 1† ≠∋≈ ∞=;⊇∞≈† †+ †+∞∋ †+∋† †+∞ 43840 +∋⊇ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞⊇ ∋++∞ ∞††∞≤†;=∞†+ †+∋≈ ∋≈+ +†+∞+ ⊥∋+†+ †+ ∋++;†;≈∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ⊇;≈≤+≈†∞≈† ∋⊥∋;≈≈† †+∞ 5∞⊥∞+†;≤.

8;††∞+ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∞⊇ †+ †+∞∋ ∋≈ ∞†∞∋∞≈†∋† †++≤∞ ≠+;≤+ †+∞+ ;≈†∞≈⊇∞⊇ †+ ∞≈∞ ;≈ †+∞;+ +≠≈ ≠∋+. 4≈⊇ †+∞+ †++∞⊥+† †+∞+ ≤+∞†⊇.....


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